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  • FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HCTMAN RESOURCE TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN HOTEL SECTOR

    BY

    1SSAbl MOHAMMAD S ALWIAKHADMAM

    Thesis Subinitted to the Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia

    in Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

  • Kolej Undarlg-Undang, Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa (College of Law. Government and International Studies)

    Universi t i Utara Malaysia

    PERAKUAN KERJA TESlS I DlSERTASl ( C e r t i f i c a t i o ~ ~ of thes i s /d isser ta t ion)

    Kaini, yang bertandata~gan, rnemperakukan bahawa (We. the l~ndersigl~ed, certify that)

    ISSAM MOHAMMAD SULEllVlAN ALMAKHADMAH (92702)

    Ph.D calon untuk ljazah

    -~ ~p -p---.p--.p-p ~p

    (ca~~didate for the degree of)

    telah rnengernukakan tesis I disertasi yang bertajuk: (has preser~ted his/ller thesis /dissertation of tlle following title):

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE Ti3AlNlNG PROGRAMMES IN HOTEL SECTOR

    seperti yang tercatat di rnuka surat tajuk dan kulit tesis I disertasi. (as it appeal-s OIJ the title page a r~d f,.ollt cover of t t ~ e tllesis /dissertation).

    Bahawa tesis!disertasi tersebut boleti d~terirna dar~ segi bentuk serta kandungan dan rneliputi bidang ilniu dengari nieniuaskan, sebagail-rlana yarlg d~tunjiikkan o e h calori dalam ujian lisan yang diadakan pada : 21 Jun 2012 Tllat the said thesis/disser?atior, is acceplabie i~i for171 a17d co~ i ten t and displays a satisfactory knowledge o f the field o f study as demonstrated b y t l ie candidate t I i roug/~ a n oral examination he ld on: June 21,2012

    Pengerus~ V ~ v a Tandatangan (Clia~nnari lo/ V~i la i PROF DATO' DR ABDUL KADIR LEBAl DIN iSlg,,ature)

    - -- - -- - -

    Pemer~ksa L m r ASSOC PROF DR JENNIFER CHAN KIM Tandatangan [E~ ten ia l Exa~~, i i ier j LlAN (S iy~~ature) A - -

    Pemer~ksa Daam DR ROZILA AHMAD (Irifer/ial Exariii~ier)

    Tar~kli 21 Jun 2012 (Date)

  • Nama Pelajar (Name of Stude/~t)

    Tajuk Tesis (Title of the Thesis)

    : ISSAM MOHAMMAD SLlLElMAN ALMAKHADMAH (92702)

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFEC'I'IVENESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN HOTEL SECTOR

    Program Pengajian (Programnle of Stody)

    Nama -Nama Penyelia : ASSOC. PROF. DR NURHAZANI MOHD SHARIFF

  • PERMISSION TO USE

    In presenting this thesis in fulfillment of the requirements for a

    postgraduate degree from llniversiti IJtara MaIaysia. I agree that the University

    Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that perlnission

    for the copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly

    purposes may be granted by my s~~pervisor (s) or. in their absence, by the Dean of

    Ghazalitt Shafie Graduate School of Government. College of Law, Government

    & International Studies. It is i~nderstood that any copying or publication or use of

    this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my

    nrittcn permission. It is also ~~nderstood that due recognition shall be given to me

    and to Ilniversiti IJtara Malaysia for any scholasly use which may be made of any

    tnatet-ial l'rom my thesis.

    Kecli~ebts for pel-mission to copy or to make other use ot' materials in this

    thesis. in \vliole or in past. sl~ould be addressed to:

    [>e;ln of (;liazalie Shafie Graduate School Government, College of Law, Government &: International Studies

    UUM College of Law, Government & International Studies

    CJniversiti Utara Malaysia

    06010 UUM Sintok

    Kedah Uarill Aman

  • ABSTRAK

    Kebanyakan hotel melabur dalani melaksanakan program-program latihan yang berkesan untuk meniaksimunikan nilai modal insan sedia ada. Walau bagaimanapun, perlu diingatkan bahawa keberkesanan program adalah bergantung sama ada pelatih mengaplikasikan atau tidak niengaplikasikan apa yang mereka pelajari. Ini merupakan satu kebimbangan dalam kalangan pengusaha hotel. Objektif utama ka-jian ini adalah untuk meneroka hubungan antara tiga faktor yang berpengaruh iaitu persekitaran kerja, individu, dan proses latihan dengan keberkesanan prograni latihan menggi~nakan niodel penilaian Kirkpatrick (1977). Ini adalah sat11 kajian horelasi yang menggunakan reka bentuk campuran kaedali kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Untuk ka-jian kuantitatif, instrumen kajian telah diedarkan kepada 297 peserta yang telah nlengliadiri dan menamatkan program latihan di hotel lima dan cmpat bintnng di ASEZA. tlasil kajian ini menunjuhkan bahawa faktor persckital-an kcrja. sokongan sosial, peluang i~ntuk ~nenjalankan tugas dan sistem ganjaran. kecuali budaya organisasi, mempenpari~hi dnn menyumbang kepada keberkcsanan Iatihan. Kebolelian dan motivasi individu kecuali sikap niempengarulii dan mcnqi~nlbang keberkesanan latihan. Di sa~nping itu, analisis statistik menunjukkan bnlia\\~a keperluan dan rcka bentuk mempengal-i~hi keberkesanan progranl. Scnlua taktor ini menunjukkan hubungan yans positif clengan keberkesanan latihan dan hi~bungan yang positif clan signifikan antara nlereka dan keberkcsanan latillan. Kaedali kualitatif diguriakan dalanl kajian berbenti~k wauancnra satu-sama-satu dengan menggunakan sembilan soalan terbuka drngan pensurLls sumbzr 11ianusia dan penyelaras latihnn di hotel. tIasil ka-jian menyokong tinjauan hajian kuantitatif dan konsisten dengan ka-jian sebelum ini kecuali dengan men i~ l i j~~kkan baha\va budaya organis:lsi dan sikap. Kajian ini menyumbang dalam ~nerapatkan jurang nlengenai pcngaruli faktor persehitaran. individu dan proses latihan kepada keberkesanan program latihan sumber manusia. Selain itu. ka-jian ini juga menambah maklumat dalanl mengaplikasikan model penilaian Kirkpatrick (1977) untuk menilai keberhesanan program latihan terutanianya di Jordan. Akhirnya, kajian ini menyediakan penyelidik dengan garis panduan untuk menjalankan program-program latihan yang berkesan dalam sektor perkhidmatan.

    Kata Kunci: Sumber Manusia. Latihan, Keberkesanan Latihan. Faktor Persekitaran Kerja, Faktor Individu. Faktor Proses L,atihan.

    iii

  • ABSTRACT

    Most hotels invest in implementing effective training programmes to maximize the inherent value of their existing human capital. However, it should be noted that the effectiveness of the programmes depends on whether trainees apply what they learned.This is a major concern among hotel operators. The main objective of this study is to explore the relationships between three influential factors which are work environment, individuals, and training process and the effectiveness of training programmes using Kirkpatrick evaluation model (1977). It is a correlation research using a mixed design of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the former method, a survey instrument was distributed to 297 participants who had attended and completed training programlnes in five and four star hotels in ASEZA. 'The findings reveal that factors such as work environment, social support, the opportunity to perform and reward system, with the exception of organizational culture, influence and contribute to training effectiveness. Furthermore, ability and motivation of individual influence and contribute to training effectiveness \bit11 the exclusiun of attitude. In addition. statistical analysis indicates that needs ancl design i~ifluence training effectivcncss. All the factors demonstrate a positive cul-relation with training effectiveness and sho~v a positive and significant relationship between tliem nncl training effectiveness. The qualitative method is used in tllc study in tlie fol-111 of a one-to-one interview using nine open-ended qirestions \\,it11 Iii~mali resource managers and training coordinators in tlie hotels. Tlie findings support the outputs of the cluantitative survey and consistent with previous studies except the organizational culture and the attitude. This study has contributed in bridging the gap concerning the intluence by environment. individual and training process factors on the effectiveness of human resource training programmes. It also extends the literature of using the Kirkpatrick evaluation model (1977) to evaluate the effectiveness of training programmes particularly in Jordan. Finally, the study provides researchers with guidelines on conducting effective training programmes in the service sector.

    Keywords: Human Resource, Training, 'Training Effectiveness, Work Environment Factors, Individual Factors, Training Process Factors.

  • DEDICATION

    I want to dedicate this effort to everyone who have supported me throughout my education experience.

    Firstly, my father' soul. My mother. Sheikha ( U m Ali), heaven is under her feet;

    My second half, my lovely wife.

    My brothers ~ ~ l i o have always helped mc in facing the difficulties, Fayez, Ali, Fawzi. Omar (Alshacr), Ibrahim. and Bassam.

    bIj \i\tcr\. Faqrali. Ilana, blona. k l c ~ a ~ n . ~und Ola \\ho have a l \ \ q s bc there to \i~ppo~-t and cnco~lla, clc me.

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    In the name of Allah, the most Gracious and the most Merciful. I thank you for

    providing me the power and inspirations needed for carrying out this study.

    I would like to extend my appreciation to my advisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nurha7ani

    Bt Mohd Shariff. for her thorough supervision. encouragement and willingness to

    support nlc. and help me urith ll