FOOD HYGIENESTAFF TRAINING MODULE
OBJECTIVES By the end of the day you will be able to : State why
good hygienic practices are important State the likely consequences
of poor hygiene practices.
WHAT IS FOOD HYGIENE? All measures necessary to ensure the
safety & wholesomeness of the food during Preparation
Processing Manufacture Storage Transportation Distribution Handling
& Service to the customer.
FOOD SAFETY Making sure food is free from harm..
FOOD HYGIENE IS Protecting Preventing Destroying Discarding
TOP TEN CAUSES OF FOOD POISONING1. Food prepared too far in
advance and held at room temperature. 2. Cooling food too slowly
prior to refrigeration. 3. Not reheating food to high enough
temperature to destroy bacteria. 4. Cooked food contaminated with
bacteria. 5. Undercooking
TOP TEN CONTINUED6. Not thawing frozen non-veg foods
sufficiently. 7. Cross contamination from raw food to high risk
food. 8. Storing hot foods below 63 0C . 9. Infected food handlers.
10. The consumption of raw food ( shellfish, eggs, fish )
WHAT IS A HAZARD??Something that may cause harm to the consumer,
may be.. Physical Chemical Microbiological Macrobiological
HAZARDS IN FOOD PREPARATION Physical contamination of food.
Storage at wrong temperatures. Inadequate cooking.
TODAY LETS CONCENTRATE ON MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARDS LIKE
OBJECTIVES By end of this session you will be able to To list
the 4 conditions required for bacteria to grow. Explain how
bacteria multiplies to harmful levels Describe SPORE Describe TOXIN
State High - risk food types.
WHAT ARE BACTERIA? Bacteria are small microscopic organisms
(germs) Some are essential Some cause food spoilage Some pathogenic
bacteria Not all bacteria are harmful
FOOD POISONING BACTERIA Some pathogenic bacteria produce
protective spores. SPORES can survive high cooking
FOOD POISONING BACTERIA TOXINS are poisons produced by some
REQUIREMENTS FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH Food Moisture Warmth Time.
CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR BACTERIAL GROWTHFOOD : Nutritional
FIRSTLYMOISTURE: Dried foods prevent bacterial growth. However
once liquid is added any bacteria present will start
THENWARMTH: Rapid growth between 20 0C & 50 0C.
Ideal temperature ~37 0C (Body temperature) Danger zone = above
5 0C & below 65 0C
NEXTTIME: Given the right conditions of food, moisture &
warmth, some bacteria can divide into 800 every 1 hour. 5hr = 3
QUESTIONSQ ~ What are the 4 conditions required for bacteria to
grow? Q ~ How do bacteria multiply? Q ~ What is a SPORE? Q ~ What
is a TOXIN? Q ~ Which foods are considered high risk?
FOOD POISONING & FOOD BORNE DISEASES
WHAT IS FOOD POISONING? An acute illness, which occurs within 1
36 hours of eating contaminated or poisonous food. Symptoms last
from 1 7 days.
WHAT CAUSES FOOD POISONING Bacteria or their toxins (most
common) Moulds Chemicals Metals Poisonous plants Poisonous sea
MAJOR FOOD POISONING BACTERIA Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus
Shigella Pseudomonas Escherichia coli Moulds
SALMONELLASOURCE Raw chicken & poultry, raw eggs & raw
milk. Incubation time SYMPTOMS Stomach pain, diarrhoea Vomiting. 12
1 7 days
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSSOURCE Human nose, mouth, skin cuts and
boils. Raw milk from cows. Incubation time Duration SYMPTOMS
Stomach pain, mainly vomiting, diarrhoea sub normal temperatures. 1
7 hrs 6 24 hrs
BACILLUS CEREUSSOURCE Cereals, especially rice. Soil & dust
TOXIN in food. Incubation time 1 to 5 hrs. Duration 12 to 24 hrs. .
SYMPTOMS Stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting. TOXIN in body.
Incubation time 8 to 16 hrs Duration 1 to 2 days.
ESCHERICHIA COLISOURCE Poultry food, raw milk, human hands and
activities, food placed in danger zone Incubation time Duration
They produce highly poisonous toxins in foods SYMPTOMS Severe
abdominal cramps, diarrheoa , bloody stools within 24hrs. 5 14 hrs
2 5 days initially
MOST COMMON CAUSE OF FOOD POISONINGMOULDS. Often responsible for
food spoilage. Some moulds produce MYCOTOXINS Foods involved
include nuts, apple juice & figs.
DID YOU GET ALL OF THAT ? ?
Lets do a quick exercise to find out how much you remember..
QUESTIONSQ ~ What is food poisoning? Q ~ What are the causes of
Q ~ Name some deadly bacterias that cause food poisoning?Q ~
Which is the most common cause of food spoilage?
CHEMICAL FOOD POISONING
Acute food poisoning from chemicals is rare. Usually results
accidentally from chemicals stored in unlabelled food
METALLIC FOOD POISONING Acute metallic food poisoning is also
quite rare. Results from acid foods.
FOOD BORNE DISEASES
FOOD BORNE DISEASESTRANSMITTED THROUGH FOOD include Typhoid
Paratyphoid Tuberculosis Dysentary Kidney failure Hepatitis A
PREVENTING FOOD POISONING
OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will be able to
Explain how to prevent contamination of high risk food Describe how
bacteria in food can be reduced to safe levels. Explain why
temperature is used to prevent food poisoning.
PREVENTING FOOD POISONINGProtect food contamination by.
Reputable suppliers. Effective supervision & training High
standards of personal hygiene. Well - designed food premises Pest
NEXT Separate raw and high risk foods. Effective storage and
disposal of waste. Suitable equipment / utensils. Cleaning and
PREVENTING BACTERIA FROM MULTIPLYINGStore food out of danger
zone. Preparation kept for minimum time. High risk food. Cool food
rapidly. Use suitable preservatives. Keep food wrapped Appropriate
SOURCES OF FOOD POISONING BACTERIAPeople Bacteria found in nose,
mouth, intestine, cuts and on the skin. Food may be contaminated by
our hands, sneezing, coughing. Indirectly by sewage contaminated
NEXT SOURCERaw food Red meat, poultry, untreated raw milk, eggs
and shellfish. Raw food must be kept separate De-frosting food.
Vegetables should be washed on delivery
NEXTINSECTS These can transmit food poisoning bacteria to the
food. Live / dead insects getting in the food.
RODENTS Rats & mice excrete organism such as salmonella
NEXTDUST Food must be covered and placed always. GARBAGE &
WASTE FOOD Waste bins must have lids.
PHYSICAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD Raw ingredients stones, glass,
pests, dirt, flaking paint. Buildings / equipment wood, rust,
grease, oil, screws.
Notice boards paper, drawing pins. Packaging materials staples,
string, plastic Food handlers jewelry, buttons, fibres, hair.
NEXT Cleaning activities bristles, paper, chemicals. Pests
bodies, droppings, feathers, eggs.
Pesticides spraying on equipment Industrial chemicals
QUESTIONSQ ~ How can contamination of high risk food be
prevented? Q ~ How can bacteria in food be reduced to safe levels?
Q ~ Why is temperature used to prevent food poisoning?
PROCUREMENT, STORAGE, TEMPERATURE CONTROL, PREPARATION, COOKING
&SERVING OF FOOD
OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will be able to.. List
5 necessary checks of food deliveries. State the correct
temperature of a deep freeze. State the correct temperature of the
fridge. List 6 rules for safe storage of frozen food. Explain stock
rotation. State 2 controls necessary during each stage of
preparation, cooking, serving & cooling of food.
PURCHASE & FOOD DELIVERIES Choose a reputable supplier.
Deliveries should be checked Quantity & quality Temperature
Packaging Pests Delivery vehicle ?? Delivery person????
STORAGE OF FOOD Dry food stores. Damaged canned food Excess
packaging Stock must be rotated. Fruits should be checked Chemicals
CHILLED STORAGE Temperature should be checked. High risk and low
risk foods Suitable storage containers must be used.
REFRIGERATORS Operating temperature between 1 0C & 4 0C.
Thermometer Unit must be serviced regularly Well ventilated area.
Should not be overloaded.
REFRIGERATORS Must be cleaned regularly Stock should be checked
High risk food must be stored above raw food Food must be covered
Hot food items must never be put into refrigerator.
FREEZERS & FROZEN FOOD Should operate at -18 0C or below.
Food items must be wrapped. Frozen food temperature. Deliveries
above -12 0C should be avoided. Stock rotation Recommended by the
FROZEN FOOD GUIDELINESStored at -18 0C the general guide is:
Vegetables, most meat, fruits up to 12 months.
Sausages, butter, fish
up to 6 months.
DE- FROSTING THE FROZEN FOOD Chicken, poultry & large joints
of meat Follow manufacturers instructions. De-frosts meats. Cold
running water below 15 0C may be used Cook immediately de-frosted
STOCK ROTATIONStock rotation is important to: To make sure that
food is used in date order. F.I.F.O.= First in First out. Use by
dates = short shelf life Best before dates = longer shelf life
& are manufacturers recommendations.
FOOD PREPARATIONHazards include: Cross contamination Bacteria
multiplying at room temperature.
Good hygiene practices are essential in preventing food
poisoning during food preparation.
COOKING / PROCESSINGHazards include: Low temperatures. Large
joints in food. Tasting food without spatula. Some bacterial
CONTROLS Food must be cooked thoroughly. Food being reheated.
Unused reheated food Clean, disinfected spoons Thermometers Lids
should be used.
SERVING Hot foods must be held above 65 0C. Cold foods must be
held below 5 0C. All crockery / cutlery should be clean & dry.
Food handlers should always wear clean protective clothing.
QUESTIONSQ ~ What are 5 necessary checks of food deliveries? Q ~
What is the correct temperature of a deep freeze? Q ~ What is the
correct temperature of a refrigerator? Q ~ What are the 6 rules for
safe storage of frozen food? Q ~ What is Stock Rotation? Q ~ Name 2
controls necessary during the stage of food preparation cooking
food serving food cooling food
OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will be able to
Explain the importance of personal hygiene. Explain why hand
washing is important. Identify & explain the protective
clothing worn by food handlers. Describe how food handlers can
contaminate food. List 3 illnesses that must be reported.
All food handlers have a LEGAL and MORAL responsibility to
observe and practice high standards of personal hygiene to ensure
they do not contaminate food.
PERSONAL HYGIENE Because body temperature is 37 0C.
Staphylococcus aureus on the skin. Food handlers must wash their
hands regularly .
HANDS AND SKIN Hands are in direct contact with food and are the
main routes. Food handlers must wash their hands regularly.
HANDS AND SKINCUTS & WOUNDS Cuts must be covered with a
water proof plaster. Bright coloured plasters.
HANDS AND SKIN Nails should be kept short and clean Licking
fingers is a bad habit. Do not bite the nails.
JEWELLERYJewellery should not be worn by food handlers. Harbor
dirt & bacteria May fall into food. Watches carry dirt &
PERFUME & AFTER SHAVES
Perfume / after shaves should not be worn by food handlers. It
may taint foods ( Especially high fat content foods )
Hair is constantly falling out & may fall into food. Food
handlers must wear a hat Combing or touching hair in food areas is
SMOKING & CHEWING
It is illegal to smoke in food areas. Tobacco chewing is not
allowed during handling food.
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Protective clothing is worn. Our personal
protection is secondary. Gloves should be worn. e.g. preparing
sandwiches. Protecting clothing and shoes should not be worn.
GENERAL HEALTH Food handlers should be in good health, from oral
hygiene (healthy teeth) to general fitness. Report to
GENERAL HEALTHCARRIERS. A person who is carrying food poisoning
bacteria without symptoms. If you live with others who may have
food poisoning or a food borne disease you may be a healthy
QUESTIONSQ ~ Why is personal hygiene important ? Q ~ Why is hand
washing so important ?
Q ~ Which protective clothing is worn by food handlers ?Q ~ How
can food handlers contaminate food ? Q ~ Which 3 illnesses must be
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