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Food Hygiene.ppt [Rectified] Rev 3

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Text of Food Hygiene.ppt [Rectified] Rev 3


OBJECTIVES By the end of the day you will be able to : State why good hygienic practices are important State the likely consequences of poor hygiene practices.

WHAT IS FOOD HYGIENE? All measures necessary to ensure the safety & wholesomeness of the food during Preparation Processing Manufacture Storage Transportation Distribution Handling & Service to the customer.

FOOD SAFETY Making sure food is free from harm..

FOOD HYGIENE IS Protecting Preventing Destroying Discarding

TOP TEN CAUSES OF FOOD POISONING1. Food prepared too far in advance and held at room temperature. 2. Cooling food too slowly prior to refrigeration. 3. Not reheating food to high enough temperature to destroy bacteria. 4. Cooked food contaminated with bacteria. 5. Undercooking

TOP TEN CONTINUED6. Not thawing frozen non-veg foods sufficiently. 7. Cross contamination from raw food to high risk food. 8. Storing hot foods below 63 0C . 9. Infected food handlers. 10. The consumption of raw food ( shellfish, eggs, fish )

WHAT IS A HAZARD??Something that may cause harm to the consumer, may be.. Physical Chemical Microbiological Macrobiological

HAZARDS IN FOOD PREPARATION Physical contamination of food. Storage at wrong temperatures. Inadequate cooking.




OBJECTIVES By end of this session you will be able to To list the 4 conditions required for bacteria to grow. Explain how bacteria multiplies to harmful levels Describe SPORE Describe TOXIN State High - risk food types.

WHAT ARE BACTERIA? Bacteria are small microscopic organisms (germs) Some are essential Some cause food spoilage Some pathogenic bacteria Not all bacteria are harmful

FOOD POISONING BACTERIA Some pathogenic bacteria produce protective spores. SPORES can survive high cooking temperatures.

FOOD POISONING BACTERIA TOXINS are poisons produced by some pathogenic bacteria.



FIRSTLYMOISTURE: Dried foods prevent bacterial growth. However once liquid is added any bacteria present will start multiplying.

THENWARMTH: Rapid growth between 20 0C & 50 0C.

Ideal temperature ~37 0C (Body temperature) Danger zone = above 5 0C & below 65 0C

NEXTTIME: Given the right conditions of food, moisture & warmth, some bacteria can divide into 800 every 1 hour. 5hr = 3 million bacteria!

QUESTIONSQ ~ What are the 4 conditions required for bacteria to grow? Q ~ How do bacteria multiply? Q ~ What is a SPORE? Q ~ What is a TOXIN? Q ~ Which foods are considered high risk?


WHAT IS FOOD POISONING? An acute illness, which occurs within 1 36 hours of eating contaminated or poisonous food. Symptoms last from 1 7 days.

WHAT CAUSES FOOD POISONING Bacteria or their toxins (most common) Moulds Chemicals Metals Poisonous plants Poisonous sea foods

MAJOR FOOD POISONING BACTERIA Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus Shigella Pseudomonas Escherichia coli Moulds

SALMONELLASOURCE Raw chicken & poultry, raw eggs & raw milk. Incubation time SYMPTOMS Stomach pain, diarrhoea Vomiting. 12 36 hrs


1 7 days

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSSOURCE Human nose, mouth, skin cuts and boils. Raw milk from cows. Incubation time Duration SYMPTOMS Stomach pain, mainly vomiting, diarrhoea sub normal temperatures. 1 7 hrs 6 24 hrs

BACILLUS CEREUSSOURCE Cereals, especially rice. Soil & dust TOXIN in food. Incubation time 1 to 5 hrs. Duration 12 to 24 hrs. . SYMPTOMS Stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting. TOXIN in body. Incubation time 8 to 16 hrs Duration 1 to 2 days.

ESCHERICHIA COLISOURCE Poultry food, raw milk, human hands and activities, food placed in danger zone Incubation time Duration They produce highly poisonous toxins in foods SYMPTOMS Severe abdominal cramps, diarrheoa , bloody stools within 24hrs. 5 14 hrs 2 5 days initially

MOST COMMON CAUSE OF FOOD POISONINGMOULDS. Often responsible for food spoilage. Some moulds produce MYCOTOXINS Foods involved include nuts, apple juice & figs.


Lets do a quick exercise to find out how much you remember..

QUESTIONSQ ~ What is food poisoning? Q ~ What are the causes of food poisoning?

Q ~ Name some deadly bacterias that cause food poisoning?Q ~ Which is the most common cause of food spoilage?


Acute food poisoning from chemicals is rare. Usually results accidentally from chemicals stored in unlabelled food containers.

METALLIC FOOD POISONING Acute metallic food poisoning is also quite rare. Results from acid foods.


FOOD BORNE DISEASESTRANSMITTED THROUGH FOOD include Typhoid Paratyphoid Tuberculosis Dysentary Kidney failure Hepatitis A


OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will be able to Explain how to prevent contamination of high risk food Describe how bacteria in food can be reduced to safe levels. Explain why temperature is used to prevent food poisoning.

PREVENTING FOOD POISONINGProtect food contamination by. Reputable suppliers. Effective supervision & training High standards of personal hygiene. Well - designed food premises Pest control.

NEXT Separate raw and high risk foods. Effective storage and disposal of waste. Suitable equipment / utensils. Cleaning and disinfection.

PREVENTING BACTERIA FROM MULTIPLYINGStore food out of danger zone. Preparation kept for minimum time. High risk food. Cool food rapidly. Use suitable preservatives. Keep food wrapped Appropriate temperatures.

SOURCES OF FOOD POISONING BACTERIAPeople Bacteria found in nose, mouth, intestine, cuts and on the skin. Food may be contaminated by our hands, sneezing, coughing. Indirectly by sewage contaminated water.

NEXT SOURCERaw food Red meat, poultry, untreated raw milk, eggs and shellfish. Raw food must be kept separate De-frosting food. Vegetables should be washed on delivery

NEXTINSECTS These can transmit food poisoning bacteria to the food. Live / dead insects getting in the food.

RODENTS Rats & mice excrete organism such as salmonella

NEXTDUST Food must be covered and placed always. GARBAGE & WASTE FOOD Waste bins must have lids.

PHYSICAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD Raw ingredients stones, glass, pests, dirt, flaking paint. Buildings / equipment wood, rust, grease, oil, screws.

Notice boards paper, drawing pins. Packaging materials staples, string, plastic Food handlers jewelry, buttons, fibres, hair.

NEXT Cleaning activities bristles, paper, chemicals. Pests bodies, droppings, feathers, eggs.

Pesticides spraying on equipment Industrial chemicals fertilizers

QUESTIONSQ ~ How can contamination of high risk food be prevented? Q ~ How can bacteria in food be reduced to safe levels? Q ~ Why is temperature used to prevent food poisoning?


OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will be able to.. List 5 necessary checks of food deliveries. State the correct temperature of a deep freeze. State the correct temperature of the fridge. List 6 rules for safe storage of frozen food. Explain stock rotation. State 2 controls necessary during each stage of preparation, cooking, serving & cooling of food.

PURCHASE & FOOD DELIVERIES Choose a reputable supplier. Deliveries should be checked Quantity & quality Temperature Packaging Pests Delivery vehicle ?? Delivery person????

STORAGE OF FOOD Dry food stores. Damaged canned food Excess packaging Stock must be rotated. Fruits should be checked Chemicals stored away

CHILLED STORAGE Temperature should be checked. High risk and low risk foods Suitable storage containers must be used.

REFRIGERATORS Operating temperature between 1 0C & 4 0C. Thermometer Unit must be serviced regularly Well ventilated area. Should not be overloaded.

REFRIGERATORS Must be cleaned regularly Stock should be checked High risk food must be stored above raw food Food must be covered Hot food items must never be put into refrigerator.

FREEZERS & FROZEN FOOD Should operate at -18 0C or below. Food items must be wrapped. Frozen food temperature. Deliveries above -12 0C should be avoided. Stock rotation Recommended by the manufacture.

FROZEN FOOD GUIDELINESStored at -18 0C the general guide is: Vegetables, most meat, fruits up to 12 months.

Sausages, butter, fish

up to 6 months.

DE- FROSTING THE FROZEN FOOD Chicken, poultry & large joints of meat Follow manufacturers instructions. De-frosts meats. Cold running water below 15 0C may be used Cook immediately de-frosted foods.

STOCK ROTATIONStock rotation is important to: To make sure that food is used in date order. F.I.F.O.= First in First out. Use by dates = short shelf life Best before dates = longer shelf life & are manufacturers recommendations.

FOOD PREPARATIONHazards include: Cross contamination Bacteria multiplying at room temperature.

Good hygiene practices are essential in preventing food poisoning during food preparation.

COOKING / PROCESSINGHazards include: Low temperatures. Large joints in food. Tasting food without spatula. Some bacterial spores.

CONTROLS Food must be cooked thoroughly. Food being reheated. Unused reheated food Clean, disinfected spoons Thermometers Lids should be used.

SERVING Hot foods must be held above 65 0C. Cold foods must be held below 5 0C. All crockery / cutlery should be clean & dry. Food handlers should always wear clean protective clothing.

QUESTIONSQ ~ What are 5 necessary checks of food deliveries? Q ~ What is the correct temperature of a deep freeze? Q ~ What is the correct temperature of a refrigerator? Q ~ What are the 6 rules for safe storage of frozen food? Q ~ What is Stock Rotation? Q ~ Name 2 controls necessary during the stage of food preparation cooking food serving food cooling food


OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will be able to Explain the importance of personal hygiene. Explain why hand washing is important. Identify & explain the protective clothing worn by food handlers. Describe how food handlers can contaminate food. List 3 illnesses that must be reported.


All food handlers have a LEGAL and MORAL responsibility to observe and practice high standards of personal hygiene to ensure they do not contaminate food.

PERSONAL HYGIENE Because body temperature is 37 0C. Staphylococcus aureus on the skin. Food handlers must wash their hands regularly .

HANDS AND SKIN Hands are in direct contact with food and are the main routes. Food handlers must wash their hands regularly.

HANDS AND SKINCUTS & WOUNDS Cuts must be covered with a water proof plaster. Bright coloured plasters.

HANDS AND SKIN Nails should be kept short and clean Licking fingers is a bad habit. Do not bite the nails.

JEWELLERYJewellery should not be worn by food handlers. Harbor dirt & bacteria May fall into food. Watches carry dirt & bacteria.


Perfume / after shaves should not be worn by food handlers. It may taint foods ( Especially high fat content foods )


Hair is constantly falling out & may fall into food. Food handlers must wear a hat Combing or touching hair in food areas is forbidden.


It is illegal to smoke in food areas. Tobacco chewing is not allowed during handling food.

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Protective clothing is worn. Our personal protection is secondary. Gloves should be worn. e.g. preparing sandwiches. Protecting clothing and shoes should not be worn.

GENERAL HEALTH Food handlers should be in good health, from oral hygiene (healthy teeth) to general fitness. Report to supervisor.

GENERAL HEALTHCARRIERS. A person who is carrying food poisoning bacteria without symptoms. If you live with others who may have food poisoning or a food borne disease you may be a healthy carrier.

QUESTIONSQ ~ Why is personal hygiene important ? Q ~ Why is hand washing so important ?

Q ~ Which protective clothing is worn by food handlers ?Q ~ How can food handlers contaminate food ? Q ~ Which 3 illnesses must be reported ?

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