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  • Formula Sheet ! = !() !! = ! ! ! !" = ! ! ! ! !" = !!"!!!!

    ( ) 212P PU E r A= * 2( )P f

    P

    E r ry

    A

    = ( )

    = P fP

    P

    E r rS

    ( ) ( ) (1 ) [ ( ) ]c p f f p fE r yE r y r r y E r r= + = + ! = ! ( ) ( ) ( )P D D E EE r w E r w E r= +

    2 2 2 2 2 2 ( , )P D D E E D E D Ew w w w cov r r = + +

    2

    1 1 1( ) ( ) ( , )

    n n n

    P i i P i j i ji i j

    E r w E r ww cov r r= = =

    = =

    2( )M f ME r r A =

    ( ) ( )2cov ,

    [ ]i Mi i f i M fM

    r rE r r E r r

    = =

    ! = ! + ! + ! ( ) ( ) ( )i i i M iR t R t e t = + + !! = !!!! + !(!) ! , ! = !!!! ! = ! + !!! + !!! + ! ! = ! + !!! + !!!

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