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Frederick Winslow Taylor 1856-1915. Influences - Family History Father –Pennsylvania Quaker family –Lawyer –Owned farms and properties –Very Wealthy

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  • Frederick Winslow Taylor1856-1915

  • Influences - Family HistoryFatherPennsylvania Quaker familyLawyerOwned farms and propertiesVery Wealthy

  • Influences - Family HistoryMother - Emily Winslow (Delano)New England Puritan FamilyRelated to Franklin Delano RooseveltAnti-slavery agitatorCampaigner for womens rightsChild rearing philosophy based on work, drill and discipline.Believe in definite instructions for Fred

  • InfluencesAffluent familyAttended Phillips Exeter AcademyDestined for Harvard

  • Influences - Early WorkStarted as an Apprentice1878 - Midvale Steel as a ClerkMoved down the company ladder - laborerRole changed almost monthlyKeeper of tools, assistant foreman, foreman, master mechanic, director of research, chief engineer of the plan1880-1883 Engineering at Stephens Institute

  • Influences - Other Than MotherAdam Smith - Process-driven model of management

  • TendenciesIncredibly driven problem solverInventorTaylor-White process for treating tool steelSpawned over forty patentsSportsmanPassion for Order and EfficiencyPersistentPersonal Tendencies

  • Accomplishments & Theories1889 - Bethlehem Steel CompanyTried wide ranging changesFired in 1901Experience laid the basis for theories of Scientific Management

  • Scientific ManagementWorkers engaged in soldieringSuperiors had no idea how long a job should takeNo one thought to examine the nature of peoples work

  • Scientific ManagementArmed with stopwatch, examined exactly what happened and how long it tookMinute examination allows an observer to establish a best means of carrying out the job

  • Scientific ManagementWorkers would know what was expectedManagers would know how much should be producedReliable piecework rates, bonuses, penalties

  • Scientific ManagementQuality of the work had to be stressed before striving for an increased Quantity of workPaid for performance, not attendanceAdvocated daily feedbackSeventy five percent science and twenty five percent common sense

  • Scientific Management ExerciseBuild 20 Pieces as specified:Two Red 4x2Two Black 4x2, crosswiseOne White 2x2, on middle

  • Scientific Management - ResultsWatertown Arsenal (Labor Cost Reductions)Packsaddle from $1.17 to $.546 Gun from $10,229 to $6,950Typically, Schmidt increased production 400% while receiving 60% more payOften boosted production

  • Scientific Management - Results1910 - Harrington Emerson claimed the railroads could save $1 Million per dayImmediate result was a dramatic cut in the cost of manufactured goodsPotentially allowed for an increase in wagesAlso resulted in crude reductions in employee numbers

  • Frederick Taylor - ContributionsInvented Management as a ScienceEstablished the job of management as measurementCreated middle managementIntended SM to cover the whole organizationFirst management consultant (Consultant to Management)

  • Frederick Taylor - RecapEarned approximately $50,000 per year from 1900 to 1911 from consultingHad three maids, estate superintendent, cook, coachman and yard laborersTaught in France and Germany1910 - refused his share of his fathers $900,000 estate1915 - Taylors estate worth $700,000Died after a lecture tour in Cleveland

  • Frederick Taylor - SupportersFirst International Management TheoryJapaneseLeninHenri Le ChatelierFrank & Lilian GilbrethPeter DruckerHenry GanttHenry FordHugo MunsterbuergChampy/Hammer

  • Frederick Taylor - CriticismsRelied on money to motivateEfficiency before ethicsViews in accord with socialismIncreased wages until competitions catches upBuilt on a lack of trust, a lack of respect for the worth, wit and intelligence of individuals

  • Frederick Taylor - CriticismsEliminated qualified, professional workFocus on making the task more stupidBelieved people did not need to be told what was happening elsewhere in the organizationEmployees had to turn off their mindsDenied people their individuality

  • Frederick Taylor - Criticisms1909 - U.S. Steel, 3500 workers revolt1911 - Taylor questioned at a special committee of the U.S. House of RepresentativesNightmare visions explored in literature

  • Where Do We Go From Here?Peter DruckerKnowledge workers are abysmally unproductiveChallenge of the next century is to increase the productivity of knowledge workersLucier and TorsilieriRoutine work (80%) needs to be standardized.Complex decisions should be outsourced

    His father inherited large wealth and also became wealthy from their ownership of farms and other properties in PennyslvaniaMother, Emily Winslow, from an old New England Puritan family, the Delano family (same family as President Franklin Delano Roosevelt). Her father was a New Bedford Whaler. Emily was a prominent anti-slavery agitator and a campaigner for womens rights. Emily method of child rearing was based on work, drill and discipline and she believed in definite instructions for young Fred.Born into an affluent Philadelphia family on March 20, 1856. had a cook, a maid and a coachman.Went to the Phillips Exeter Academy.Was destined for Harvard and took the entrance exams for Harvard with honors before headaches and poor eyesight reputedly intervened.Disagreement in text: started work as an apprentice at the Enterprise Hydraulic Works of Philadelphia, or, started work as an apprentice at the William Sellers Company in Philadelphia.1878 left to work at the Midvale Steel Company, near Philadelphia as a clerk.Moved down the company ladder to become a laborer. His role changed almost monthly. He was a keeper of tool cribs, assistant foreman, foreman, master mechanic, director of research and finally chief engineer of the entire plant.Spent three years (1880 1883) studying engineering at evening classes at the Stephens Institute.

    Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations in eighteenth centuryA incredibly driven problem solverAn inventor co-developed the Taylor-White process for treating tool steel. This revolutionized metal cutting and enabled the development of mass production techniques.Spawed over forty patents, including1909 Apparatus for Moving Growing Trees and the Like1880s Power Hammer for Midvale Steel Company1900 Apparatus for grinding balls1907 Combined hothouse grapery and greenhouseA sportsman:Member of the boat crew, a skater and the captain of the baseball team at Exeter1881 Won the doubles at the U.S. tennis championships with brother in law, Clarence M. ClarkDesigned his own tennis racketPatented a lawn tennis net 1889Referred to golf as scientific inquiry. Took up golf at the age of forty.Invented a Y-shaped putter (1905)Experimented with the grass that made up putting greens (at his house in Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania) and subsurface watering.Used highly customized clubs and built an all-purpose harness, which enabled him to drive perfectly every time.Carried a handicap of eight when he won the club championships at the Philadelphia Country Club in 1902, 1903 and 1905.Passion for order and efficiencyReveled in the neatness of Deweys classification and subject index for libraries(Disciple, Henry Gantt said of Taylor Endowed naturally with untiring energy and a wonderfully analytical mind, he concentrated all the power of that combination on the problem of determining the facts he needed He was interested in what had been done mainly for the indication it gave of what could be done.Disciple of Taylors, Harrington Emerson, termed consulting efficiency engineeringPersistent1906 presented his paper On the Art of Cutting Metals to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Result of twenty-six years of experimentation with over 800,000 pounds of steel and iron with experimental tools. Records of 30,000-50,000 experiments cost then the enormous sum of $150,000-$200,000.General Tendencies and IssuesRetained strong European connections through his life.Did not drink, no alcohol in his home, did not take stimulants and did not use tobacco.One habit was swearing (picked up in his apprenticeship. Swore at different times, not on the golf course, but claimed he did while lecturing at Harvard.Sang as a tenor in the choral society and was frequently in amateur theatricals.Often arrogant, somewhat caustic, and inflexible about how his system should be implemented.He found that workers engaged in soldiering deliberately slowing down because of no incentives to go faster. They tried to keep their employers ignorant of how fast work can be done. They firmly believe that it is for their interest to give as little work in return for the money that they get as is practical Taylor later wrote in The Principles of Scientific Management.Superiors had no idea how long a job should take. No one had thought to examine the nature of peoples work.Armed with a stopwatch, he examined in intimate detail exactly what happened and how long it took.Surmised that minute examination of a task would enable the observer to establish a best means of carrying out the job. A single preferred, efficient means of completing the task could then be established and insisted on in the future.

    At the time, time-consciousness was something of a novelty. Time zones were only standardized in 1883.The need to produce more and in a more efficient way was taken as a first principle. The need to produce more was the managerial quest of the twentieth century. Taylor provided the means.

    Established the job of management as measurement. The manager in Taylors world was a mere supervisor, a recorder and reporter, gathering information with which to make a decision. What was measured got done. Period.Created middle management dedicated to supervision, measurement and observation. Another layer in the hierarchy.Introduction to the Principles of Scientific Management published in 1911 was intended to cover the

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