Greece The Land of Gods

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Preface Greece is a small country. Its surface is 131.000 m2. In other words, it equals of France or the state of Alabama in the USA. The Greek nobelist poet George Seferis1 said that on the 6th day of creation God was holding in his hand some earth and pebbles and without knowing where to cast them, threw them in the Aegean Sea and that's how Greece and its 3.000 islands were created.

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    Kondyli Press & Olga Bregianni 2012 edition

    ISBN 978-960-9661-09-6

    Title: Greece, the Land of GodsAuthor: Olga Bregianni

    Cover design: Photographs: Archeological Receipts Fund (), Ilias A. IliadisTyping: Charys PerdikarisGraphics, DTP: Despoina VafeidouProduction editor: Dimitris Pantelis

    KondyliPinakates, Piliou370 10 Milies, GreeceT/F: +30 24230 86757info@kondyli.gr

    www.kondyli.gr

    This book is published also in Greek language

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be repro-duced or transmitted in any form or means; electronic, mechanical, or recording by any informatin storage and retrieval system, without written authorization from the copyright holder and the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in review.

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    CONTENTS

    Preface 11

    1. ATTICA 12Attica 14a. Athens 16b. The Acropolis 27c. The Museum 31

    2. DAFNI - ELEFSINA - SALAMINA - MEGARA - ISThMOS 38Dafni - Elefsina - Salamina - Megara - Isthmos 40

    3. CORINTh 46Corinth 48a. The Archaeological Site 48b. The Museum 58

    4. MyCENAE - ARGOS -NAFPLIO - EPIDAuRuS 62Mycenae - Argos - Nafplio - Epidaurus 66a. Mycenae 66b. Argos 74c. Nafplio 76d. Epidaurus 78

    5. TRIPOLIS MEGALOPOLIS - KALAMATA 86Tripolis Megalopolis - Kalamata 88

    6. OLyMPIA 90Olympia 92a. Museum 99b. The Archaeological Site 107

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    7. PATRAS RIO ANTIRIO NAFPAKTOS ITEA - GALAxIDI 112Patras Rio Antirio Nafpaktos Itea - Galaxidi 114

    8. DELPhI 116Delphi 118a. Introduction 118b. The Archaeological Site 122c. The Museum 126

    9. LEVADIA DISTOMO ORChOMENOS ThEBES 130Levadia Distomo Orchomenos Thebes 132

    10. MARAThON - SOuNIO 138Marathon - Sounio 140a. Marathon 140b. Sounio 142

    MAP OF GREECE 146

    PhOTOGRAPhy REFERENCES 149

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    PREFACE

    Greece is a small country. Its surface is 131.000 m2. In other words, it equals of France or the state of Alabama in the uSA. The Greek nobelist poet George Seferis1 said that on the 6th day of creation God was holding in his hand some earth and peb-bles and without knowing where to cast them, threw them in the Aegean Sea and thats how Greece and its 3.000 islands were created.

    1 Nobel prize for poetry, 1965

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    1. Attica

    b. The Acropolis

    c. The Museum

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    a. Athens

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    of the two world wars and of Cyprus are carved. They are also two quotes of the epitaph of Periklis eulogy for the dead of the Athenian army during the 1st year of the Peloponnesian war of the year 431 B.C. One says , that is brave men are ecumenical and the other , that is a bed is carried in procession for those lost in battle, decorated with flowers similar to the later Christian Orthodox tradition of the Christ Epitaph. in Goon Friday evening

    The Constitution Square and the Parliament

    Hadrians Gate The portrait of Melina Mercouri

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    Zappeion Megaro

    Roman baths

    Presidential Megaro

    Lord Byron

    The Benaki Museum

    Schliemanns house, the Numismatic Museum

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    of Athens after the Persian wars, the unemployment in the city was up to 50%.

    he thought then to announce the public works where all citi-zens had access. he would finance all the public works from the cashier of the Athenian Alliance, a defence alliance against the Persians and for the protection of the Aegean. It had 200 mem-bers mainland city states and islands of the Aegean Sea. The annual income was the astronomical amount of 1.000 golden ta-landa. Each talando had the buying value of 6.000 sheep. It is the first time in the European history that a president uses money for defence in order to solve out the problem of unemployment. That is the Golden Age of Athens. The Acropolis was built only by free Athenian citizens, paid by the government and that is why it is our national monument. Next to the portrait of Pericles there are samples of the marble archives with the expenses of the construction from the collection of the Epigraphic Museum in Athens. We know for example that the salary of the master sculptor and coordinator of works Phidias was 1 drachma per day and that was the value of 1 sheep, which is approximately 200 per day.

    As we enter on both sides we see pre-classical and classical ceramics made with the unique thick, red Athenian clay and the

    The collection of the Archaic sculptures

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    amazing glazing on the black colour which only the Athenian artists could achieve so well. On the 1st floor the collection of the Archaic sculptures is unique world-wide. These artefacts of the 7th and 6th century B.C. belonged to temples which the Persians destroyed in 480 B.C., after the battle of Thermopylae. When after the battles of Platea near Thebes in 479 B.C. the Persians withdrew their army to Asia minor, the Athenians re-turned from Salamina and buried the sculptures in the slopes of the Acropolis, where they were discovered much later after the Greek revolution. Certain statues of the Kores which had been taken to Persia, were brought back by Alexander the Great. The sculptures of the pediments of those destroyed temples depict the fight between evil and good, shown with lions devouring taurus and coves.

    The collection of the Kores is unique worldwide. They are young Athenians who hold gifts for Athena and kept her compa-ny like maidens of honour placed all around the archaic Parthe-non. They wear long chitons embroidered with spirals and me-anders. Their hair is curly, they wear jewellery and have make-up on their eyes and lips. Further on, we see the oldest riders statue of the Greek-roman antiquity. he is the son of the tyrant Pisistra-tus. unfortunately, the original head of the rider is in the Louvre,

    The Panathenian procession freeze

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    Athens Acropolis Museum-The Hall of slopes (Kliteion) of the Acropolis

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    legend says that one day helios gave his son his chariot to ride it across the sky. The tameless horses understood they did not have the same rider and either they would go very far from the earth or come very close to it. During that crazy course, the fire-chariot flew very low over northern Africa where it burnt all flora, created the Sahara desert and the black race. The four bronze Roman statues were transferred to Constantinople by Emperor Constantine and used to decorate the hippodrome. In 1.204 A.D. in the 4th crusade, the Venetians transported them to Venice. Later on, Napoleon took them to Paris from where after his Waterloo the Venetians brought them back to their home city and placed them on the faade of St. Marks Cathedral.

    On the east of the market, behind the Bema, were the city archive office buildings. Near them, at 338 B.C. a portico was built to ac-commodate the delegations of the city states that elected during the famous Council of Corinth, Philip B the Macedonian father of Alexander the Great, king of all Greece. For the first time Greece becomes a united Kingdom. The portico is closed nowadays. how-ever, one can still see pieces of the floor mosaics. Additionally, there are ruins in the market of the temple of Aphrodite and Aries, which are Venus and Mars. Next to the museum is the fountain of Glauki,

    The clay ex-vetoes depicting the diseases of the pilgrims.

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    their ambassador in Athens. The treasure is casus belli [cause for war]. The Greek government denies the treasure and so it ends up in Russia via Berlin.

    Four years after the discovery of Troy, Schliemann comes to My-cenae. The name of the place is the same and the walls evident. Although he had discovered the treasure of Troy, the international archaeological community, still doubts the authenticity of the collec-tion. he needs more proof. The cite of Mycenae does not offer him the proof he needs. The Lions Gate stands proud but speechless.

    The lions, a male and a female, protect the central column of the megaron [palace] and place their feet on 2 altars. Their heads are missing but they were there until Roman times in the 2nd century A.D., when the Greek author Pausanias saw them and said that they were looking towards him, without mentioning though, what mate-rial they were made of. This sculpture is the 1st royal insignia [coat of arms] in the European world. The lions stand for the physical strength of the kings leaders of the army, the altars for the religious power of the king son of Zeus high priest and finally the column of the palace court of justice, where the kings decided as president of the Supreme Court, that is, the sculpture symbolizes the 3 qualities of the king, as chief-leader of the army, the justice and the religion.

    Acropolis of Mycenae, The lions gate

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  • ...4. Argos - Mycenae Nafplio Epidaurus

    in, naus became nave and in English navy and nautical.The king of Nauplio Palamidis, joined Agamemnon at the Trojan

    War and with king ulysses of Ithaca, were the smartest ones of the army. The castle, named after him was designed by the French engi-neer Lassalle and built at 1705 A.D. It has 7 towers and in order to go up there, one has to climb 999 steps. The construction was financed by Venetians, at the high economic pick of Venice. Venetians con-quer harbours from the Turks, build castles in order to secure their dominion and practice duty-free trade, without paying any port au-thorities. This is the reason for the enormous wealth they gathered in Venice on one hand and on the other hand for the big number of their castles all over Greece.

    The town of Nafp