How the Brain Learns It don’t mean a thing if you… can’t remember it don’t make sense don’t focus or don’t care

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How the Brain Learns It dont mean a thing if you cant remember it dont make sense dont focus or dont care Slide 2 Slide 3 How the Brain Learns Practice Experimentation Watching/Listening Connecting Reflecting Social construction Meaning making Slide 4 Exterior Parts of the Brain Frontal Lobes planning & thinking Temporal Lobe sound, speech, LTM Occipital visual processing Parietal lobe orientation, calculations Slide 5 Interior Parts of the Brain Limbic System generation of emotions Thalamus processes sensory stimuli except smell Hippocampus checks info in working memory to stored experiences Slide 6 Cerebrum Thinking, memory, speech and muscular movement are controlled by areas in the cerebrum. Frontal Lobe Monitors: Higher Order thinking Directing Problem Solving Regulating excesses of the emotional system Slide 7 The Brain Limbic System generation of emotions Thalamus directs sensory information to other parts of the brain. (except smell) Hippocampus constantly checks info relayed to working memory & compares to stored experiences. (essential for creating meaning.) Amygdala plays an important part in emotions especially fear. Slide 8 Logical Analytical Fact Based Qualitative Holistic Intuitive Integrating Synthesizing Organized Sequential Planned Detailed Interpersonal Emotional Kinesthetic Feeling Based Limbic Mode Cerebral Mode LEFTMODEVERBALLEFTMODEVERBAL R I G H T M O D E Non V E R B A L Slide 9 Brain Transmissions Neurons transmit impulses along an axon and across the synapse to the dendrites of the neighboring cell Slide 10 1,000,000,000,000,000 synapses Learning occurs by changing the synapses so that the influence of one neuron on another also changes. The more complex the skills demanded in an occupation, the more dendrites were found on the neurons creates more sites in which to store learnings Slide 11 How the Brain Learns Connections the brain finds useful become permanent; those not useful are eliminated as the brain selectively strengthens and prunes connections based on experience. What are the implications for teaching? Slide 12 Effective Teaching Requires: Planning Essential elements of effective instruction Competent teacher Constant stream of decisions Students actively engaged Compatibility to how students learn Slide 13 The Brain is a novelty seeker The brain has a persistent interest in novelty. An environment that contains mostly predictable stimuli lowers the brains interest Slide 14 Using Novelty in Lessons Humor Movement get the blood flowing Multi-sensory Instruction interesting colorful visuals - & talk about their learning Quiz Games helps students rehearse adds repetitions for long term memory Music helps motivate and helps memory Slide 15 Information Processing Model Learning Storing Remembering Are all dynamic and interactive processes Slide 16 Information Processing Model It limits its scope to the major cerebral operations that deal with: Collecting Evaluating Storing Retrieving information The parts that are most useful to educators Slide 17 Information Processing Model Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste Immed Memory Working Memory Sense & Meaning Sensory Register out Long Term storage Self Concept Past Experiences Cognitive Belief System Slide 18 Memory Short term memory: All of the early steps of temporary memory that lead to stable long term memory Immediate Memory holds data for 30 seconds Working Memory limited capacity conscious activity captures our focus and demands our attention occurs in the frontal lobes Slide 19 Working Memory Capacity varies with age 5 years or younger 2 items + or - 1 Between 5 - 145 items + or - 2 14 and older7 items + or - 2 The limited capacity explains why we need to memorize a song or poem in stages increase capacity through chunking. How can this relate to learning new vocabulary words? Slide 20 Working Memory Time Limits Age dependent Pre-adolescents 5 10 minutes Adolescents & Adults 10 20 minutes Fatigue or boredom sets in resulting in a loss of focus - unless a change in the way the individual is dealing with an item. Slide 21 Data Affecting Survival Data Generating Emotions Data for new learning WORKINGMEMORYWORKINGMEMORY Priorities for Working Memory Slide 22 Criteria for Long term Storage We cannot recall what we have not stored Emotional experiences have a high probability of being permanently stored Does it make sense? ( oh now I see ) Learner can understand based upon experience Does it have meaning? ( how will I use it ) Is the item relevant Slide 23 Sense & Meaning Sense and Meaning are independent of each other When new learning is comprehensible (sense) and can be connected to past experiences (meaning) retention is dramatically improved. Slide 24 Sense & Meaning Students often listen to things that make sense but lack meaning. If they do not find meaning after the learning episode there is little likelihood of long term storage Teachers often wonder why students forgot the lesson (meaning relevance must be clear) ie. Learn it because its on the test Slide 25 Sense & Meaning Past experiences always influence new learning. Teachers spend about 90% of their planning time devising lessons so that students will understand the objective (sense) they need to be more mindful of helping students establish meaning. Integrating the curriculum increases meaning and retention Teachers must understand the intent of the standards Slide 26 Moderate To High Very Low Very High Moderate To High MEANING PRESENT?MEANING PRESENT? Sense Present ? Probability of being Stored in Memory Slide 27 Retention Research has shown that: The greatest loss of newly acquired information or a skill occurs within 18 24 hours If a learner cannot recall information within 24 hours there is a high probability that it was not permanently stored Slide 28 Self Concept Continuum very low to very high Emotions play an important part in forming a persons self concept. People will participate in learning activities that have yielded success for them and avoid those that have produced failure Slide 29 Self Concept Accepting or Rejecting New Learning People will participate in learning activities that have yielded success for them. They will avoid those that have produced failure. Slide 30 Self Concept Hierarchy of Data Processing: When a concept struggles with an emotion, the emotion almost always wins! It is possible for the rational system (frontal lobe) to override emotions but that takes time and conscious effort. Slide 31 Self Concept The learner must believe that participating in the learning situation will produce new successes rather than repeat past failures. A teacher teaches children, not merely content. It is vital to create the conditions for success educational & human relations skills (intentionally maximizing success) Slide 32 Self Concept The self concept is important in controlling the feedback loop and determining how the individual will respond to almost any new learning situation. What are the implications for instruction? Slide 33 Computer Model - Comparison Brain performs more slowly It takes time for the nerve impulse to travel along the axon The brains working memory is limited Emotions play an important role in human processing and creativity. The ideas generated by the brain often come from images. The brain changes its own properties as a result of experience Slide 34 Constructivism Students are more likely to gain greater understanding of and derive greater pleasure from learning when allowed to transform the learning into creative thoughts and products. (learning on a continuum, direct instruction provides a foundation, inquiry or constructivism, cooperative learning can take the learning to new and creative levels) Slide 35 How the Brain Learns Why it is Important? When do students remember best in a learning episode? How can I help students understand and remember more of what I teach? Why is focus so important, and why is it so difficult to get? How can humor and music help the teaching learning process? How can I get students to find meaning in what they are learning? Why is transfer such a powerful principle of learning, and how can it destroy a lesson without my realizing it? Slide 36 How the Brain Learns Physical aspects associated with learning How the brain processes information Memory Retention & Learning The power of Transfer Brain Specialization and Learning The Brain and the Arts Thinking Skills and Learning Slide 37 Instructional Approaches Direct Instruction Cooperative Learning Interdisciplinary Units Integrated Thematic Units Slide 38 Using Humor to Enhance Learning Gets Attention Creates a positive Climate Increases retention Emotions enhance retention Positive feelings from laughter increase probability of retention It is an effective discipline tool No teasing or sarcasm Slide 39 Increase processing time through motivation Generate Interest powerful motivator Establish Accountability Provide Feedback Prompt Specific Corrective Level of Concern Slide 40 Increase processing time through motivation Level of Concern Provide consequences Visibility & Proximity Varying the amount of time allotted to complete a task Varying the amount of help or support available. Slide 41 Creating Meaning in new Learning Modeling Accurately & unambiguously highlight the critical attributes Teacher presents first to ensure students get it correct during this prime time when retention is the highest. Avoid controversial issues that evoke strong emotions that can redirect the learners attention Emotions can shut out rational thought Slide 42 Creating Meaning in new Learning Using examples from students experience Brings prior knowledge into working memory which promotes making sense and attaching meaning. It is important that the examples are