Integrating seismic, well CSEMc203624.r24.cf1. Integrating seismic, well and CSEM data Richard Cooper,

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  • Extraordinary results. By any measure.

    Integratingseismic,wellandCSEMdata RichardCooper,RSI

    Businessopportunitieswithsubsurfacedata 20April2011 HallamConferenceCentre,London

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Agenda AnintroductiontomarineEMmethods Thecommercialstorysofar Casestudies WheredoesCSEMfitwithinanoverallexplorationand

    exploitationstrategy? Conclusion

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Agenda AnintroductiontomarineEMmethods Thecommercialstorysofar Casestudies WheredoesCSEMfitwithinanoverallexplorationand

    exploitationstrategy? Conclusion

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    EMcamefirst.

    1912

    ConradSchlumbergerconceivedtherevolutionaryideaofusingsurfaceelectricalmeasurementstomapsubsurfacerockbodies

    SchlumbergerbrothersbeginperformingsurfaceresistivitysurveysinRomania,Serbia,Canada,UnionofSouthAfrica,BelgianCongo,andUSA

    1927

    First electrical resistivity well log is recorded in Pechelbronn, France (image above is first well log in USA, 1929, Kern Co.)

    1934

    First reflection seismic data recorded

    There is different rock down there somewhere.

    There is probably oil just below 1950 feet.

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Historicalperspective

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    MarineMagnetotelluricMT

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    ControlledSourceElectroMagneticsCSEM

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    SeaSeaWaterWater

    ResistiveResistiveBodyBody ConductiveConductiveSedimentsSediments

    CSEMTwoBasicMeasurements

    ConductiveSedimentsConductiveSediments ReservoirReservoir((ResistivebodyResistivebody))

    Phase ElectricFieldStrength

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Source

    Highpowereddipolesourcewithamomentinexcessof300,000Aminthefundamental.

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Receivers

    Receiversdetectandrecordelectricandmagneticfieldsattheseafloor. Deployedautonomouslyandrecoveredusingacousticreleasesystem

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Agenda AnintroductiontomarineEMmethods Thecommercialstorysofar Casestudies WheredoesCSEMfitwithinanoverallexplorationand

    exploitationstrategy? Conclusion

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Itwasatthispoint,gentleman,thatrealityintruded.

    2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    MarketCap 2007 2009 Change emgs $,1761M $83M (95)% Mtem $275M $0M (100)% OHM $190M $6M (96)%

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    TheCSEMworldin2007.whatwentwrong?

    Greatmarketing;poordelivery:afatalcombination! Incorrectstatements:

    CSEMwillreplaceseismic CSEMisaDHI

    CSEMisnotseismic Acquisitiondesigncritical Processing&interpretationtechnologyimmature;almostnocommercialsoftware Littleinhouseexpertiseortechnologyinoil&gascompanies

    SeismicIntegration? Absolutelykey

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Marketadoption/growthbarriers:CSEM

    CSEM considered to be expensive compared to seismic:

    han seismic per unit area) tile; just plain wrong!)

    s ems

    Better, faster, cheaper!

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Agenda AnintroductiontomarineEMmethods Thecommercialstorysofar Casestudies

    1. NorwegianSeaGasReservoir 2. FluidinaChalkinterval

    WheredoesCSEMfitwithinanoverallexplorationandexploitationstrategy?

    Conclusion

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Dataintegrationiskey

    Well logs and seismic have come a long way since 1934, but even today there is no better indicator of oil or gas than electrical resistivity.

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    CSEM Seismic Well data

    Imaging structure

    Detecting fluids

    Determining mineralogy

    What can go wrong ?

    17

    Each method has its strengths.

    Severelyundersampled

    laterally.

    AVO and amplitude anomalies may be caused by lithology variations. Saturation often difficult to determine

    We measure resistivity, NOT hydrocarbons

    So we need to use the right tool (or tools) for the job.

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Agenda AnintroductiontomarineEMmethods Thecommercialstorysofar Casestudies

    1. NorwegianSeaGasReservoir 2. FluidinaChalkinterval

    WheredoesCSEMfitwithinanoverallexplorationandexploitationstrategy?

    Conclusion

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Appraisal

    The Luva gas field lies on the Nyk High of the Voring Basin in the Norwegian Sea

    Water depth in the area is

    approximately 1300m OHM collected a CSEM

    survey over the field in October 2006

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Appraisalreservoirproperties

    21Apr11 20

    Seismic Data

    Impedance Inversion

    Well-log Calibration

    Porosity

    Gas Volume

    CSEM Data

    Resistivity Inversion

    Well-log Calibration

    Gas Saturation

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Agenda AnintroductiontomarineEMmethods Thecommercialstorysofar Casestudies

    1. NorwegianSeaGasReservoir 2. FluidinaChalkinterval

    WheredoesCSEMfitwithinanoverallexplorationandexploitationstrategy?

    Conclusion

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    WhatisthefluidwithinaNorthSeaChalk?

    Seismicinversioncanbeusedtofindporouszones,butdeterminingthefluidcontentisdifficult.

    ~500m

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    Seismic

    Tight High impedance

    Porous - wet Low impedance

    Porous hydrocarbons Low impedance

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Gassmannfluidsubstitution

    Seismic Gather InSitu 100% WET 80% OIL 80% GAS D E P T H

    T I

    M E

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    Minerals Sw AI PR

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Chalkresistivity

    Wet

    Porosity VSH Resistivity RHOB-NPHI

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    Hydrocarbon

    Wet

    Tight

    Resistivity (m)

    Resistivity (m)

    Resistivity (m)

    Per

    cent

    age

    Per

    cent

    age

    Per

    cent

    age

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    BothseismicandCSEMdataareneeded

    Seismic CSEM

    Tight High impedance High resistivity

    Porous - wet Low impedance Low resistivity

    Porous hydrocarbons Low impedance High resistivity

    Use seismic to determine porosity

    then use CSEM to determine the fluid

    content Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Porosityderivedfromseismicinversion

    Averageporosityinthetop24mofthechalk:canfindthereservoirsbutnotthecontent

    Porosity

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    2Dconstrainedinversion

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    CSEMdataalonehaspoorstructuralresolution UsetheseismicstructuretoconstraintheCSEMinversionbyallowingbreaksinsmoothnessattopandbottomchalk. Ineachcaseinvert0.05Hz,0.25Hzand0.6Hzamplitudeandphase

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    2Dconstrainedinversion

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Transverseresistance

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure. Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    Istheincreaseinresistivityrelatedto

    Decreasingporosity? Changeinthechalkthickness? Saturationchanges?

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Chalk Resistivity Sections: based on seismic

    Porosity Low Baseline Resistivity High Baseline Resistivity

    RW=0.03758minChalk RW=0.08minChalk

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    RT = Sw-n Rw a m

    Porosityfromseismic.

    100%watersaturation

    Rwandmfromwelllogcalibration

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Transverseresistance:seismicallyderivedmodel

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    100% water saturated

    Hydrocarbon charged

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    ComparingCSEMandseismicallyderivedresistivity

    Data courtesy Maersk Oil, Shell and Chevron

    Seismic + well log derived Water saturated

    Hydrocarbon saturated

    High baseline Low baseline

  • 2011RSIRockSolidImages.com Extraordinaryresults.Byanymeasure.

    Agenda AnintroductiontomarineEMmethods Thecommercialstorysofar Casestudies WheredoesCSEMfitwi