ITI Section 608 Study Guide - international training institute for the sheet metal and air conditioning industry epa section 608 study guide

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    INTERNATIONALTRAININGINSTITUTE

    FORTHE

    SHEETMETALANDAIRCONDITIONINGINDUSTRY

    EPASection608StudyGuide

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    TABLEOFCONTENTSINTRODUCTION3

    CORESECTION5

    TYPEI24

    TYPEII28

    TYPEIII33

    GLOSSARY38

    Temperature/PressureChart44

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    IntroductiontotheSection608StudyGuide

    ThisstudyguidewasputtogetherbytheInternationalTrainingInstitutetohelpprepareindividualsfortheEPASection608certificationexam.Theinformationinthisstudyguideisbasedonthemostcurrentinformationavailableatthetimeofpublishing.

    Asareminder,itisthetechniciansresponsibilitytocomplywithanyfuturechangestheEPAmaymake.

    ThisguidewillcontainwordsinBOLDtohelpyourememberkeyconceptsandwords.Attheendofeachsection(Core,TypeI,II,&III)therewillbeapracticequiz.Ifyoucananswerthequestionsonthequiz,thenyoushouldbewellpreparedtotakethecertificationexam.

    Certainpersonalinformationisrequiredontheexam.Techniciansshouldbepreparedtopresent:

    Pictureidentification Socialsecuritynumber Homeaddress

    Atthebeginningoftheexam,youwillneedtofillinyourpersonalinformationandalsocreateauniqueidentificationnumber.ThisnumberwillbeinSocialSecuritynumberformatxxxxxxxxxandwillbevisibleonthefrontofyourcertificationcard.DONOTuseyourSocialSecuritynumberwhenfillinginthispart.

    Duringtheexam,readeachtestquestionthoroughly.Payspecialattentiontoclarifyingwordslike:always,never,not,sometimes,minimum,maximum,least,most,best,worstandsimilarwords.

    Readeveryanswer,evenifyouthinkthefirstoneiscorrect.Manyquestionsaremissedbecausenotalltheansweroptionsareread.Andyoucanalwaysskipaquestionandcomebacktoit.

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    AbouttheSection608Exam

    Thetestisdividedinto4sections:Core,TypeI,TypeII,andTypeIII

    Type I:AType I technicianprimarilyworkson smallappliances suchasdomestic refrigerators, window air conditioners, PTACs and vendingmachines,etc...

    TypeII:ATypeIItechnicianprimarilyworksonequipmentusingahighpressurerefrigerantsuchasHCFC22.Theequipmentincludesresidentialandlt.commercialairconditionersandheatpumps,rooftopunits,supermarketrefrigerationandprocessrefrigeration.

    Type III:AType III technicianprimarilyworksonequipmentusinga lowpressure refrigerant such as HCFC123 or CFC11. These units areprimarilychillers.

    Universal:AcandidatepassingallthreetypesiscertifiedasUniversal

    Eachsectionhas25multiplechoicequestions.Atechnicianmustachieveaminimumscoreof70%(18outof25)topassthatsectionoftheexam.TheCoresectionmustbepassedtoreceiveanyothercertification.

    Forexample:AtechniciancouldpassCore,TypeIandTypeIIIandfailTypeII.InthiscasethetechnicianwouldbecertifiedasaTypeI&TypeIIItechnician.Coremustbepassedtoreceiveanycertification.AllsectionsmustbepassedinordertoachieveUniversalTechnicianstatus.

    AtechnicianmaychoosetotakeCoreplusanycombinationofTypeI,TypeIIorTypeIII.Itisnotrequiredtotakeallfoursectionsontheexam.

    Testsareclosedbooktests.Theonlyoutsidematerialsallowedareatemperature/pressurechartandacalculator.Thetemperature/pressurechartandcalculatorarebothavailableonscreen,ontheonlineversionoftheexam.Otherwise,youmayremovethechartattheendofthisstudyguidefortheexam.

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    COREInthissectionwewillcovergeneralknowledgesuchas:

    Ozonedepletion

    CleanAirActandtheMontrealProtocol

    Section608regulations

    Substituterefrigerantsandoils

    Refrigeration

    ThreeRs

    Recoverytechniques

    Dehydrationevacuation

    Safety

    Shipping

    ManyconsidertheCoreSectiontobethemostimportantsectionasCoreisrequiredtoachieveanyothercertificationtype.AndalsobecausetheinformationfoundintheCoreSection,comesupagaininothersections.

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    OzoneDepletion:

    Ozoneisanaturallyoccurringgasmoleculethatismadeupofthreeoxygenatoms(O3).ThisgasoccursbothintheEarthsupperatmosphereandatgroundlevel.Atgroundlevel,ozoneisconsideredbadandisapollutantthatcausessignificanthealthrisksaswellasdamagingvegetation.

    Theozonethatoccursintheupperatmosphereorstratosphereisconsideredgoodozone.Thisgoodozoneinthestratosphereisalayerthatextendsabout6to30milesaboveearthandcreatesaprotectiveshieldforEarthfromthesunsharmfulultraviolet(UV)rays.DepletionofozoneallowsmoreofthesunsharmfulUVraystoreachtheearthresultinginthefollowingproblems:

    Increasedtemperatureoftheearth

    Increasedcasesofskincancer

    Increasednumbersofcataractsintheeyes

    Increasedgroundlevelozone

    Cropandvegetationloss

    Reducedmarinelife

    Whilethetotalamountofozoneinthestratospherevariesbylocation,timeandseason,theeffectofozonedepletionisaglobalproblem.

    DestructionProcessofOzone

    Ozonecanbedestroyedbychlorineandbromineatomsemittedintotheatmosphere.Whenachlorineatommeetswithanozonemolecule,ittakesanoxygenatomfromtheozonemolecule.Theozonemolecule(O3)changestoanoxygenmolecule(O2),whilethechlorineatomchangestoacompoundcalledchlorinemonoxide(ClO).

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    Whenchlorinemonoxidemeetsozone,itreleasesitsoxygenatomandformstwoO2oxygenmolecules,leavingthechlorinemoleculefreetoattackanotherozonemoleculeandrepeattheprocess.Itisestimatedthatasinglechlorineatomcandestroy100,000ozonemolecules.

    TherehasbeenagreatdealofcontroversyoverthesubjectofOzonedepletion.SomebelievethattheChlorinefoundinthestratospherecomesfromnaturalsourcessuchasvolcaniceruptions.However,airsamplestakenovereruptingvolcanoesshowthatvolcanoescontributeonlyasmallquantityofChlorineascomparedtoCFC's.Inaddition,theriseintheamountofChlorinemeasuredinthestratosphereoverthepasttwodecadesmatchestheriseintheamountofFluorine,whichhasdifferentnaturalsourcesthanChlorine,overthesameperiod.Also,theriseintheamountofChlorinemeasuredinthestratosphereoverthepasttwentyyears,matchestheriseinCFCemissionsoverthesameperiod.UnlikeotherChlorinecompoundsandnaturallyoccurringchlorine,thechlorineinCFC'swillneitherdissolveinwaternorbreakdownintocompoundsthatdissolveinwater,sotheydonotrainoutoftheatmosphere.Despitebeingheavierthanair,CFCsreachthestratospherethroughwindmotionsthatcarrythemupwards.Ozonedepletionpotential(ODP)isthemeasurementoftheabilityofCFCsandHCFCstodestroytheozone.CFCshavethehighestODP,followedbyHCFCs.HFCsdonotcontainanychlorineandthereforedonothaveanODP

    Gas Example Elements ODPCFC R11,R12,R500 Chlorine,Fluorine,Carbon HigherHCFC R22,R123 Hydrogen,Chlorine,Fluorine,Carbon LowerHFC R134a Hydrogen,Fluorine,Carbon None

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    CLEAN AIR ACT: TheUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)regulatessection608oftheFederalCleanAirAct.Failuretocomplycouldcostyouandyourcompanyasmuchas$27,500*perday,perviolationandthereisabountyofupto$10,000,tolureyourcompetitors,customersandfellowworkerstoturnyouin.ServicetechnicianswhoviolateCleanAirActprovisionsmaybefined,losetheircertification,andmayberequiredtoappearinFederalcourt.TheEPAmayrequiretechnicianstodemonstratetheabilitytoproperlyperformrefrigerantrecovery/recyclingprocedures.Failingtodemonstratetheseskillscanresultinrevocationofcertification.ItisaviolationofSection608to:

    Falsifyorfailtokeeprequiredrecords; Failtoreachrequiredevacuationratespriortoopeningordisposingof

    appliances; Knowinglyrelease(vent)CFC's,HCFC'sorHFCswhilerepairingappliances,

    withtheexceptionofdeminimusreleases; Service,maintain,ordisposeofappliancesdesignedtocontainrefrigerants

    withoutbeingappropriatelycertifiedasofNovember14,1994.(Itistheresponsibilityofthefinalpersoninthedisposalchaintoensurethatrefrigeranthasbeenremovedfromappliancesbeforescrapping.)

    VentCFC'sorHCFC'ssinceJuly1,1992; VentHFC'ssinceNovember15,1995; FailtorecoverCFC's,HCFC'sorHFCsbeforeopeningordisposingofan

    appliance; FailtohaveanEPAapprovedrecoverydevice,equippedwithlowloss

    fittings,andregisterthedevicewiththeEPA; Addnitrogentoafullychargedsystem,forthepurposeofleakdetection,

    andtherebycauseareleaseofthemixture; Disposeofadisposablecylinderwithoutfirstrecoveringanyremaining

    refrigerant(to0psig.)andthenrenderingthecylinderuseless,thenrecyclingthemetal;

    Inaddition,somestateandlocalgovernmentregulationsmaycontainregulationsthatareasstrictasorstricterthanSection608.

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    MontrealProtocol:TheMontrealProtocolisaninternationalagreement(Treaty)regulatingtheproductionanduseofCFCs,HCFCs,halons,methylchloroformandcarbontetrachlorideenteredintoforceinmid1989.KnownasTheMontrealProtocol,thislandmarkagreementinitiallyrequiredaproductionandconsumptionfreeze.TheMontrealProtocolcalledforastepwisereductionandeventualproductionphaseoutofvariousOzoneDepletingSubstancesindevelopedcountries.CFC'swerephasedoutofproductiononDecember31,1995.HCFCrefrigerantsarescheduledofphaseoutinthefuture.WhenvirginsuppliesofCFC'saredepleted,futuresupplieswillcomefromrecovered,recycled,orreclaimedrefrigerants.

    Venting:

    SinceNovember15,1995,knowinglyventinganyrefrigerantisaviolationoftheCAA.ThisincludesCFC&HCFCs,and/orCFC&HCFCsrefrigerantsubstitutes,suchas134Aor410A.

    Onlythedeminimisreleaseisallowedduringservice,routinemaintenanceorrepair,whichreferstothesmallamountsofrefrigerantsemittedunintentionallyduringgoodfaitheffortstorecoverrefrigerants,duringthenormalcourseofapplianceoperationorduringtheconnection/disconnectiontochargeorserviceanappliance.

    Nitrogenthatisusedforholdingchargesorasleaktestgasesmaybereleased;however,nitrogenmaynotbeaddedtoafullychargedsystemforthepurposeforleakdetectionandthenreleased.

    AllCFCsandHCFCsmustberecoveredbeforeopeningasystemforserviceordisposingofappliances.

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    Cylinder&ApplianceDisposal:

    BeforedisposingofanyappliancecontainingaCFCorHCFCrefrigerant,therefrigerantmustberecovered.Thepersonresponsibleforensuringthatrefrigerantshavebeenremovedfromhouseholdrefrigeratorsbeforetheyaredisposedofisthefinalpersoninthedisposalchain.

    Allrefrigerantsindisposablecontainershavebeenrecovered(0psigorlower)andrendereduselessbeforerecyclingthecylinder.

    SALESRESTRICTION:AsofNovember14,