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  • i

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

    * * *

    2010 4 6

    SF6

    SF6

    SF6

    31

    SF6

    SF6 SF6

    SF6

    319-1195 2-4

    *

  • ii

    Operation and Management of the High-pressure Gas Facility for the Tandem Accelerator

    -Maintenance, Evaluation of the Aging Deterioration and Action of Reducing SF6 Gas

    Emission-

    Hidekazu TAYAMA, Takamitsu NAKANOYA, Yoshinori OTOKAWA, Yoshihiro TSUKIHASHI

    Nobuo SEKI*, Teruo ONODERA* and Hikaru NISUGI*

    Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator

    Nuclear Science Research Institute

    Tokai Research and Development Center

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Tokai-mura,Naka-gun,Ibaraki-ken

    (Received April 6,2010)

    The high-pressure gas facility for the tandem accelerator at Nuclear Science Research

    Institute is the facility to transfer SF6 gas between the accelerator and gas storage tanks. The

    SF6 gas is used to keep high voltage insulation of the tandem accelerator. This facility is one

    of the largest SF6 gas handling facilities in research laboratories. This facility has been

    operated for 31 years. In addition to regular maintenance, we have evaluated the

    deterioration due to aging. SF6 gas is regarded as a kind of green house gases that causes

    global warming and it is strongly required to reduce such gas emission into the atmosphere in

    recent years. In JAEA, the reduction of gas emission is also an important problem. We have been continuously taking action for reducing the emission of SF6 gas.

    In this article, we report the records of maintenance, evaluation of aging, and activity of

    reducing SF6 gas emission.

    .

    Keywords: Tandem Accelerator, SF6 Gas Facility, High-pressure Gas, Greenhouse Gas *Atomic Energy Engineering Co., Ltd

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

  • iii

    1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    2. SF6 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    2.1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    2.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

    2.3 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

    2.4 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

    3. ----------------------------------------------------------------- 3

    3.1 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 4

    3.2 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 4

    3.3 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 4

    4. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.1 --------------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.2 ------------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.4 --------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.5 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.6 --------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.7 --------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.8 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 8

    4.9 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

    5. ----------------------------------------------------------------- 13

    5.1 -------------------------------------------------------------- 13

    5.2 ---------------------------------------------------------- 13

    5.3 ---------------------------------------------------------- 14

    6. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 24

    6.1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24

    6.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24

    6.3 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 25

    6.4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 25

    6.5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25

    6.6 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

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  • iv

    7. SF6 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 33

    7.1 SF6 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 33

    7.2 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 33

    8. SF6 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 34

    8.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 34

    8.2 SF6 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 34

    8.3 SF6 ------------------------------------------------------------ 35

    8.4 SF6 --------------------------------------- 35

    9. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 39

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

    1 ------------------------------------------------------------- 40

    2 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 41

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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  • v

    Contents

    1. Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    2. Characteristics of SF6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1

    2.1 Features ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    2.2 Physical properties ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

    2.3 Electric properties -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

    2.4 Chemical properties ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2

    3. Operating condition of the facility -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

    3.1 Circulation process of SF6 gas ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

    3.2 Collecting process of SF6 gas ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

    3.3 Refilling process of SF6 gas --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

    4. Performance of the equipment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.1 Compressors ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.2 After cooler ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6

    4.3 Storage tank ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.4 Vaporizer --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.5 Kenny pomp ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.6 Gas dryer -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.7 Turbo compressor --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.8 Gas cooler -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

    4.9 Cooling facility ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

    5. Evaluation of the deterioration with aging --------------------------------------------------------------- 13

    5.1 Use situation of the facility ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13

    5.2 Evaluation of the aging ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13

    5.3 About evaluation result of the aging ------------------------------------------------------------------- 14

    6. Maintenance ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24

    6.1 High-pressure gas facilities ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24

    6.2 Instrument device ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24

    6.3 Safety device -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25

    6.4 Valves ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25

    6.5 Pipes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25

    6.6 Equipment ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

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  • vi

    7. Management of SF6 gas ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 33

    7.1 Supplementary SF6 gas supply --------------------------------------------------------------------- 33

    7.2 Caution for handling --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 33

    8. Emission management of SF6 gas --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34

    8.1 About greenhouse gas -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34

    8.2 History of SF6 gas emission ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34

    8.3 Estimation of the causes of losing SF6 gas ----------------------------------------------------------- 35

    8.4 Result of leak inspection and action for reducing the emission of SF6 gas ----------------- 35

    9. Conclusion ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

    Acknowledgements ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

    References ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

    Appendix 1 Global warming coefficient of greenhouse gas -------------------------------------------- 40

    Appendix 2 Photos ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 41

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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  • 1

    1.

    1978

    31 1,700 SF6

    45 229,794m3 100,550kg SF6

    20MV

    SF6

    SF6

    SF6

    3200(GWP100)23,900

    SF6 1 99.5%

    SF6

    2. SF6

    2.1

    SF6

    (1)

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    (5) 2

    (6) 2MPa SF6

    (7)

    -1-

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  • 2

    2.2

    SF6 2.1 SF6

    146.06 SF6 21.95%S

    78.05%F

    6 F S

    SF6 6.139 g/l 20

    1atm 5 SF6

    2MPa

    45.53.78MPa

    2.3

    SF6 1 23 23

    2.4

    SF6

    SF4SOF2SO2F2

    OF2 HF 2SF6

    500

    200

    50 50

    SF6

    146.06

    5.107=1)

    1.88 g/cm3 (20)

    -50.8

    -63.8

    2.14 MPa (20)

    4.55

    3.78 MPa

    2.1 SF6 1)

    -2-

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  • 3

    3.

    1213.9 m3 SF6

    3.1

    SF6

    SF6

    12

    3.1

    -3-

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  • 4

    3.1

    SF6

    SF6

    3.2

    SF6

    3.2 2

    11 0.93kPa SF6

    1

    6 SF6

    2

    0.93kPaSF6

    2

    3.3

    SF6

    17 0.33kPa

    SF6V-35

    SF6 20 6 0.44MPa

    3.3 SF6

    Automatic Halogen Leak Detector TIF5050/TIF Instruments

    -4-

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  • 5

    3.2

    3.3

    -0.1

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 [h]

    [M

    Pa(

    G)]

    0.0000

    0.1000

    0.2000

    0.3000

    0.4000

    0.5000

    0.6000

    "1"

    "2"

    -0.1

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 [h]

    [M

    Pa(

    G)]

    0.00

    0.10

    0.20

    0.30

    0.40

    0.50

    0.60

    -5-

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  • 6

    4.

    SF6

    4.1

    4.1

    SF6 30 COOPER

    INDUSTRIES,INC. 5.5m 3 2 SF6

    2 171,700 m3/ 4.2

    4.1 a,b 30

    c,d 1 502 553 70

    4.2

    SF6

    2.55m 1 2

    29,544 m3/10

    25SF6 2.0 MPa

    SF6 SF6

    SF6 2.0 MPa

    4.3

    SF6 7.155m 2.518m 30.5 m3 3

    100,550kg 45 SF6 SF6

    1/288

    SF6 4.3 1 SF6

    1 33.5t 90

    -6-

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  • 7

    4.4

    1.27m 11.5mm

    16,912 m3/h 150

    V-35 SF6 20

    4.5

    SF6SF6

    SF6

    KINNEY VACUUM Comp. 836 m3/h 2

    1 45 SF6 SF6

    1 1

    4.6

    SF6

    2 NKHD-46 1 195kg

    2 200 10

    1 2 pH

    23 SF6-50

    -70

    4.7

    SF6

    Spencer Turbine Comp. 2 1 595m3/h

    2

    -7-

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  • 8

    4.8

    SF6 3m 10mm

    10

    20 SF6 12

    4.9

    4.4 10 25

    2510

    10

    25

    -8-

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  • 9

    RV

    22

    V

    32

    V206

    V

    205

    V

    212

    V

    211

    V

    31

    SF6

    CSTC

    V

    82

    V79

    25PI

    10TIT

    CLI

    20TI

    19PI

    V

    75

    RV

    21

    V

    30

    V204

    V

    203

    V210

    V

    209

    V

    29

    SF6

    BSTB

    V

    81

    V78

    V87

    24PI

    9TIT

    BLI

    19TI

    18PI

    V

    74

    3.46MPa

    1st.1.63MPa

    30TI

    31PI

    29TI

    2nd.

    No.2

    COM11

    B

    V102

    V103

    BAC11CB

    RV7

    RV

    17

    28TI30

    PI

    27

    TI

    26

    TI

    V

    26V

    24

    V

    19

    21

    PI

    7TIT

    6TIT

    12TI

    10PI

    V

    22

    V

    8629PI

    V69

    V94

    1st.

    RV

    16

    25

    TI

    28

    PI24

    TI

    35.5

    90.5

    73.9

    2nd.

    No.1

    COM11

    A

    V101

    RV

    20

    RV

    6

    RV

    15

    5LPI

    6PI

    V95

    32

    PI

    V10

    7

    15PI

    V35

    V39

    V76

    17

    TIRV

    18 16PI

    V5

    V

    99

    12PI

    VA

    6

    V67

    14TI

    7PI

    V

    66

    23TI

    27PI

    22

    TI

    21

    TI

    V

    28

    V202

    V

    201

    V

    208

    V

    207

    V

    27

    SF6

    A

    STA

    V

    80

    V77

    V

    25

    V45

    V43

    V46

    V44

    V42

    V

    23

    V70

    V

    18

    20

    PI

    23PI

    8TIT

    5TIT

    4TIT

    ALI

    18TI

    17PI

    8TI

    V

    73

    9PI

    V

    21

    V

    85

    PI

    V213

    S11

    S12

    PI

    V

    20

    S1

    V214

    11PI

    V

    96

    V70B

    26PI

    V70A

    V68

    V93

    V

    36

    V

    38

    8PI

    V92

    V37

    V59

    V

    105

    V

    104

    2

    V8

    V4

    V2

    V12

    V11

    V10

    V17

    V16

    V15

    V

    13V

    14

    V54

    V57

    V

    51

    V

    56

    V

    58

    V

    53

    V55

    V-1

    06

    V

    61

    V

    84

    V52

    2

    1

    V65

    V49

    VT

    1

    V

    50V

    64V48

    1

    V9

    V7

    V3

    V34

    V47

    V1

    V

    83

    V

    72

    SF6

    V

    63V

    62

    V

    71

    V6

    RV

    13

    RV5

    57.3

    1st.

    RV

    8

    RV

    14

    RV

    4

    RV3

    RV

    2

    RV

    1

    V

    60

    2nd.

    2.77MPa

    TI 4

    3TI

    PI 4PI 3

    PI

    41A

    PI A1

    PI A2

    RV19

    200PI

    14PI

    16TI

    100PI

    TI

    15

    PI

    13

    ST-1

    ST-8

    ST-

    2ST-3

    V-3

    3

    ST-6

    ST-5

    ST-4

    ST-

    7

    5S

    PI 36

    PI

    PI

    PI

    34

    PI

    33

    22PI

    RV

    23

    35

    3.46MPa

    A

    AC11C

    A

    PS

    V-PS2PS

    V-PS1

    3 4

    4.

    1

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

    -9-

  • 11

    4.2

    4.1

    []

    3

    []

    3 [] 2 [] 1 []

    a3 b3 a2 b2 a1 b1

    c3 d3 c2 d2 c1 d1

    No.1 12.5 76

    28 29 28 28 28 28

    68 69 54 53 49 50

    No.2 12.5 72

    29 29 28 28 28 28

    66 66 53 53 51 51

    a,b c,d

    -10-

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  • 12

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2

    [m]

    [

    t]

    =1.58m

    30.15 t(90% )

    33.5 t

    4.3 SF6

    -11-

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  • 13

    1st INTER COOLER

    2nd INTER COOLER

    No.1

    VACUUM

    PUMP

    FSTI 6

    1

    FS 2

    TI 7

    WV-5

    SV-4

    WV-4

    1st INTER COOLER

    WV-7

    SV-5

    FS

    TI

    114

    3FS

    TI

    10

    WV-6

    PI

    PI

    5FS

    6FS

    9TI

    WV-8

    SV-6

    13TI

    SV-7

    WV-9

    TI 6

    PI

    TI

    TI

    PI 11TI

    FS 1

    2PI

    TI 2

    WATER CHILLER

    SF6

    No.2

    VACUUM

    PUMP

    No.1

    COMP

    No.2

    COMP

    AFTER COOLER A

    AFTER COOLER B

    WV-2

    WV-3

    SV-2

    SV-3

    P6-V1

    P6-V5

    P6-V4

    P6-V6

    PI

    PI

    SV-1

    WV-1

    P9-V1

    P9-V2

    3F

    F SF6

    BF1

    P6-PUMP

    P9-PUMP

    10

    25

    P6-V3

    P6-V2

    P9-V21

    P9-V11

    TITI

    2nd INTER COOLER

    RNB

    SF6

    10

    4.

    4

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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  • 14

    5.

    5.1

    1978 31

    11

    50SF6

    5.2

    1998 3)

    SF6 0.2MPa3MPa

    ASTM-A-516-70(JIS G3118 SVG49)SF6

    20

    5.1 20

    5.15.3

    5.25.4 C 5.2

    5.1 y=50.09-0.0145x

    Vcr 0.0145[mm/y]5.2 Syx 0.0975mm

    5.35.4=0.074 3

    5.3 3

    5.5 31 B31y 50.32mm

    Breq41.9mm 5.6 C trem 580

    A 606 B 1142

    -13-

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  • 15

    5.3

    5.2

    5.1

    5.1

    31

    SF6

    -14-

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  • 16

    5.1

    (1

    /2)

    A

    B

    C

    A

    B

    No.1

    1st

    No.2

    1st

    No.1

    2nd

    No.2

    2nd

    3/4B

    1B

    11/2B

    2B

    3B

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  • 17

    5.1

    (2

    /2)

    A

    B

    C

    A

    B

    No.1

    1st

    No.2

    1s

    No.1

    2nd

    No.2

    2nd

    3/4B

    1B

    11/2B

    2B

    3B

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  • 18

    5.2 A

    i xi [] yi[mm] xi2 xiyi

    {yi-(a+bxi)}2

    1 12 49.4 144 592.8 0.003951

    2 13 49.3 169 640.9 0.00059

    3 14 49.3 196 690.2 0.000131

    4 15 49.3 225 739.5 0.000002

    5 16 49.2 256 787.2 0.007347

    6 17 49.3 289 838.1 0.000737

    7 18 49.2 324 885.6 0.0036

    8 19 49.1 361 932.9 0.021651

    9 20 49.3 400 986.0 0.004318

    10 21 49.3 441 1035.3 0.006173

    11 22 49.3 484 1084.6 0.008359

    12 23 49.3 529 1133.9 0.010876

    13 24 49.2 576 1180.8 0.000294

    14 25 49.2 625 1230.0 0.0009

    15 26 49.1 676 1276.6 0.003265

    16 27 49.1 729 1325.7 0.001961

    17 28 49.1 784 1374.8 0.000988

    18 29 49.1 841 1423.9 0.000345

    19 30 49.1 900 1473.0 0.000033

    20 31 49.1 961 1522.1 0.000051

    xi =430 yi =984.3 xi2=9910 xiyi=21153.9

    Syx=

    {yi-(a+bx)}2=0.075571

    -17-

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  • 19

    5.3 B

    i xi [] yi[mm] xi2 xiyi

    {yi-(a+bxi)}2

    1 12 50.1 144 601.2 0.000459

    2 13 50.1 169 651.3 0.000821

    3 14 50.3 196 704.2 0.055632

    4 15 50.1 225 751.5 0.001856

    5 16 49.9 256 798.4 0.02241

    6 17 50.0 289 850.0 0.001805

    7 18 49.9 324 898.2 0.018296

    8 19 50.0 361 950.0 0.000787

    9 20 50.0 400 1000.0 0.000434

    10 21 50.0 441 1050.0 0.000185

    11 22 50.0 484 1100.0 0.000041

    12 23 50.0 529 1150.0 0.000001

    13 24 50.0 576 1200.0 0.000065

    14 25 50.0 625 1250.0 0.000233

    15 26 49.9 676 1297.4 0.006009

    16 27 49.9 729 1347.3 0.004942

    17 28 50.0 784 1400.0 0.001363

    18 29 50.0 841 1450.0 0.001948

    19 30 50.0 900 1500.0 0.002637

    20 31 50.0 961 1550.0 0.003431

    xi =430 yi =995.5 xi2=9910 xiyi=21499.5

    Syx=

    {yi-(a+bx)}2=0.123353

    -18-

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  • 20

    5.4 C

    i xi [] yi[mm] xi2 xiyi

    {yi-(a+bxi)}2

    1 12 49.8 144 597.6 0.012737

    2 13 50.0 169 650.0 0.010334

    3 14 50.0 196 700.0 0.013494

    4 15 50.0 225 750.0 0.017076

    5 16 49.9 256 798.4 0.002042

    6 17 49.8 289 846.6 0.001624

    7 18 49.7 324 894.6 0.015823

    8 19 49.8 361 946.2 0.000127

    9 20 49.8 400 996.0 0.00001

    10 21 49.7 441 1043.7 0.006766

    11 22 49.7 484 1093.4 0.004589

    12 23 49.7 529 1143.1 0.002834

    13 24 49.7 576 1192.8 0.001499

    14 25 49.7 625 1242.5 0.000586

    15 26 49.7 676 1292.2 0.000094

    16 27 49.7 729 1341.9 0.000023

    17 28 49.7 784 1391.6 0.000373

    18 29 49.7 841 1441.3 0.001145

    19 30 49.7 900 1491.0 0.002337

    20 31 49.7 961 1540.7 0.003951

    xi =430 yi =995.5 xi2=9910 xiyi=21393.6

    Syx=

    {yi-(a+bx)}2=0.097566

    -19-

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  • 21

    y = a + bx

    a = xi xiyi + yi xi2

    N xi2 xi xi

    b = N xiyi yi xiN xi

    2 xi xi

    5.1

    N

    Syx = yi(a + bxi){ } 5.2

    Syx

    Vyx =SyxN 2( )

    5.3

    yx = Vyx 5.4

    B31y = a+ bx31y 3 yx 5.5

    B31y 31 [mm]

    trem =B31y Breq( )Vcr

    5.6

    trem[y]

    Breq[mm]

    Vcr[mm/y] b

    -20-

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  • 22

    5.1 A

    40

    42

    44

    46

    48

    50

    52

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    y

    m

    m

    Breq=41.9mm

    y=49.49-0.0129x-3y=49.49-0.0129x

    3

    -21-

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  • 23

    5.2 B

    40

    42

    44

    46

    48

    50

    52

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    y

    m

    m

    Breq=41.9mm

    y=50.17-0.0072x-3y=50.17-0.0072x

    3

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  • 24

    5.3 C

    40

    42

    44

    46

    48

    50

    52

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    y

    m

    m

    Breq=41.9mm

    y=50.09-0.0145x-3y=50.09-0.0145x

    3

    -23-

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  • 25

    6.

    4.1 4.4

    6.1

    1 1

    5 3

    1.5

    1 1 1 1

    1

    6.1 1999 2 2nd

    2007 No.1No.2

    2009

    6.2

    6.2 6.3 3.2

    1 3.2

    1999 kg/cm2

    MPa 1999 11 MPa

    -24-

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  • 26

    1999 15 2 1999 1

    1 3

    6.3

    1 6.4

    2007 1

    19

    6.4

    6.539251998

    34 46 23 23

    SF6

    6 2 31

    2009 B C 4 A

    6.5

    3B2B1.5B1B3/4B1/2B1/4B

    1 1

    2009 31

    3.46MPa

    100

    6.1

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  • 27

    Swagelok

    1/4

    6.1

    6.6

    200

    21998

    1999

    -26-

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  • 28

    6.1

    1990

    1991

    1992

    1993

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    N

    o.1

    N

    o.2

    1st

    .

    No.1

    1st

    .

    No.2

    2nd.

    No.1

    2nd.

    No.2

    A

    B

    No.1

    No.2

    No.1

    No.2

    N

    o.1

    N

    o.2

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  • 29

    6.2

    1999

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    8

    8

    TI-

    8

    TI-

    12

    TI-

    17

    TI-

    18

    TI-

    19

    TI-

    20

    TI-

    22

    TI-

    23

    TI-

    24

    TI-

    25

    TI-

    27

    TI-

    28

    TI-

    29

    TI-

    30

    TIT

    -4

    TIT

    -5

    TIT

    -6

    TIT

    -7

    TIT

    -8

    TIT

    -9

    TIT

    -10

    TI-

    3TI-

    4

    TI-

    14

    TI-

    21

    TI-

    26

    TIT

    -1

    TIT

    -2

    TIT

    -3

    TI-

    1TI-

    2TI-

    5

    TI-

    6TI-

    7TI-

    9TI-

    10

    TI-

    11

    TI-

    13

    TI-

    15

    TI-

    16

    2005

    2006

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2000

    2004

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  • 30

    6.3

    2007

    2008

    2009

    11

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    8

    8

    PI-

    7

    PI-

    9

    PI-

    10

    P

    I-15

    P

    I-16

    P

    I-17

    P

    I-18

    P

    I-19

    P

    I-20

    P

    I-21

    P

    I-23

    P

    I-24

    P

    I-25

    P

    I-27

    P

    I-28

    P

    I-30

    P

    I-31

    P

    I-32

    PI-

    S11

    PI-

    3

    P

    I-4

    PI-

    5

    P

    I-6

    P

    I-8

    PI-

    11

    PI-

    12

    PI-

    22

    PI-

    26

    PI-

    29

    PI-

    33

    P

    I-34

    P

    I-35

    PI-

    36

    PI-

    A1

    PI-

    A2

    PI-

    S12

    PI-

    41A

    P

    I-1

    P

    I-2

    P

    I-13

    PI-

    14

    PI-

    100

    PI-

    200

    2004

    2005

    2006

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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  • 31

    6.4

    1999

    2008

    2009

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    2

    8

    11

    8

    8

    RV

    -6

    RV

    -7

    RV

    -13

    RV

    -14

    RV

    -15

    RV

    -16

    RV

    -17

    RV

    -18

    RV

    -20

    RV

    -21

    RV

    -22

    RV

    -1

    RV

    -2

    RV

    -3

    RV

    -4

    RV

    -5

    RV

    -8

    R

    V-19

    R

    V-23

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2000

    2007

    2004

    2005

    2006

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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  • 32

    6.5 1/2

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    V-5

    V-6

    V-20

    V-21

    V-22

    V-23

    V-24

    V-25

    V-26

    V-27

    V-28

    V-29

    V-30

    V-31

    V-32

    V-35

    V-42

    V-43

    V-44

    V-45

    V-46

    V-66

    V-73

    V-74

    V-75

    V-76

    V-77

    V-78

    V-79

    V-80

    V-81

    V-82

    V-85

    V-86

    V-87

    V-99

    V-101

    V-102

    V-103

    V-107

    V-201

    V-202

    V-203

    V-204

    V-205

    V-206

    V-207

    V-208

    V-209

    V-210

    V-211

    V-212

    V-213

    S-1

    -31-

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  • 33

    6.5 2/2

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    V-1

    V-2

    V-3

    V-4

    V-7

    V-8

    V-9

    V-10

    V-11

    V-12

    V-13

    V-14

    V-15

    V-16

    V-17

    V-18

    V-19

    V-34

    V-36

    V-37

    V-38

    V-47

    V-48

    V-49

    V-50

    V-51

    V-52

    V-53

    V-54

    V-55

    V-56

    V-57

    V-58

    V-59

    V-60

    V-61

    V-62

    V-63

    V-64

    V-65

    V-67

    V-68

    V-69

    V-70

    V-71

    V-72

    V-83

    V-84

    V-92

    V-93

    V-94

    V-95

    V-96

    V-104

    V-105

    V-106

    V-214

    V-70A

    V-70B

    VT-1

    -32-

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  • 34

    7. SF6

    7.1 SF6

    SF6 0.44MPa(G) 45 SF6

    SF6

    7.1 2002 2009 8 152004

    200220032006

    SF6 0.44MPa(G) 0.5MPa(G)

    SF6 50kg/1 0.2MPa A

    1 3 6

    7.2

    SF6 6.52 kg/m3

    30cm SF6

    44.5 SF6

    7.1 SF6

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    [t]

    -33-

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  • 35

    8. SF6

    8.1

    SF6

    23,900 CO2 1 100 3,200

    11

    (HFC)(PFC)

    (SF6)CO2

    tCO2t 8.1

    8.1SF6

    SF6

    8.2 SF6

    SF6 8.1

    13 SF6

    SF6

    0.93kPa

    80 kg

    2008 5

    400 kg SF6

    1

    50 kg

    kg

    kg

    2002 1600 2250 5

    2003 1800 2300 3

    2004 1500 700 5

    2005 3200 1300 7

    2006 2200 3700 4

    2007 1100 1350 2

    2008 1400 2150 5

    2009 4000 2150 7

    8.1 SF6

    -34-

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  • 36

    8.3 SF6

    SF61

    SF6 2002 2006

    8.1 2

    1

    1510 kg

    1300 kg

    8.4 SF6

    SF6

    8.3

    SF6 3.2 2006

    8.18.3

    SF6 8.2

    18

    8.2 2007 2009

    2007

    8.1 2010

    4 V-9

    SF6

    1 kg

    8.2

    SF6 kg

    SF6

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  • 37

    -1400

    -1200

    -1000

    -800

    -600

    -400

    -200

    0

    200

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

    kg

    20022006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    8.2

    -1400

    -1200

    -1000

    -800

    -600

    -400

    -200

    0

    200

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

    kg

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    8.1

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  • 38

    8.1 SF6

    8.2

    8.3

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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    -37-

  • 39

    8.2

    13

    3

    2

    CPO

    1

    CPO

    1

    O

    No.

    1

    SF6

    2

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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    -38-

  • 40

    9.

    31

    SF6

    SF6

    SF6

    SF6

    1) 5 ,p.1175.1998

    2) SF6 ,JAERI-M84-004,1984.

    3)

    ,1997.

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

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    -39-

  • 41

    CO2

    1 CO2 1

    2 CH4 21

    3 N2O 310

    4

    HF

    C

    HFC-23 11,700

    HFC-32 650

    HFC-41 150

    11122- HFC-125 2,800

    1122- HFC-134 1,000

    1112- HFC-134a 1,300

    112- HFC-143 300

    111- HFC-143a 3,800

    11- HFC-152a 140

    1112333- HFC-227ea 2,900

    111333- HFC-236fa 6,300

    11223- HFC-245ca 560

    1112344555- HFC-43-10mee 1,300

    5

    PF

    C

    PFC-14 6,500

    PFC-116 9,200

    PFC-218 7,000

    PFC-31-10 7,000

    PFC-c318 8,700

    PFC-41-12 7,500

    PFC-51-14 7,400

    6 SF6 23,900

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    1st. 2nd.

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

    -41-

  • 43

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

    JAEA-Technology 2010-023

    -42-

  • SSII

    1024 10-1 d1021 10-2 c1018 10-3 m1015 10-6 1012 10-9 n109 10-12 p106 10-15 f103 10-18 a102 10-21 z101 da 10-24 y

    SI

    SI min 1 min=60s h 1h =60 min=3600 s d 1 d=24 h=86 400 s 1=(/180) rad 1=(1/60)=(/10800) rad 1=(1/60)=(/648000) rad

    ha 1ha=1hm2=104m2

    Ll 1L=11=1dm3=103cm3=10-3m3

    t 1t=103 kg

    SISI

    SI eV 1eV=1.602 176 53(14)10-19J Da 1Da=1.660 538 86(28)10-27kg u 1u=1 Da ua 1ua=1.495 978 706 91(6)1011m

    SISISI

    SI Ci 1 Ci=3.71010Bq R 1 R = 2.5810-4C/kg rad 1 rad=1cGy=10-2Gy rem 1 rem=1 cSv=10-2Sv 1=1 nT=10-9T 1=1 fm=10-15m 1 = 200 mg = 210-4kg Torr 1 Torr = (101 325/760) Pa atm 1 atm = 101 325 Pa

    1cal=4.1858J154.1868JIT4.184J

    1 =1m=10-6m

    10SI

    cal

    (a)SI(b)radsr(c)sr(d)(e)

    (f)activity referred to a radionuclideradioactivity(g)PV,2002,70,205CIPM2CI-2002

    cCGSSI

    aamount concentrationsubstance concentrationb

    SI

    Pa s m-1 kg s-1

    N m m2 kg s-2

    N/m kg s-2 rad/s m m-1 s-1=s-1 rad/s2 m m-1 s-2=s-2 , W/m2 kg s-3

    , J/K m2 kg s-2 K-1 J/(kg K) m2 s-2 K-1 J/kg m2 s-2 W/(m K) m kg s-3 K-1

    J/m3 m-1 kg s-2

    V/m m kg s-3 A-1 C/m3 m-3 sA C/m2 m-2 sA C/m2 m-2 sA F/m m-3 kg-1 s4 A2

    H/m m kg s-2 A-2

    J/mol m2 kg s-2 mol-1

    , J/(mol K) m2 kg s-2 K-1 mol-1

    C/kg kg-1 sA Gy/s m2 s-3 W/sr m4 m-2 kg s-3=m2 kg s-3

    W/(m2 sr) m2 m-2 kg s-3=kg s-3 kat/m3 m-3 s-1 mol

    SI

    SI

    m2 m3 m/s m/s2 m-1 kg/m3

    kg/m2

    m3/kg A/m2 A/m (a) mol/m3 kg/m3 cd/m2 (b) 1 (b) 1

    SI

    SI

    SI

    SI

    () rad 1 m/m () sr(c) 1 m2/m2 Hz s-1 N m kg s-2 , Pa N/m2 m-1 kg s-2 , , J N m m2 kg s-2 W J/s m2 kg s-3 , C s A , V W/A m2 kg s-3 A-1 F C/V m-2 kg-1 s4 A2 V/A m2 kg s-3 A-2 S A/V m-2 kg-1 s3 A2 Wb Vs m2 kg s-2 A-1 T Wb/m2 kg s-2 A-1 H Wb/A m2 kg s-2 A-2 () K lm cd sr(c) cd lx lm/m2 m-2 cd Bq s-1, ,

    Gy J/kg m2 s-2

    , , ,

    Sv J/kg m2 s-2

    kat s-1 mol

    SISI

    SI bar bar=0.1MPa=100kPa=105Pa mmHg 1mmHg=133.322Pa =0.1nm=100pm=10-10m M=1852m b b=100fm2=(10-12cm)2=10-28m2

    kn kn=(1852/3600)m/s Np

    dB

    SISI

    SI

    m kg s A K mol cd

    SI

    SI

    SI erg 1 erg=10-7 J dyn 1 dyn=10-5N P 1 P=1 dyn s cm-2=0.1Pa s St 1 St =1cm2 s-1=10-4m2 s-1

    sb 1 sb =1cd cm-2=104cd m-2

    ph 1 ph=1cd sr cm-2 104lx Gal 1 Gal =1cm s-2=10-2ms-2

    Mx 1 Mx = 1G cm2=10-8Wb G 1 G =1Mx cm-2 =10-4T Oe 1 Oe (103/4)A m-1

    CGS

    82006