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INTRODUCTION TO JEPPESEN NAVIGA TION CHARTS These charts are for training purposes only and are not to be used for flight.

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INTRODUCTION TO

JEPPESENNAVIGATION CHARTS

These charts are for training purposes

only and are not to be used for flight.

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The chart training guide is published as a service for pilots train-ing with Jeppesen charts. It is intended for reference only andincludes some of the most commonly used symbology. Not allsymbology is included with this guide. This guide is revised reg-ularly; however, some variance may exist between this guideand current chart services. These may be the result of one ormore of the following: chart issuance dates, timely application of

changes received from governing agencies and / or the methodof representing such information. Some of the charts used inthis guide are based on a fictitious location. The chart trainingguide has been designed as supplementary training material andis not intended for navigation.

For complete product information regarding coverages, services,and pricing, please contact:

www.jeppesen.com

Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc. Jeppesen GmbH

55 Inverness Drive East Frankfurter Str. 233

Englewood, CO 80112-5498 63263 Neu-Isenburg

USA Germany

Tel: 303.799.9090 Neu-Isenburg Tel:+49 6102 5070

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC., 1998, 2005. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

I

Below is a complete list of the standard contents of Airway Manual. Limited or special coverages may not con-tain all items, but that material which is included should be arranged in the order outlined.

CHART GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

ENROUTE CHART LEGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Jeppesen IFR Enroute Plotter Instructions - Enroute and Area Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Navaid Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Navaid Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Navaid / Communication Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Restricted Airspace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Restricted Airspace Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Airway and Route Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Airway Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Low & High/Low Altitude Enroute Chart Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

United States Low Altitude Enroute & Area Chart Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58High Altitude Enroute Chart Legend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Australia Enroute & Area Chart Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Airway Navaid/Reporting Point By-Pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

ICAO Airspace Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Border Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

U.S. GPS MEAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

U.S. Series 800 and 900 Designated RNAV Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Australia and Canada T RNAV Routes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

ENROUTE CHART LEGEND HIGH ALTITUDE CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

ENROUTE CHART LEGEND AREA CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Generalized Terrain Contours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

CLASS B AIRSPACE CHART LEGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

SID/DP & STAR LEGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Graphic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Route Portrayal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Procedure Applicable to USA FAA only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

APPROACH CHART LEGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101Heading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Approach Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Profile View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Landing Minimums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Airport Chart Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Airport Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Additional Runway Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Lighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Takeoff and Alternate Minimums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

VOR DME RNAV APPROACH CHART LEGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

CVFPs (USA Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

APPROACH CHART LEGEND GPS APPROACH CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTIONII

APPROACH CHART LEGEND NEW FORMAT (BRIEFING STRIP CONCEPT) . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 1

Approach Chart Heading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 2

Approach Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 3

Profile View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 3

Conversion Tables, Lighting Box and Missed Approach Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 4

Vertical Navigation (VNAV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 5

Airport Chart Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 6

SID/DP & STAR CHART LEGEND NEW FORMAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NEW FORMAT 7

UNITED STATES AIRPORT SIGN SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Mandatory Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Location Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Direction Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Destination Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Information Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Runway Distance Remaining Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

UNITED STATES INSTRUMENT RUNWAY MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156Enhanced Taxiway Centerline and Runway Holding Position Markings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

ICAO RECOMMENDED AIRPORT SIGNS, RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Mandatory Instruction Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Information Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Mandatory Instruction Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Runway & Intermediate Holding Position Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

Stop Bars/Runway Guard Lights/Runway Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Threshold/Runway Designation/Runway Centerline Markings/High Speed Taxiway

Turn-off Indicator Lights (HSTIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Runway Touchdown Zone/Runway Aiming Point Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Runway Side Stripe Markings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169Displaced Threshold Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Closed Runways, Taxiways or Parts Thereof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Non Load-Bearing Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Pre-Threshold Area Marking (Chevron Marking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

APPROACH CHART LEGEND JAR-OPS 1 AERODROME MINIMUMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Take-off Minimums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Format for Charts in JAA Member States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Straight-in Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Circling Minimums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

CAT II Minimums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

JAA Aerodrome Minimums Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

NAV2001, AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION NAVDATA DATABASE AND CHARTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Effective Dates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Navaids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Airways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

Arrivals and Departures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Approach Procedure (Titles and Omitted Procedures) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Approach Procedures (Plan View) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Approach Procedures (Profile) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Approach Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Glossary/Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

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27 JUL 07 INTRODUCTION 1

CHART GLOSSARY

This glossary provides definitions that are unique and abbreviations commonly used in Jeppesen pub-lications. No attempt has been made to list all the terms of basic aeronautical nomenclature.

Because of the international nature of flying, terms used by the FAA (USA) are included when they differfrom International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) definitions. An arrow or vertical bar, that is omittedon all new pages, tables of contents, tabular listings and graphics, indicates changes.

DEFINITIONS

ACCELERATE STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE(ASDA) The length of the takeoff run availableplus the length of the stopway, if provided.

ADEQUATE VIS REF (Adequate Visual Refer-ence) Runway markings or runway lighting thatprovides the pilot with adequate visual reference tocontinuously identify the takeoff surface and maintaindirectional control throughout the takeoff run.

ADVISORY ROUTE (ADR) A designated routealong which air traffic advisory service is available.

NOTE: Air traffic control service provides a muchmore complete service than air traffic advisory ser-vice; advisory areas and routes are therefore not

established within controlled airspace, but air trafficadvisory service may be provided below and abovecontrol areas.

ADVISORY SERVICE Advice and information pro-vided by a facility to assist pilots in the safe conductof flight and aircraft movement.

AERODROME FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE(AFIS) A directed traffic information and opera-tional information service provided within an aero-drome flight information zone, to all radio equippedaircraft, to assist in the safe and efficient conduct offlight.

AERODROME REFERENCE CODE A simplemethod for interrelating the numerous specificationsconcerning the characteristics of aerodromes so asto provide a series of aerodromes facilities that aresuitable for the aeroplanes that are intended to oper-ate at the aerodrome. The aerodrome reference code

code number and letter, which are selected foraerodrome planning purposes, have the meaningsassigned to them as indicated in the table below:

Code Element 1 Code Element 2

CodeNumber

AeroplaneReference Field

LengthCodeLetter Wing Span Outer Main Gear Wheel Span a)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

1 Less than 800m A Up to but not including 15m Up to but not including 4.5m

2 800m up to but notincluding 1200m

B 15m up to but not including 24m 4.5m up to but not including 6m

3 1200m up to but notincluding 1800m

C 24m up to but not including 36m 6m up to but not including 9m

4 1800m and over D 36m up to but not including 52m 9m up to but not including 14m

E 52m up to but not including 65m 9m up to but not including 14m

F 65m up to but not including 80m 14m up to but not including 16ma) Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels.

NOTE: Guidance on planning for aeroplanes withwing spans greater than 80m is given in the ICAODoc. 9157 Aerodrome Design Manual, Parts 1 and2.

AERODROME TRAFFIC FREQUENCY (ATF) Afrequency designated at an uncontrolled airport. An

ATF is used to ensure all radio equipped aircraft oper-ating within the area, normally within a 5 NM radius ofthe airport, are listening on a common frequency. TheATF is normally the ground station frequency. Wherea ground station does not exist, a common frequencyis designated.Radio call sign is that of the ground sta-tion, or where no ground station exists, a broadcast ismade with the call sign Traffic Advisory. Jeppesencharts list the frequency and the area of use whenother than the standard 5 NM.

AERODROME TRAFFIC ZONE (ATZ) Anairspace of detailed dimensions established aroundan aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic.

AERONAUTICAL RADIO, INCORPORATED(ARINC) An international radio network pro-viding air-to-ground communications available on asubscription (fee) basis.

AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY (USATERPS) A grouping of aircraft based on a speedof Vref, if specified, or if Vref is not specified, 1.3 VS0at the maximum certificated landing weight. Vref , VS0, and the maximum certificated landing weight arethose values as established for the aircraft by the

certification authority of the country of registry. Anaircraft shall fit in only one category. If it is necessaryto maneuver at speeds in excess of the upper limit ofa speed range for a category, the minimums for thenext higher category should be used. For example,an aircraft which falls in Category A, but is circlingto land at a speed in excess of 91 knots, should usethe approach Category B minimums when circling toland. The categories are as follows:

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Category A Speed less than 91 knots.

Category B Speed 91 knots or more but lessthan 121 knots.

Category C Speed 121 knots or more but lessthan 141 knots.

Category D Speed 141 knots or more but lessthan 166 knots.

Category E Speed 166 knots or more.

NOTE: Category E includes only certain MilitaryAircraft and is not included on Jeppesen ApproachCharts.

AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY (ICAO) Thefollowing ICAO table indicates the specified range ofhandling speeds (IAS in Knots) for each category ofaircraft to perform the maneuvers specified. Thesespeed ranges have been assumed for use in calcu-lating airspace and obstacle clearance for each pro-cedure.

Max speeds for MissedApproach

AircraftCategory Vat

Range ofSpeeds for Initial

Approach

Range of FinalApproach

Speeds

Max speedsfor Visual

Maneuvering(Circling) Intermediate Fi nal

A

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ALTITUDE (ICAO) The vertical distance of a level,a point, or an object considered as a point, measuredfrom Mean Sea Level (MSL).

ALTITUDE (USA) The height of a level, point orobject measured in feet Above Ground Level (AGL)or from Mean Sea Level (MSL).

a. AGL Altitude Altitude expressed in feet mea-sured above ground level (QFE).

b. MSL Altitude Altitude expressed in feet mea-sured from mean sea level (QNH).

c. Indicated Altitude The Altitude as shown byan altimeter. On a pressure barometric altimeterit is altitude as shown uncorrected for instru-ment error and uncompensated for variationfrom standard atmospheric conditions.

APPROACH PROCEDURE WITH VERTICAL GUID-ANCE (APV) An instrument approach based ona navigation system that is not required to meet theprecision approach standards of ICAO Annex 10 but

provides course and glide path deviation information(sometimes referred to as semi-precision). Baro-VNAV, LDA with glide path, LNAV/VNAV and LPV areexamples of APV approaches.

AREA NAVIGATION/RNAV A method of naviga-tion that permits aircraft operations on any desiredcourse within the coverage of station referenced nav-igation signals or within the limits of self containedsystem capability.

ARRIVAL ROUTES (ICAO) Routes on an instru-ment approach procedure by which aircraft may pro-ceed from the enroute phase of flight to the initialapproach fix.

ATIS ASOS INTERFACE A switch that allowsASOS weather observations to be appended tothe ATIS broadcast, making weather informationavailable on the same (ATIS) frequency H24. Whenthe tower is open, ATIS information and the hourlyweather will be broadcast. When the tower is closed,one-minute weather information updates are broad-cast, and the controller can add overnight ATISinformation to the ASOS automated voice weathermessage.

ATS ROUTE See AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES(ATS) ROUTE

AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE

(ADS) A surveillance technique, in which air-craft automatically provide, via a data link, dataderived from on-board navigation and position fixingsystems, including aircraft identification, four-dimen-sional position and additional data as appropriate.

AUTOMATED SURFACE OBSERVATION SYSTEM(ASOS) The Automated Surface ObservationSystem, in the United States, is a surface weatherobserving system implemented by the NationalWeather Service, the Federal Aviation Administra-tion and the Department of Defense. It is designedto support aviation operations and weather fore-cast activities. The ASOS provides continuousminute-by-minute observations and performs thebasic observing functions necessary to generate anaviation routine weather report (METAR) and other

aviation weather information. ASOS information maybe transmitted over a discrete VHF radio frequencyor the voice portion of a local navaid.

AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEM(AWOS) An automated weather reporting systemwhich transmits local real-time weather data directlyto the pilot.

AWOS-A Only reports altimeter setting.

AWOS-1 Usually reports altimeter setting, winddata, temperature, dewpoint and densityaltitude.

AWOS-2 Reports same as AWOS-1 plus visibility.

AWOS-3 Reports the same as AWOS-2 pluscloud/ceiling data.

AUTOMATED WEATHER SENSOR SYSTEM

(AWSS) A surface weather observing systemsimilar to AWOS and ASOS, providing all the weatherinformation furnished by ASOS systems. The AWSS

sensor suite automatically collects, measures, pro-cesses, and broadcasts surface weather data includ-ing altimeter setting, temperature and dew point,cloud height and coverage, visibility, present weather(rain, drizzle, snow), rain accumulation, freezing rain,thunderstorms, fog, mist, haze, freezing fog, as wellas wind speed, direction, and gusts.

BRAKING ACTION (GOOD, FAIR, POOR, NIL) Areport of conditions on the airport movement areaproviding a pilot with a degree/quality of braking thatmight be expected. Braking action is reported interms of good, fair, poor, or nil.

CARDINAL ALTITUDES OR FLIGHT LEV-

E LS Odd or Even thousand-foot altitudesor flight levels; e.g., 5000, 6000, 7000, FL60, FL250,FL260, FL270.

CATCH POINT A fix/waypoint that serves as atransition point from the high altitude waypoint nav-igation structure to the low altitude structure or anarrival procedure (STAR).

CEILING (ICAO) The height above the ground orwater of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below6000 meters(20,000 feet) covering more than half thesky.

CEILING (USA) The height above the earths sur-face of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phe-

nomena that is reported as broken, overcast, orobscuration, and not classified as thin, or partial.

CHART CHANGE NOTICES Jeppesen ChartChange Notices include significant informationchanges affecting Enroute, Area, and Terminalcharts. Entries are published until the temporarycondition no longer exists, or until the permanentchange appears on revised charts. Enroute chartnumbers / panel numbers / letters and area chartidentifiers are included for each entry in the enrouteportion of the Chart Change Notices. To avoidduplication of information in combined Enroute andTerminal Chart Change Notices , navaid conditions,

except for ILS components, are listed only in theEnroute portion of the Chart Change Notices . Alltimes are local unless otherwise indicated. Arrows

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indicate new or revised information. Chart ChangeNotices are only an abbreviatedservice. Always askfor pertinent NOTAMs pr ior to flight.

COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY(CTAF) (USA) A frequency designed for the pur-pose of carrying out airport advisory practices whileoperating to or from an uncontrolled airport. TheCTAF may be a UNICOM, Multicom, FSS, or towerfrequency.

COMMUNITY AERODROME RADIO STATION(CARS) An aerodrome radio that providesweather, field conditions, accepts flight plans andposition reports.

COMPULSORY REPORTING POINTS Reportingpoints which must be reported to ATC. They aredesignated on aeronautical charts by solid trianglesor filed in a flight plan as fixes selected to definedirect routes. These points are geographical loca-tions which are defined by navigation aids/fixes.Pilots should discontinue position reporting over

compulsory reporting points when informed by ATCthat their aircraft is in radar contact.

CONDITIONAL ROUTES (CDR) (Europe) Category 1,2,3.

Category 1: Permanently plannable CDR duringdesignated times.

Category 2: Plannable only during timesdesignated in the ConditionalRoute Availability Message (CRAM)published at 1500Z for the 24 hourperiod starting at 0600Z the next day.

Category 3: Not plannable. Usable only when

directed by ATC.

CONTROL AREA (ICAO) A controlled airspaceextending upwards from a specified limit above theearth.

CONTROLLED AIRSPACE An airspace ofdefined dimensions within which air traffic controlservice is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flightsin accordance with the airspace classification.

NOTE: Controlled airspace is a generic term whichcovers ATS airspace Classes A, B, C, D, andE.

CONTROL ZONE (ICAO) A controlled airspace

extending upwards from the surface of the earth toa specified upper limit.

COURSE

a. The intended direction of flight in the horizontalplane measured in degrees from north.

b. The ILS localizer signal pattern usually specifiedas front course or back course.

c. The intended track along a straight, curved, orsegmented MLS path.

CRITICAL HEIGHT Lowest height in relation to anaerodrome specified level below which an approachprocedure cannot be continued in a safe manner

solely by the aid of instruments.

DECISION ALTITUDE/HEIGHT (DA/H) (ICAO) Aspecified altitude or height (A/H) in the precisionapproach at which a missed approach must be initi-ated if the required visual reference to continue theapproach has not been established.

NOTE:

a. Decision altitude (DA) is referenced to mean sealevel (MSL) and decision height (DH) is refer-enced to the threshold elevation.

b. The required visual reference means that sec-tion of the visual aids or of the approach areawhich should have been in view for sufficienttime for the pilot to have made an assessment ofthe aircraft position and rate of change of posi-tion, in relation to the desired flight path.

DECISION HEIGHT (DH) (USA) With respect tothe operation of aircraft, means the height at which adecision must be made, during an ILS or PAR instru-ment approach, to either continue the approach or toexecute a missed approach.

NOTE: Jeppesen approach charts use the abbrevia-tion DA(H). The decision altitude DA is referencedto mean sea level (MSL) and the parenthetical deci-sion height (DH) is referenced to the TDZE or thresh-old elevation. A DA(H) of 1440 ft (200 ft is a DecisionAltitude of 1440 ft and a Decision Height of 200 ft.

DEPARTURE CLEARANCE VIA DATA LINK(DCL) Provides assistance for requesting anddelivering information and clearance, with the objec-tive of reducing aircrew and controller workload. TheDCL service shall be initiated by the aircrew at asuitable time between Ti and Tt where:

Ti the earliest time at which a DCL service canbe initiated;

Tt the latest time after which an aircrew, havingnot completed the DCL service, is still ableto receive by voice procedures and in duetime, the vocal departure clearance.

The third time parameter of the DCL acknowledgeprocedure is T1 where:

T1 timer implemented in the ATS ground systembetween the sending by ATS ground systemof the DCL clearance message and thereception by it of the read-back of DCL

clearance message.

DIRECT ROUTE 1179765976000 A requested route pub-lished on a Jeppesen Enroute or Area chart to assistpilots who have previous knowledge of acceptanceof these routes by ATC. Use of a Direct route mayrequire prior ATC approval and may not provide ATCor Advisory services, or be acceptable in flight plans.

DISPLACED THRESHOLD A threshold that islocated at a point on the runway other than thedesignated beginning of the runway.

ENROUTE FLIGHT ADVISORY SERVICE (FLIGHTWATCH) A service specifically designed to pro-

vide, upon pilot request, timely weather informationpertinent to the type of flight, intended route of flight,and altitude. The FSSs providing this service are indi-cated on Jeppesen Enroute and Area charts.

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FAA AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS SPECIFICA-TIONS Document issued to users operating underFederal Aviation Administration Regulations (FAR)Parts 121, 125, 127, 129, and 135. Operations Spec-ifications are established and formalized by FARs.The primary purpose of FAA Air Carrier OperationsSpecifications is to provide a legally enforceable

means of prescribing an authorization, limitationand/or procedures for a specific operator. OperationsSpecifications are subject to expeditious changes.These changes are usually too time critical to adoptthrough the regulatory process.

FEEDER FIX The fix depicted on instrumentapproach procedure charts which establishes thestarting point of the feeder route.

FEEDER ROUTE Routes depicted on instrumentapproach procedure charts to designate routes foraircraft to proceed from the enroute structure to theinitial approach fix (IAF).

FINAL APPROACH COURSE A published MLS

course, a straight line extension of a localizer, a finalapproach radial/bearing, or a runway centerline allwithout regard to distance.

FINAL APPROACH (ICAO) That part of an instru-ment approach procedure which commences at thespecified final approach fix or point, or where such afix or point is not specified,

a. at the end of the last procedure turn, base turnor inbound turn of a racetrack procedure, if spec-ified; or

b. at the point of interception of the last track spec-ified in the approach procedure; and ends at apoint in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which:

1. a landing can be made; or

2. a missed approach procedure is initiated.

FINAL APPROACH FIX (FAF) The fix fromwhich the final approach (IFR) to an airport is exe-cuted and which identifies the beginning of the finalapproach segment. It is designated in the profileview of Jeppesen Terminal charts by the MalteseCross symbol for non-precision approaches andby the glide slope/path intercept point on precisionapproaches. The glide slope/path symbol starts atthe FAF. When ATC directs a lower-than-publishedGlide Slope/Path Intercept Altitude, it is the resultant

actual point of the glide slope/path intercept.FINAL APPROACH FIX (FAF) (AUSTRALIA) Aspecified point on a non-precision approach whichidentifies the commencement of the final segment.The FAF is designated in the profile view of JeppesenTerminal charts by the Maltese Cross symbol.

FINAL APPROACH IFR (USA) The flight pathof an aircraft which is inbound to an airport on a finalinstrument approach course, beginning at the finalapproach fix or point and extending to the airport orthe point where a circle-to-land maneuver or a missedapproach is executed.

FINAL APPROACH POINT (FAP) (USA) The

point, applicable only to a non-precision approachwith no depicted FAF (such as an on-airport VOR),where the aircraft is established inbound on the finalapproach course from the procedure turn and where

the final approach descent may be commenced. TheFAP serves as the FAF and identifies the beginningof the final approach segment.

FINA L AP PROACH F IX OR POINT (FAP)(ICAO) That fix or point of an instrument approachprocedure where the final approach segment com-mences.

FINAL APPROACH POINT (FAP) (AUS-TRALIA) A specified point on the glide path of aprecision instrument approach which identifies thecommencement of the final segment.

NOTE: The FAP is co-incident with the FAF of a local-

izer-based non-precision approach.

FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR, UIR) Anairspace of defined dimensions within which FlightInformation Service and Alerting Service are pro-vided.

a. Flight Information Service (FIS) A serviceprovided for the purpose of giving advice and

information useful for the safe and efficient con-duct of flights.

b. Alerting Service A service provided to notifyappropriate organizations regarding aircraft inneed of search and rescue aid, and assist suchorganizations as required.

FLIGHT WATCH (USA) A shortened term for usein air-ground contacts to identify the flight service sta-tion providing Enroute Flight Advisory Service; e.g.,Oakland Flight Watch.

FLY-BY WAYPOINT A fly-by waypoint requires theuse of turn anticipation to avoid overshoot of the nextflight segment.

FLY-OVER WAYPOINT A fly-over waypoint pre-cludes any turn until the waypoint is overflown and isfollowed by an intercept maneuver of the next flightsegment.

GLIDE PATH (ICAO) A descent profile determinedfor vertical guidance during a final approach.

GLIDE SLOPE (GS) (USA) Provides vertical guid-ance for aircraft during approach and landing. Theglide slope/glidepath is based on the following:

a. Electronic components emitting signalswhich provide vertical guidance by referenceto airborne instruments during instrumentapproaches such a s ILS/MLS; or

b. Visual ground aids, such as VASI, which providevertical guidance for a VFR approach or for thevisual portion of an instrument approach andlanding.

c. PAR, used by ATC to inform an aircraft making aPAR approach of its vertical position (elevation)relative to the descent profile.

GLIDE SLOPE / GLIDE PATH INTERCEPT ALTI-TUDE The minimum altitude to intercept the glideslope/path on a precision approach. The intersec-tion of the published intercept altitude with the glideslope/path, designated on Jeppesen Terminal chartsby the start of the glide slope/path symbol, is the pre-cision FAF; however, when ATC directs a lower alti-tude, the resultant lower intercept position is then theFAF.

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GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS

(GNSS) An umbrella term adopted by theInternational Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) toencompass any independent satellite navigationsystem used by a pilot to perform onboard positiondeterminations from the satellite data.

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) A

space-based radio positioning, navigation, andtime-transfer system. The system provides highlyaccurate position and velocity information, andprecise time, on a continuous global basis, to anunlimited number of properly equipped users. Thesystem is unaffected by weather, and provides aworldwide common grid reference system. The GPSconcept is predicated upon accurate and continuousknowledge of the spatial position of each satellitein the system with respect to time and distancefrom a transmitting satellite to the user. The GPSreceiver automatically selects appropriate signalsfrom the satellites in view and translates these into

a three-dimensional position, velocity, and time. Sys-tem accuracy for civil users is normally 100 metershorizontally.

GRID MINIMUM OFFROUTE ALTITUDE (GridMORA) An altitude derived by Jeppesen or pro-vided by State Authorities. The Grid MORA altitudeprovides terrain and man-made structure clearancewithin the section outlined by latitude and longitudelines. MORA does not provide for navaid signal cov-erage or communication coverage.

a. Grid MORA values derived by Jeppesen clearall terrain and man-made structures by 1000 feetin areas where the highest elevations are 5000

feet MSL or lower. MORA values clear all ter-rain and man-made structures by 2000 feet inareas where the highest elevations are 5001 feetMSL or higher. When a Grid MORA is shown asUnsurveyed it is due to incomplete or insuffi-cient information. Grid MORA values followed bya +/- denote doubtful accuracy, but are believedto provide sufficient reference point clearance.

b. Grid MORA (State) altitude supplied by the StateAuthority provides 2000 feet clearance in moun-tainous areas and 1000 feet in non-mountainousareas.

GROUND COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (GCO)(USA) An unstaffed, remotely controlled ground

/ ground communications facility. Pilots at uncon-trolled airports may contact ATC and FSS via VHFto a telephone connection to obtain an instrumentclearance or close a VFR or IFR flight plan. They mayalso get an updated weather briefing prior to takeoff.Pilots will use four key clicks on the VHF radio tocontact the appropriate ATC facility, or six key clicksto contact FSS. The GCO system is intended to beused only on the ground.

HEIGHT ABOVE AIRPORT (HAA) The height ofthe Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) above the pub-lished airport elevation. This is published in conjunc-tion with circling minimums.

HEIGHT ABOVE TOUCHDOWN (HAT) The heightof the Decision Height or Minimum Descent Altitudeabove the highest runway elevation in the touchdown

zone of the runway. HAT is published on instrumentapproach charts in conjunction with all straight-in min-imums.

HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS Highradio frequencies (HF) between 3 and 30 MHz usedfor air-to-ground voice communication in overseasoperations.

HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY / TURNOFF (HST) A longradius taxiway designed and provided with lighting ormarking to define the path of an aircraft, traveling athigh speed (up to 60 knots), from the runway centerto a point on the center of a taxiway. Also referred toas long radius exit or turnoff taxiway. The high speedtaxiway is designed to expedite aircraft turning offthe runway after landing, thus reducing runway occu-pancy time.

HOLD / HOLDING PROCEDURE A prede-termined maneuver which keeps aircraft within aspecified airspace while awaiting further clearancefrom air traffic control. Also used during ground oper-

ations to keep aircraft within a specified area or at aspecified point while awaiting further clearance fromair traffic control.

ILS CATEGORIES (ICAO)

a. ILS Category I An ILS approach procedurewhich provides for an approach to a decisionheight not lower than 200 feet (60m) and a visi-bility not less than 2400 feet (800m) or a runwayvisual range not less than 1800 feet (550m).

b. ILS Category II (Special authorization required) An ILS approach procedure which providesfor an approach to a decision height lower than200 feet (60m) but not lower than 100 feet (30m)and a runway visual range not less than 1200feet (350m).

c. ILS Category III (Special authorization required)

1. IIIA An ILS approach procedure whichprovides for approach with either a decisionheight lower than 100 feet (30m) or with nodecision height and with a runway visualrange of not less than 700 feet (200m).

2. IIIB An ILS approach procedure whichprovides for approach with either a decisionheight lower than 50 feet (15m) or with nodecision height and with a runway visualrange of less than 700 feet (200m) but notless than 150 feet (50m).

3. IIIC An ILS approach procedure whichprovides for approach with no decisionheight and no runway visual range limita-tions.

d. Some areas require special authorization for ILSCategory I approaches. In these areas, an addi-tional category of approach called ILS is avail-able without special authorization. These ILSapproaches have minimums higher than a deci-sion heightof 200 feetand a runwayvisualrangevalue of 2600 feet. Jeppesen approach charts,at these locations, will have a notation in thechart heading or in the minimum box titles.

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ILS CATEGORIES (USA)

a. ILS Category I An ILS approach procedurewhich provides for approach to a height abovetouchdown of not less than 200 feet and withrunway visual range of not less than 1800 feet.

b. ILS Category II An ILS approach procedure

which provides for approach to a height abovetouchdown of not less than 100 feet and withrunway visual range of not less than 1200 feet.

c. ILS Category III

1. IIIA An ILS approach procedure whichprovides for approach without a decisionheight minimum and with runway visualrange of not less than 700 feet.

2. IIIB An ILS approach procedure whichprovides for approach without a decisionheight minimum and with runway visualrange of not less than 150 feet.

3. IIIC An ILS approach procedure which

provides for approach without a decisionheight minimum and without runway visualrange minimum.

INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE (DP)

(USA) A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR)air traffic control departure procedure printed for pilotuse in graphic and/or textual form. DPs provide tran-sition from the terminal to the appropriate enroutestructure.

INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (ICAO) Any airportdesignated by the Contracting State in whose territoryit is situated as an airport of entry and departure forinternational air traffic, where the formalities incident

to customs, immigration, public health, animal andplant quarantine and similar procedures are carriedout.

INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (USA) Relating tointernational flight, it means:

a. An airport of entry which has been designatedby the Secretary of Treasury or Commissioner ofCustoms as an international airport for customsservice.

b. A landing rights airport at which specific per-mission to land must be obtained from customsauthorities in advance of contemplated use.

c. Airports designated under the Convention onInternational Civil Aviation as an airport for useby international air transport and/or internationalgeneral aviation.

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZA-TION (ICAO) A specialized agency of the UnitedNations whose objective is to develop the principlesand techniques of international air navigation and tofoster planning and development of international civilair transport.

LAND AND HOLD SHORT OPERATIONS Oper-ations which include simultaneous takeoffs andlandings and/or simultaneous landings when a land-ing aircraft is able and is instructed by the controller

to hold short of the intersecting runway / taxiwayor designated hold short point. Pilots are expectedto promptly inform the controller if the hold shortclearance cannot be accepted.

LA NDING D IS TANC E AVAILA BLE (LDA)

(ICAO) The length of runway which is declaredavailable and suitable for the ground run of anairplane landing.

LATERAL NAVIGATION (LNAV) LNAV minimumsare for lateral navigation only, and the approach mini-mum altitude will be published as a minimum descentaltitude (MDA). LNAV provides the same level of ser-vice as the present GPS stand-alone approaches.LNAV minimums support the following navigationsystems: WAAS, when the navigation solution willnot support vertical navigation; and, GPS navigationsystems which are presently authorized to conductGPS/GNSS approaches.

LATERAL NAVIGATION / V ERTICAL NAVIGATION(LNAV/VNAV) Identifies APV minimums devel-oped to accommodate an RNAV IAP with verticalguidance, usually provided by approach certifiedBaro-VNAV, but with lateral and vertical integritylimits larger than a precision approach or LPV. LNAV

stands for Lateral Navigation; VNAV stands for Ver-tical Navigation. These minimums can be flown byaircraft with a statement in the Aircraft Flight Manual(AFM) that the installed equipment supports GPSapproaches and has an approach-approved baro-metric VNAV, or if the aircraft has been demonstratedto support LNAV/VNAV approaches. This includesClass 2, 3 and 4 TSO-C146 WAAS equipment.Aircraft using LNAV/VNAV minimums will descendto landing via an internally generated descent pathbased on satellite or other approach approved VNAVsystems. WAAS equipment may revert to this modeof operation when the signal does not support pre-cision or LPV integrity. Since electronic verticalguidance is provided, the approach minimum altitudewill be published as a decision altitude (DA).

LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY (LAA) A serviceprovided by flight service stations or the military atairports not serviced by an operating control tower.This service consists of providing information to arriv-ing and departing aircraft concerning wind directionand speed, favored runway, altimeter setting, perti-nent known traffic, pertinent known field conditions,airport taxi routes and traffic patterns, and authorizedinstrument approach procedures. This information isadvisory in nature and does not constitute an ATCclearance.

LOCALIZER PERFORMANCE WITH VERTICALGUIDANCE (LPV) Identifies the APV minimumsthat incorporate electronic lateral and vertical guid-ance. The lateral guidance is equivalent to localizer,and the protected area is considerably smallerthan the protected area for the present LNAV andLNAV/VNAV lateral protection. Aircraft can fly theseminimums with a statement in the Aircraft Flight Man-ual (AFM) that the installed equipment supports LPVapproaches. This includes Class 3 and 4 TSO-C146WAAS equipment, and future LAAS equipment.

LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE / FEDERALAIRWAYS (USA) The network of airways serving

aircraft operations up to but not including 18,000 feetMSL.

LOW FREQUENCY (LF) The frequency bandbetween 30 and 300 kHz.

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MAGNETIC VARIATION The orientation of a hor-izontal magnetic compass with respect to true north.Because there is a continuous small change of direc-tion of lines of magnetic force over the surface of theearth, magnetic variation at most locations is not con-stant over long periods of time.

MANDATORY ALTITUDE An altitude depicted onan instrument approach procedure chart requiring theaircraft to maintain altitude at the depicted value.

MANDATORY FREQUENCY (MF) A frequencydesignated at selected airports that are uncontrolledduring certain hours only. Aircraft operating withinthe designated MF Area, normally 5 NM radius of theairport, must be equipped with a functioning radiocapable of maintaining two-way communications.Jeppesen charts list the MF frequency and the areawhen other than the standard 5 NM.

MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED ALTITUDE (MAA) Apublished altitude representing the maximum usablealtitude or flight level for an airspace structure or route

segment.

MEDIUM FREQUENCY (MF) The frequenciesbetween 300 kHz and 3 MHz.

MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE (MCA) Thelowest altitude at certain fixes at which an aircraftmust cross when proceeding in the direction of ahigher minimum enroute IFR altitude (MEA).

MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/HEIGHT (MDA/H)(ICAO) A specified altitude or height in a non-pre-cision approach or circling approach below whichdescent may not be made without visual reference.

MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE (MDA)

(USA) The lowest altitude, expressed infeet above mean sea level, to which descent isauthorized on final approach or during circle-to-landmaneuvering in execution of a standard instrumentapproach procedure where no electronic glide slopeis provided.

MINIMUM ENROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (MEA) Thelowest published altitude between radio fixes thatmeets obstacle clearance requirements betweenthose fixes and in many countries assures accept-able navigational signal coverage. The MEA appliesto the entire width of the airway, segment, or routebetween the radio fixes defining the airway, segment,or route.

MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES Minimum altitudes forIFR operations are published on aeronautical chartsfor airways, routes, and for standard instrumentapproach procedures. Within the USA, if no appli-cable minimum altitude is prescribed the followingminimum IFR altitudes apply.

a. In designated mountainous areas, 2000 feetabove the highest obstacle within a horizontaldistance of 4 nautical miles from the course tobe flown; or

b. Other than mountainous areas, 1000 feet abovethe highest obstacle within a horizontal distanceof 4 nautical miles from the course to be flown;or

c. As otherwise authorized by the Administrator orassigned by ATC.

MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTI-

TUDE (MOCA) The lowest published altitude ineffect between radio fixes on VOR airways, off airwayroutes, or route segments which meets obstacleclearance requirements for the entire route segmentand in the USA assures acceptable navigational sig-nal coverage only within 22 nautical miles of a VOR.

MINIMUM OFF-ROUTE ALTITUDE (MORA) Thisis an altitude derived by Jeppesen. The MORAprovides known obstruction clearance 10 NM eitherside of the route centerline including a 10 NM radiusbeyond the radio fix reporting or mileage break defin-ing the route segment. For terrain and man-madestructure clearance refer to Grid MORA.

MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE (MRA) Thelowest altitude at which an intersection can be deter-mined.

MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE (MSA) Altitudedepicted on an instrument approach chart and iden-tified as the minimum safe altitude which provides

1000 feet of obstacle clearance within a 25 NM radiusfrom the navigational facility upon which the MSA ispredicated. If the radius limit is other than 25 NM,it is stated. This altitude is for EMERGENCY USEONLY and does not necessarily guarantee navaidreception. When the MSA is divided into sectors, witheach sector a different altitude, the altitudes in thesesectors are referred to as minimum sector altitudes.

MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDE (MSA)(ICAO) The lowest alt itude that may beused under emergency conditions that providesa minimum clearance of 300 meters (1000 feet)above all obstacles within a sector of a circle of 46

kilometers (25 NM) centered on a navigational aid.MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE (MVA) Thelowest MSL altitude at which an IFR aircraft will bevectored by a radar controller, except as otherwiseauthorized for radar approaches, departures andmissed approaches. The altitude meets IFR obstacleclearance criteria. It may be lower than the publishedMEA along an airway of J-route segment. It may beutilized for radar vectoring only upon the controller"sdetermination that an adequate radar return is beingreceived from the aircraft being controlled. Chartsdepicting minimum vectoring altitudes are normallyavailable only to the controllers, not to pilots.

MISSED APPROACH a. A maneuver conducted by a pilot when an

instrument approach cannot be completedto a landing. The route of flight and altitudeare shown on instrument approach procedurecharts. A pilot executing a missed approachprior to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) mustcontinue along the final approach to the MAP.The pilot may climb immediately to the altitudespecified in the missed approach procedure.

b. A term used by the pilot to inform ATC thathe/she is executing the missed approach.

c. At locations where ATC radar service is provided

the pilot should conform to radar vectors, whenprovided by ATC, in lieu of the published missedapproach procedure.

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MISSED APPROACH POINT (MAP) (ICAO) Thatpoint in an instrument approach procedure at orbefore which the prescribed missed approach pro-cedure must be initiated in order to ensure that theminimum obstacle clearance is not infringed.

MISSED APPROACH POINT (MAP) (USA) Apoint prescribed in each instrument approach pro-cedure at which a missed approach procedure shallbe executed if the required visual reference does notexist.

MOUNTAINOUS AREA (ICAO) An area of chang-ing terrain profile where the changes of terrain eleva-tion exceed 3000 feet (900m) within a distance of 10NM.

NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE Astandard instrument approach procedure in which noelectronic glideslope is provided; e.g., VOR, TACAN,NDB, LOC, ASR, LDA, or SDF approaches.

NO PROCEDURE TURN (NoPT) No procedureturn is required nor authorized.

OBSTACLE CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (HEIGHT)OCA(H) (ICAO) The lowest altitude (OCA), oralternatively the lowest height above the eleva-tion of the relevant runway threshold or above theaerodrome elevation as applicable (OCH), used inestablishing compliance with the appropriate obsta-cle clearance criteria.

OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE LIMIT (OCL) Theheight above aerodrome elevation below which theminimum prescribed vertical clearance cannot bemaintained either on approach or in the event of amissed approach.

PILOT CONTROLLED LIGHTING (PCL)(U SA) (For other states see Air TrafficControl Rules and Procedures.)

Radio control of lighting is available at selected air-ports to provide airborne control of lights by keyingthe aircrafts microphone. The control system con-sists of a 3-step control responsive to 7, 5, and/or3 microphone clicks. The 3-step and 2-step lightingfacilities can be altered in intensity. All lighting is illu-minated for a period of 15 minutes (except for 1-stepand 2-step REILs which may be turned off by keyingthe mike 5 or 3 times, respectively).

Suggested use is to always initially key the mike 7

times; this assures that all controlled lights are turnedon to the maximum available intensity. If desired,adjustment can then be made, where the capability isprovided, to a lower intensity (or the REIL turned off)by keying the mike 5 and/or three times. Approvedlighting systems may be activated by keying the mikeas indicated below:

KEY MIKE FUNCTION

7 times within 5seconds

Highest intensity available

5 times within 5seconds

Medium or lower intensity(Lower REIL or REIL Off)

3 times within 5seconds Lowest intensity available(Lower REIL or REIL Off)

Due to the close proximity of airports using the samefrequency, radio controlled lighting receivers may beset at a low sensitivity requiring the aircraft to be rel-atively close to activate the system. Consequently,even when lights are on, always key mike as directedwhen overflying an airport of intended landing or justprior to entering the final segment of an approach.

This will assure the aircraft is close enough to activatethe system and a full 15 minutes lighting duration isavailable.

PITCH POINT A fix/waypoint that serves as a tran-sition point from a departure procedure or the low alti-tude ground-based navigation structure into the highaltitude waypoint system.

PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE A stan-dard instrument approach procedure in which anelectronic glideslope/glidepath is provided; e.g., ILS,MLS, PAR.

PRE-DEPARTURE CLEARANCE (PDC) Anautomated Clearance Delivery system relaying ATC

departure clearances from the FAA to the user net-work computer for subsequent delivery to the cockpitvia ACARS (Airline/Aviation VHF data link) whereaircraft are appropriately equipped, or to gate print-ers for pilot pickup.

PROCEDURE ALTITUDES Are recommendedaltitudes developed in coordination with Air TrafficControl requirements to accommodate a stabilizeddescent profile on a prescribed descent angle onthe final approach course and sometimes also in theintermediate approach segment. Procedure altitudesare never less than segment minimum safe altitudes.

PROCEDURE TURN (PT) (ICAO) A maneuver in

which a turn is made away from a designated trackfollowed by a turn in the opposite direction to permitthe aircraft to intercept and proceed along the recip-rocal of the designated track.

NOTE:

a. Procedure turns are designated left or rightaccording to the direction of the initial turn.

b. Procedure turns may be designated as beingmade either in level flight or while descending,according to the circumstances of each individ-ual approach procedure.

PROCEDURE TURN (PT) (USA) The maneuver

prescribed when it is necessary to reverse directionto establish an aircraft on the intermediate approachsegment or final approach course. The outboundcourse, direction of turn, distance within which theturn must be completed, and minimum altitude arespecified in the procedure. However, unless other-wise restricted, the point at which the turn may becommenced and the type and rate of turn are at thediscretion of the pilot.

PROCEDURE TURN INBOUND That point ofa procedure turn maneuver where course reversalhas been completed and an aircraft is establishedinbound on the intermediate approach segment orfinal approach course. A report of procedure turn

inbound is normally used by ATC as a position reportfor separation purposes.

QFE Height above airport elevation (or runwaythreshold elevation) based on local station pressure.

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QNE Altimeter setting 29.92 inches of mercury,1013.2 hectopascals or 1013.2 millibars.

QNH Altitude above mean sea level based on localstation pressure.

RACETRACK PROCEDURE (ICAO) A proceduredesigned to enable the aircraft to reduce altitude dur-

ing the initial approach segment and/or establish theaircraft inbound when the entry into a reversal proce-dure is not practical.

RADAR WEATHER ECHO INTENSITY LEV-ELS Existing radar systems cannot detectturbulence. However, there is a direct correlationbetween the degree of turbulence and other weatherfeatures associated with thunderstorms and theradar weather echo intensity. The National WeatherService has categorized radar weather echo inten-sity for precipitation into six levels. These levels aresometimes expressed during communications asVIP LEVEL 1 through 6 (derived from the compo-nent of the radar that produces the information

Video Integrator and Processor). The following listgives the VIP LEVELS in relation to the precipitationintensity within a thunderstorm:

Level 1.

Level 2.

Level 3.

Level 4.

Level 5.

Level 6.

WEAK

MODERATE

STRONG

VERY STRONG

INTENSE

EXTREME

RADIO ALTIMETER / RADAR ALTIMETER Air-craft equipment which makes use of the reflection ofradio waves from the ground to determine the heightof the aircraft above the surface.

RAPID EXIT TAXIWAY (ICAO) A taxiway con-nected to a runway at an acute angle and designedto allow landing airplanes to turn off at higher speedsthan are achieved on other exit taxiways thereby min-imizing runway occupancy times.

REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUMS(RVSM) A reduction in the vertical separationbetween flight levels 290 410 from 2000 to 1000feet.

REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE(RNP) A statement of navigation position accuracynecessary for operation within a defined airspace.RNP is performance-based and not dependent on aspecific piece of equipment. RNP includes a descrip-tive number, the value being an indicator of the sizeof the containment area (e.g., RNP-0.3, RNP-1,RNP-3, etc.). The different values are assigned toterminal, departure, and enroute operations. Someaircraft have RNP approval in their AFM without aGPS sensor. The lowest level of sensors that the FAAwill support for RNP service is DME/DME. However,necessary DME signal may not be available at theairport of intended operations. For those locationshaving an RNAV chart published with LNAV/VNAV

minimums, a procedure note may be provided suchas "DME/DME RNP-0.3 NA." This means that RNPaircraft dependent on DME/DME to achieve RNP-0.3are not authorized to conduct this approach. Where

DME facility availability is a factor, the note mayread "DME/DME RNP-0.3 authorized; ABC andXYZ required." This means that ABC and XYZfacilities have been determined by flight inspectionto be required in the navigation solution to assureRNP-0.3. VOR/DME updating must not be used forapproach procedures.

RNAV APPROACH An instrument approach pro-cedure which relies on aircraft area navigation equip-ment for navigation guidance.

ROUTE MINIMUM OFFROUTE ALTITUDE (RouteMORA) This is an altitude derived by Jeppesen.The Route MORA altitude provides reference pointclearance within 10 NM of the route centerline(regardless of the route width) and end fixes. RouteMORA values clear all reference points by 1000feet in areas where the highest reference points are5000 feet MSL or lower. Route MORA values clearall reference points by 2000 feet in areas wherethe highest reference points are 5001 feet MSL or

higher. When a Route MORA is shown along a routeas unknown it is due to incomplete or insufficientinformation.

RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS (ICAO) Are provided fora runway intended for use at night or for a precisionapproach runway intended for use by day or night.Runway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing vari-able white, except that:

a. in the case of a displaced threshold, the lightsbetween the beginning of the runway andthe displaced threshold shall show red in theapproach direction; and

b. a section of the lights 600m or one-third of the

runway length, whichever is the less, at theremote end of the runway from the end at whichthe takeoff run is started, may show yellow.

RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS (USA) Lights usedto outline the edges of runways during periodsof darkness or restricted visibility conditions. Thelight systems are classified according to the inten-sity or brightness they are capable of producing:they are the High Intensity Runway Lights (HIRL),Medium Intensity Runway Lights (MIRL), and theLow Intensity Runway Lights (RL). The HIRL andMIRL systems have variable intensity controls, wherethe RLs normally have one intensity setting.

a. The runway edge lights are white, except oninstrument runways amber replaces white onthe last 2000 feet or half of the runway length,whichever is less, to form a caution zone forlandings.

b. The lights marking the ends of the runway emitred light toward the runway to indicate the endof runway to a departing aircraft and emit greenoutward from the runway end to indicate thethreshold to landing aircraft.

RUNWAY MARKINGS

a. Basic marking Markings on runways used foroperations under visual flight rules consisting of

centerline markings and runway direction num-bers and, if required, letters.

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b. Instrument marking Markings on runwaysserved by nonvisual navigation aids andintended for landings under instrument weatherconditions, consisting of basic marking plusthreshold markings.

c. All-weather (precision instrument) marking Marking on runways served by nonvisual pre-cision approach aids and on runways havingspecial operational requirements, consisting ofinstrument markings plus landing zone mark-ings and side strips.

SEGMENT MINIMUM ALTITUDE (SMA), or SEG-MENT MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE (SMSA) Analtitude that provides minimum obstacle clearance ineach segment of a non-precision approach. Segmentminimum (safe) altitudes can be considered do notdescend below altitudes and can be lower than pro-cedure altitudes which are specifically developed tofacilitate a constant rate or stabilized descent.

SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT APPROACH

PROCEDURE An instrument approach proce-dure may have as many as four separate segmentsdepending on how the approach procedure is struc-tured.

ICAO

a. Initial Approach That segment of an instru-ment approach procedure between the initialapproach fix and the intermediate approach fixor, where applicable, the final approach fix orpoint.

b. Intermediate Approach That segment ofan instrument approach procedure betweeneither the intermediate approach fix and thefinal approach fix or point, or between the endof a reversal, race track or dead reckoning trackprocedure and the final approach fix or point,as appropriate.

c. Final Approach That segment of an instru-ment approach procedure in which alignmentand descent for landing are accomplished.

d. Missed Approach Procedure The procedureto be followed if the approach cannot be contin-ued.

USA

a. Initial Approach The segment between the

initial approach fix and the intermediate fix orthe point where the aircraft is established on theintermediate course or final course.

b. Intermediate Approach The segmentbetween the intermediate fix or point and thefinal approach fix.

c. Final Approach The segment between thefinal approach fix or point and therunway, airportor missed approach point.

d. Missed Approach The segment between themissed approach point, or point of arrival at deci-sion height, and the missed approach fix at theprescribed altitude.

SELECTIVE CALL SYSTEM (SELCAL) A systemwhich permits the selective calling of individual air-craft over radiotelephone channels linking a groundstation with the aircraft.

SIDESTEP MANEUVER A visual maneuveraccomplished by a pilot at the completion of aninstrument approach to permit a straight-in landingon a parallel runway not more than 1200 feet to eitherside of the runway to which the instrument approachwas conducted.

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Airspace of defineddimensions identified by an area on the surface of theearth wherein activities must be confined becauseof their nature and/or wherein limitations may beimposed upon aircraft operations that are not a partof those activities. Types of special use airspace are:

a. Alert Area (USA) Airspace which may con-tain a high volume of pilot training activities or anunusual type of aerial activity, neither of which ishazardous to aircraft. Alert Areas are depictedon aeronautical charts for the informationof non-participating pilots. All activities within an AlertArea are conducted in accordance with FederalAviation Regulations, and pilots of participating

aircraft as well as pilots transiting the area areequally responsible for collision avoidance.

b. Controlled Firing Area (USA) Airspacewherein activities are conducted under con-ditions so controlled as to eliminate hazardsto nonparticipating aircraft and to ensure thesafety of persons and property on the ground.

c. Military Operations Area (MOA) (USA) AMOA is airspace established outside of a ClassA airspace area to separate or segregate cer-tain nonhazardous military activities from IFRtraffic and to identify for VFR traffic where theseactivities are conducted.

d. Prohibited Area Airspace designated underFAR Part 73 within which no person mayoperatean aircraft without the permission of the usingagency.

e. Restricted Area (USA) Airspace designatedunder Part 73, within which the flight of air-craft, while not wholly prohibited, is subjectto restriction. Most restricted areas are des-ignated joint use and IFR/VFR operations inthe area may be authorized by the controllingATC facility when it is not being utilized by theusing agency. Restricted areas are depicted onenroute charts. Where joint use is authorized,

the name of the ATC controlling facility is alsoshown.

f. Restricted Area (ICAO) An airspace ofdefined dimensions, above the land areas orterritorial waters of a state, within which theflight of aircraft is restricted in accordance withcertain specified coordinates.

g. Warning Area A warning area is airspace ofdefined dimensions from 3 nautical miles out-ward from the coast of the United States, thatcontains activity that may be hazardous to non-participating aircraft. The purpose of such warn-ing areas is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the

potential danger. A warning area may be locatedover domestic or international waters or both.

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STANDARD INSTRUMENT ARRIVAL (STAR)

(ICAO) A designated instrument flight rule (IFR)arrival route linking a significant point, normally onan ATS route, with a point from which a publishedinstrument approach procedure can be commenced.

STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE (SID)(ICAO) A designated instrument flight rule (IFR)

departure route linking the aerodrome or a specifiedrunway of the aerodrome with a specified point,normally on a designated ATS route, at which theenroute phase of a flight commences.

STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE (SID)(USA) A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR)air traffic control departure procedure printed for pilotuse in graphic and/or textual form. SIDs provide tran-sition from the terminal to the appropriate enroutestructure.

STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL ROUTE (STAR)(USA) A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) airtraffic control arrival procedure published for pilot use

in graphic and/or textual form. STARs provide transi-tion from the enroute structure to an outer fix or aninstrument approach fix/arrival waypoint in the termi-nal area.

STATION DECLINATION The orientation withrespect to true north of VHF transmitted signals.The orientation is originally made to agree with themagnetic variation (an uncontrollable global phenom-enon) at the site. Hence station declination (fixed byman) may differ from changed magnetic variationuntil the station is reoriented.

SUBSTITUTE ROUTE A route assigned to pilotswhen any part of an airway or route is unusable

because of navaid status.

SUNSET AND SUNRISE The mean solar timesof sunset and sunrise as published in the NauticalAlmanac, converted to local standard time for thelocality concerned. Within Alaska, the end of eveningcivil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight,as defined for each locality.

SURFACE MOVEMENT GUIDANCE AND CON-TROL SYSTEM (SMGCS) (USA) Provisions forguidance and control or regulation for facilities, infor-mation, and advice necessary for pilots of aircraftand drivers of ground vehicles to find their way on theairport during low visibility operations and to keep

the aircraft or vehicles on the surfaces or within theareas intended for their use. Low visibility operationsfor this system means reported conditions of RVR1200 or less.

SURVEILLANCE APPROACH (ASR) An instru-ment approach wherein the air traffic controller issuesinstructions, for pilot compliance, based on aircraftposition in relation to the final approach course(azimuth), and the distance (range) from the endof the runway as displayed on the controllers radarscope. The controller will provide recommendedaltitudes on final approach if requested by the pilot.

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE (TODA)

(ICAO) The length of the takeoff run availableplus the length of the clearway, if provided.

TAKE-OFF RUN AVAILABLE (TORA) (ICAO) Thelength of runway declared available and suitable forthe ground run of an airplane taking off.

TERMINAL CONTROL AREA (ICAO) A controlarea normally established at the confluence of ATSroutes in the vicinity of one or more major aero-dromes.

TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREA (FAA) / TERMINAL

AREA ALTITUDE (ICAO) (TAA) Provides aseamless and efficient transition from the enroutestructure to the terminal environment to an underly-ing RNAV instrument approach procedure for FMSand/or GPS equipped aircraft. Minimum altitudesdepict standard obstacle clearances compatiblewith the associated instrument approach procedure.TAAs will not be found on all RNAV procedures,particularly in areas with a heavy concentration ofair traffic. When the TAA is published, it replaces theMSA for that approach procedure. A standard race-track holding pattern may be provided at the center

IAF, and if present may be necessary for coursereversal and for altitude adjustment for entry into theprocedure. In the latter case, the pattern providesan extended distance for the descent as requiredby the procedure. The published procedure will beannotated to indicate when the course reversal is notnecessary when flying within a particular TAA (e.g.,"NoPT"). Otherwise, the pilot is expected to executethe course reversal under the provisions of 14 CFRSection 91.175 (USA). The pilot may elect to use thecourse reversal pattern when it is not required bythe procedure, but must inform air traffic control andreceive clearance to do so.

TERMINAL VFR RADAR SERVICE (USA) Anational program instituted to extend the terminalradar services provided instrument flight rules (IFR)aircraft to visual flight rules (VFR) aircraft. The pro-gram is divided into four types of service referred toas basic radar service, terminal radar service area(TRSA) service, Class B service and Class Cservice.

a. Basic Radar Service These services areprovided for VFR aircraft by all commissionedterminal radar facilities. Basic radar serviceincludes safety alerts, traffic advisories, limitedradar vectoring when requested by the pilot, andsequencing at locations where procedures have

been established for this purpose and/or whencovered by a letter of agreement. The purposeof this service is to adjust the flow of arrivingIFR and VFR aircraft into the traffic pattern in asafe and orderly manner and to provide trafficadvisories to departing VFR aircraft.

b. TRSA Service This service provides, in addi-tion to basic radar service, sequencing of allIFR and participating VFR aircraft to the pri-mary airport and separation between all partici-pating VFR aircraft. The purpose of this serviceis to provide separation between all participatingVFR aircraft and all IFR aircraft operating within

the area defined as a TRSA.

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c. Class B Service This service provides, inaddition to basic radar service, approved sep-aration of aircraft based on IFR, VFR, and/orweight, and sequencing of VFR arrivals to theprimary airport(s).

d. Class C Service This service provides,in addition to basic radar service, approvedseparation between IFR and VFR aircraft, andsequencing of VFR aircraft, and sequencing ofVFR arrivals to the primary airport.

TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA)

(USA) Airspace surrounding designated airportswherein ATC provides radar vectoring, sequencingand separation on a full-time basis for all IFR andparticipating VFR aircraft. Service provided in aTRSA is called Stage III Service. Pilots participationis urged but is not mandatory.

THRESHOLD The beginning of that portion of therunway usable for landing.

THRESHOLD CROSSING HEIGHT The theoret-ical height above the runway threshold at which theaircrafts glideslope antenna would be if the aircraftmaintains the trajectory established by the mean ILSglideslope or MLS glidepath.

TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION (TDZE) Thehighest elevation in the first 3000 feet of the landingsurface.

TRANSITION ALTITUDE (QNH) The altitude inthe vicinity of an airport at or below which the verticalposition of an aircraft is controlled by reference toaltitudes (MSL).

TRANSITION HEIGHT (QFE) The height in the

vicinity of an airport at or below which the verticalposition of an aircraft is expressed in height abovethe airport reference datum.

TRANSITION LAYER The airspace between thetransition altitude and the transition level. Aircraftdescending through the transition layer will usealtimeters set to local station pressure, while depart-ing aircraft climbing through the layer will be usingstandard altimeter setting (QNE) of 29.92 inches ofMercury, 1013.2 millibars, or 1013.2 hectopascals.

TRANSITION LEVEL (QNE) The lowest flight levelavailable for use above the transition altitude.

TURN ANTICIPATION Turning maneuver initiated

prior to reaching the actual airspace fix or turn pointthat is intended to keep the aircraft within establishedairway or route boundaries.

VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV) That functionof RNAV equipment which provides guidance in thevertical plane.

VERTICAL PATH ANGLE (VPA) (USA) Thedescent angle shown on some non-precisionapproaches describing the geometric descent pathfrom the Final approach fix (FAF), or on occasionfrom an intervening stepdown fix, to the ThresholdCrossing Height (TCH). This angle may or may notcoincide with the angle projected by a Visual Glide

Slope Indicator (VASI, PAPI, PLASI, etc.)

VISIBILITY (ICAO) The ability, as determined byatmospheric conditions and expressed in units of dis-tance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objectsby day and prominent lighted objects by night.

a. Flight Visibility The visibility forward from thecockpit of an aircraft in flight.

b. Ground Visibility The visibility at an aero-drome as reported by an accredited observer.

c. Runway Visual Range (RVR) The range overwhich the pilot of an aircraft on the centerline ofa runway can see the runway surface markingsor the lights delineating the runway or identifyingits centerline.

VISIBILITY (USA) The ability, as determined byatmospheric conditions and expressed in units of dis-tance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objectsby day and prominent lighted objects by night. Visibil-ity is reported as statute or nautical miles, hundredsof feet or meters.

a. Flight Visibility The average forward horizon-tal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft inflight, at which prominent unlighted objects maybe seen and identified by day and prominentlighted objects may be seen and identified bynight.

b. Ground Visibility Prevailing horizontal visibil-ity near the earths surface as reported by theUnited States National Weather Service or anaccredited observer.

c. Prevailing Visibility The greatest horizontalvisibility equaled or exceeded throughout atleast half the horizon circle which need not

necessarily be continuous.d. Runway Visibility Value (RVV) The visibility

determined for a particular runway by a trans-missometer. A meter provides a continuous indi-cation of the visibility (reported in miles or frac-tions of miles) for the runway. RVV is used in lieuof prevailing visibility in determining minimumsfor a particular runway.

e. Runway Visual Range (RVR) An instru-mentally derived value, based on standardcalibrations, that represents the horizontal dis-tance a pilot will see down the runway fromthe approach end; it is based on the sighting

of either high intensity runway lights or on thevisual contrast of other targets whichever yieldsthe greater visual range. RVR, in contrast toprevailing or runway visibility, is based on whata pilot in a moving aircraft should see look-ing down the runway. RVR is horizontal visualrange, not slant visual range. It is based on themeasurement of a transmissometer made nearthe touchdown point of the instrument runwayand is reported in hundreds of feet. RVR isused in lieu of RVV and/or prevailing visibility indetermining minimums for a particular runway.

1. Touchdown RVR The RVR visibilityreadout values obtained from RVR equip-

ment serving the runway touchdown zone.

2. Mid-RVR The RVR readout valuesobtained from RVR equipment locatedmidfield of the runway.

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3. Rollout RVR The RVR readout valuesobtained from RVR equipment locatednearest the rollout end of the runway.

VISUAL APPROACH (ICAO) An approach byan IFR flight when either part or all of an instru-ment approach procedure is not completed and theapproach is executed in visual reference to terrain.

VISUAL APPROACH (USA) An approach con-ducted on an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight planwhich authorizes the pilot to proceed visually andclear of clouds to the airport. The pilot must, at alltimes, have either the airport or the preceding aircraftin sight. This approach must be authorized and underthe control of the appropriate air traffic control facility.Reported weather at the airport must be ceiling at orabove 1000 feet and visibility of 3 miles or greater.

VISUAL DESCENT POINT (VDP) A defined pointon the final approach course of a non-precisionstraight-in approach procedure from which normaldescent from the MDA to the runway touchdown

point may be commenced, provided the approachthreshold of that runway, or approach lights, or othermarkings identifiable with the approach end of thatrunway are clearly visible to the pilot.

VOLMET BROADCAST Routine broadcast ofmeteorological information for aircraft in flight.

WAYPOINT A specified geographical locationused to define an area navigation route or the flightpath of an aircraft employing area navigation.

WEATHER SYSTEMS PROCESSOR (WSP) Anadd-on weather processor to selected Airport Surveil-lance Radar (ASR)-9 facilities that adds Dopplerweather radar capability and provides wind shearand microburst warnings. The system gives con-trollers timely and accurate warnings for relaying topilots via radio communications. The WSP also pro-vides controllers with thunderstorm cell locations andmovement as well as the predicted future positionand intensity of wind shifts that may affect airportoperations. The system can also process precipi-tation data to reduce false severe weather reportscaused by anomalous propagation.

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ABBREVIATIONS USED IN AIRWAY MANUAL

DEFINITIONS

A/A Air to Air

AAF Army Air Field

AAIM Aircraft Autonom ous IntegrityMonitoring

AAIS Automated Aerodrome Information

ServiceAAL Above Aerodrome Level

AAS Airpor t Advisory Service

AB Air Base

ABM Abeam

ABN Aerodrome Beacon

AC Air Carrier

ACA Arctic Control Area

ACA Approach Control Area

ACAS Airborne Collision AvoidanceSystem

ACARS Airborne CommunicationsAddressing and Reporting System

ACC Area Control Center

ACFT Aircraft

ACN Aircraft Classification Num ber

AD Aerodrome

ADA Advisory Area

ADF Automatic Direction Finding

ADIZ Air Defense I dentification Zone

ADR Advisory Route

ADS Automatic Dependent Sur veillance

ADV Advisory Area

AEIS Aeronautical Enroute InformationService

AER Approach End of Runway

AERADIO Air Radio

AERO Aerodrome

AF Aux Air Force Auxiliary Field

AFB Air Force Base

AFIS Aerodrome Flight InformationService

AFN American Forces Network

AFRS Ar med Forces Radio StationsAFRU Aerodrome Frequency Response

Unit

AFS Air Force Station

AFSS Automated Flight Service Station

A/G Air-to-Ground

AGL Above Ground Level

AGNIS Azimuth Guidance Nose-in-Stand

AH Alert Height

AHP Army Heliport

AIRAC Aeronautical Informa

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