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Junos Intermediate Routing

Appendix A: IPv6

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Chapter Objectives After successfully completing this appendix, you will be able to:Describe some differences between IPv4 and IPv6 List IPv6 address types and describe the IPv6 addressing format Enable an interface for IPv6 operation Configure and monitor routing for IPv6 environments Tunnel IPv6 traffic over an IPv4 network

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Agenda: IPv6Introduction to IPv6 Routing Protocol Configuration Examples Tunneling IPv6 over IPv4

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What Is IPv6? Next Generation Protocol:Defined by the IETF Defined as RFC 2460 Intended to replace IPv4

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IPv4 Versus IPv6IPv432-bit (4-byte) address supports 4,294,967,296 addresses NAT can be used to extend address space limitations Administrators must use DHCP or static configuration to assign IP addresses to hosts IPsec support is optional Options are integrated into the base header

IPv6128-bit (16-byte) address supports 2128 (about 3.41038) addresses Does not support NAT by design Hosts use stateless address autoconfiguration to assign an IP address to themselves IPsec support is necessary Improved support for options using extension headers and overall simplification of the header formatWorldwide Education Serviceswww.juniper.net | A-

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IPv6 Structure The IPv6 header has the following improvements:Fixed length of 40 bytes Simple, more efficient processing Extension headers handle additional options Several IPv4 fields have been removed: Header length, identification, flags, fragment offset, and header checksum

Version (4)

Traffic (8) Class

Flow Label (20) Hop Limit (8)40 bytes

Payload Length (16)

Next Header (8) Source Address (128)

Destination Address (128) 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.

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IPv4 Header Versus IPv6 HeaderIPv4 HeaderVersion IHL TOS Total Length Flags Fragment Offset Identification Time to Live Protocol

IPv6 HeaderVersion Traffic Class Flow Label Next Header Hop Limit

Payload Length

Header Checksum

Source Address Destination Address

Source Address Destination Address Options Padding

KeyFields the same in IPv4 and IPv6 Fields removed in IPv6 Name and position changed in IPv6 New field in IPv6

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IPv6 Extension Headers Simple packet headers provide faster processingIPv6 deals with IP options using extension headers

IPv6 defines six extension headers:Hop-by-hop options header Routing header Fragment header Destination options header Authentication header Encrypted security payload header

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IPv6 Addressing Extending address space is a major reason for IPv6IPv4 address exhaustion is predicted to occur in the near future 128-bit (16-byte) address supports 2128 (about 3.41038) addresses 295 addresses for each person on Earth 252 addresses for each observable star in the known universe

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IPv6 Address Types Address types:Unicast: Unique address that identifies an IPv6 node Multicast: Group of IPv6 interfaces Anycast: Assigned to multiple interfaces on multiple nodes

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Address Notation Each IPv6 address has 128 bitsEight 16-bit hexadecimal blocks separated by colons Use abbreviations to simplify the notation You can omit leading zeros Double colon can replace consecutive zeros, leading zeros, or trailing zeros, but can not be used twice in an address 2bfc:0000:0000:0000:0217:cbff:fe8c:5c85 2bfc:0:0:0:217:cbff:fe8c:5c85 2bfc::217:cbff:fe8c:5c85Leading zeros omitted Double colon

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Prex Notation Prefix identifies the subnetDefined in RFC 4291 Similar to IPv4 in text presentation: IPv6 address/prefix length

IPv6 Address 2bfc:0000:0000:0000:0217:cbff:fe8c:5c85/6416 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits

64-bit prefix

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Address Allocation Organizations and end users get an address allocation from their ISPYou must follow a few rules, as defined in RFC 3177Subscriber Home network subscribers, connecting through on-demand or always-on connections Small and large enterprises Very large subscribers Mobile networks, such as vehicles or mobile phones with an additional network interface A single PC, with no additional need to subnet, dialing-up from a hotel room 48-bit prefix 48-bit prefix 47-bit, or multiple 48-bit prefixes 64-bit prefix, which allows multiple connections through a single prefix 128-bit address can be assigned as part of a 64-bit prefixwww.juniper.net | A-

Prefix

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Special Addresses The prefix 0000 0000 is reserved for special addressingUnspecified address: Also called the all-zeros address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0, or ::

Loopback address: Commonly used for testing the IP stack on the localhost 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1, or ::1

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Address Scope IPv6 addresses have scope, which identifies the application suitable for the addressUnicast and multicast addresses support scoping Scope can be local or global

InternetAddresses with local scope are used within the same routing domain. Addresses with global scope are used between routing domains.

Company ABC

Company XYZ

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Link-Local Unicast Addresses Link-local unicast addresses:Use a common prefix on all subnets (FE80:0:0:0::/64) Are guaranteed to be unique only on a single link Are generated by the interface

1111111010

0000..0000

Interface ID

Prefix (10 bits)

Zero (54 bits)

Interface Identifier (64 bits)

R1fe80::226:88ff:fe02:7481 ge-0/0/1.0 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Site-Local Unicast Addresses Site-local unicast addresses:Are not guaranteed to be unique on the Internet Are similar to IPv4 RFC 1918 private addresses Use a common prefix in all organizations (FEC0:0:0::/48)1111111011 Subnet ID Interface ID

Prefix (10 bits)

Subnet ID (54 bits) Company ABC

Interface Identifier (64 bits)

R1::1 ge-0/0/1.0 FEC0:0:0:2003::/64 ::2 ge-0/0/1.0

R2

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Global Unicast Addresses Global unicast addresses are globally unique and are used to connect to and route through the InternetSimilar to IPv4 public addressesPublic TopologyFP (3 bits) Global Routing Prefix (45 bits)

Site TopologySID (16 bits)

Interface IdentifierInterface ID (64 bits)

Internet

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Interface ID Interface IDUniquely identifies a host on a subnet Is 64 bits long Is based on IEEE EUI-64 address Is a permutation of the interface MAC address (if available)

Interface IdentifierFP (3 bits) Global Routing Prefix (45 bits) SID (16 bits) Interface ID (64 bits)

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Stateless Autoconguration (1 of 2) Allows local hosts to autoconfigure IPv6 addressesEliminates the need for stateful configuration elements, such as DHCP Elements of stateless autoconfiguration: Extended unique identifier Router advertisement message Router solicitation message Prefix list

Neighbor discovery:The process of tracking reachability status for neighbors in a local link Specified in RFC 2461

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Stateless Autoconguration (2 of 2) Address autoconfiguration1 Link-Local Address: Autoconfigured Global Addresses Fe80::1234:abff:fecd:5678 2bfc::1234:abff:fecd:5678 3afc::1234:abff:fecd:5678 2caf::1234:abff:fecd:5678 2 RS 3 RA 1 Link-Local Address: Autoconfigured Global Addresses Fe80::9876:dcff:feba:5432 2bfc::9876:dcff:feba:5432 3afc::9876:dcff:feba:5432 2caf::9876:dcff:feba:5432 RS RA 4 Host A MAC Address: 1234.abcd.5678 Host B MAC Address: 9876.dcba.5432 Router

Trust

Untrust

5

A

B

5

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Stateful Autoconguration All