Key challenges and new trends in battery research ?· Key challenges and new trends in battery research.…

  • View
    213

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • AmiensAmiens

    US DOE EFRC Summit and Forum

    Washington DCRenaissance Penn Quarter Hotel

    May 25th-27th, 2011

    Jean Marie TARASCON

    Key challenges and new trends inbattery research

  • Outline

    Personal view of the future of batteries

    Present ongoing research activities to tackle them

    Conclusions ?

    Flash recall on why energy storage EU and French research structuring initiatives

    Rapid assessement of todays state of the art in Li-ion batterySpot/highlight present limitations and upcoming issues (recycling)

    Mention/discuss a few chemistries beyond Li-ion

    A few comments beyond science

  • PHOTO-SYNTHESIS

    BIOMASS

    -CHOH-

    CO 2

    O2

    O2

    SUN

    Energy

    ENERGY

    H2O

    -CHOH-

    COMBUSTION

    7 kWh/kg

    4.3 kWh/kg

    h

    6 CO2 + 6 H2O

    C8H12O8 + 6 O2H2O

    CO2

    O2

    O2

    PHOTO-SYNTHESIS

    BIOMASS

    -CHOH-

    CO 2

    O2

    O2

    SUN

    Energy

    ENERGY

    H2O

    -CHOH-

    COMBUSTION

    7 kWh/kg

    4.3 kWh/kg

    h

    6 CO2 + 6 H2O

    C8H12O8 + 6 O2

    6 CO2 + 6 H2O

    C8H12O8 + 6 O2H2O

    CO2

    O2

    O2

    FOSSIL FUELS13 kWh/kg

    Millionsof years

    95 MBa/day

    3.7 milliards1.35 tep/hab

    20001970 2030

    5

    10

    17.7

    Consommation Mondiale Annuelle

    (109 tep)8.2 milliards2.2 tep/hab

    6 milliards1.7 tep/hab

    6 892 760 01213:00 aujourdhui

    3.7 milliards1.35 tep/hab

    20001970 2030

    5

    10

    17.7

    Consommation Mondiale Annuelle

    (109 tep)8.2 milliards2.2 tep/hab

    6 milliards1.7 tep/hab

    6 892 760 01213:00 aujourdhui

    20001970 2030

    5

    10

    17.7

    Consommation Mondiale Annuelle

    (109 tep)8.2 milliards2.2 tep/hab

    6 milliards1.7 tep/hab

    6 892 760 01213:00 aujourdhui

    3.7 Billions1.35 tep/hab

    World AnnualConsumption

    108 tep

    6 Billions1.7 tep/hab

    8.2 Billions2.2 tep/hab

    3.7 milliards1.35 tep/hab

    20001970 2030

    5

    10

    17.7

    Consommation Mondiale Annuelle

    (109 tep)8.2 milliards2.2 tep/hab

    6 milliards1.7 tep/hab

    6 892 760 01213:00 aujourdhui

    3.7 milliards1.35 tep/hab

    20001970 2030

    5

    10

    17.7

    Consommation Mondiale Annuelle

    (109 tep)8.2 milliards2.2 tep/hab

    6 milliards1.7 tep/hab

    6 892 760 01213:00 aujourdhui

    20001970 2030

    5

    10

    17.7

    Consommation Mondiale Annuelle

    (109 tep)8.2 milliards2.2 tep/hab

    6 milliards1.7 tep/hab

    6 892 760 01213:00 aujourdhui

    3.7 Billions1.35 tep/hab

    World AnnualConsumption

    108 tep

    6 Billions1.7 tep/hab

    8.2 Billions2.2 tep/hab

    14 TW

    28 TW

    Renewable EnergiesRenewable EnergiesRenewable Energies

    WHY ENERGY STORAGE ?

    Bill

    ions

    de

    bar

    ils /

    an

    Annes Dcouvertes venir

    Consommation

    Rserves dcouvertes

    Bill

    ions

    de

    bar

    ils /

    an

    Annes Dcouvertes venir

    Consommation

    Rserves dcouvertes

    gap

    Consumption

    Discovery

    Projected discoveriesyears

  • Energy storage:Another challenge of the 21st century

    Chemical Electric

    To improve-create new energy storage technologies

    Wind Solar Oceans

    To better handle therenewable energy resources

    of our planet

    MWh kWhElectric

    To favour thedevelopment of electric vehicles

    Wind Solar Oceans

    To better handle therenewable energy resources

    of our planet

    MWh kWhElectric

    To favour thedevelopment of electric vehicles

    To develop better electrochemical energy storage devices

    Batteries

  • Restructuring of the scientific and technological landscape via the creation of new federative tools

  • MaterialsMaterials for for EnergyEnergy Storage & ConversionStorage & Conversion

    ALISTOREEducation Programme

    http://www.u-picardie.fr/mundus_MESC

    MaterialsMaterials for for EnergyEnergy Storage & ConversionStorage & Conversion

    ALISTOREEducation Programme

    http://www.u-picardie.fr/mundus_MESC

    MaterialsMaterials for for EnergyEnergy Storage & ConversionStorage & Conversion

    ALISTOREEducation Programme

    http://www.u-picardie.fr/mundus_MESChttp://www.u-picardie.fr/mundus_MESCE

    I

    R

    E

    I

    R

    ELITE (75 k/an) SILVER (25 k/an)

    11

    4

    EDFSaftArkemaUmicoreSolvionicHoneywellSolvayESATOTALBASFSasol

    CEARenaultVolkswagenRobert Bosch

    Aeronautic &Space users

    PVs usersCar makers MaterialMakers

    BatteryMakers

    Cell-phonemakers

    15 members15 members

    Business of industrial club membersBusiness of industrial club members

    ALISTOREALISTORE--ERI Industrial Club compositionERI Industrial Club composition

    ELITE (75 k/an) SILVER (25 k/an)

    11

    4

    EDFSaftArkemaUmicoreSolvionicHoneywellSolvayESATOTALBASFSasol

    CEARenaultVolkswagenRobert Bosch

    ELITE (75 k/an) SILVER (25 k/an)

    11

    4

    ELITE (75 k/an) SILVER (25 k/an)

    11

    4

    EDFSaftArkemaUmicoreSolvionicHoneywellSolvayESATOTALBASFSasol

    CEARenaultVolkswagenRobert Bosch

    Aeronautic &Space users

    PVs usersCar makers MaterialMakers

    BatteryMakers

    Cell-phonemakers

    15 members15 members

    Business of industrial club membersBusiness of industrial club members

    ALISTOREALISTORE--ERI Industrial Club compositionERI Industrial Club composition

    18 European Research Labs_

    European Initiative: ALISTORE-ERILaunched in 2004 (FP6) with the incorporation of industries in 2008

    The Research/Innovation/EducationTriangle

  • Partenaires Industriels

    Management/Direction

    Research CenterCRA CRTI

    University + CNRS labs

    Pre-transfert unitsResearchers + engineers

    Bordeaux, Nantes, Montpellier, Toulouse, Orleans, Pau, AmiensMarseille,Paris-tech, .

    Technology Research and integration Center Nationnal Labs (EPICs )CEA, INERIS, IFP,

    - Industrialisation platforms- Safety platform- BMS platform- Testing platform

    Industrial Club(14 Members)

    CI

    R hR hMaillons ncessaires pour lintgration rapide en un produit fini.

    Intgrer et fdrer tous les acteursTo ensure a continuum from research to development via

    prototyping and then a quick transfer to our industriesMaillons ncessaires pour lintgration rapide en un produit fini.

    Intgrer et fdrer tous les acteursTo ensure a continuum from research to development via

    prototyping and then a quick transfer to our industries

    Research and Technology National Network on Electrochemical Energy Storage (RS2E)

    (Created July 2010)

  • Primary cells

    Rechargeable(Batteries)

    Li / S

    CuO

    CuS

    CuOCu4O(PO4)2

    Solidcathodes

    I2 SO2Liquid

    cathodes

    SOCl2

    CFx

    MnO2Ag2CrO4

    Ag2CrO4

    CrOx

    Li/I2Li/SOCl2

    Li/SO2Li/MnO2 Li/FeS2

    Li/Cfx

    Bi2Pb2O5

    Bi2O3

    FeS2

    Ag2V4O11

    Composs dinsertionTiS2

    Electrolyte polymrePEO

    Chlorides, sulfides, fluorides

    Plastifiants

    V6O13

    NbSe3

    NiPS3

    MoS2

    MnO2LiCoO2LiNiO2

    Li/PEO/VOx

    Li ionLiCx

    LiCx/LiCoO2

    LiMn2O4LiNCALiNMC

    LiFePO4

    19491949

    19601960

    19701970

    19801980

    19901990

    20062006

    Jan Hajek

    ?

    Genealogic tree for Li-based batteries

    From . Broussely (adapted)

    Li-airLi-air

    Li-airLi-air

    Li-airLi-air

  • V

    Non-aqueous electrolyte

    Cathode Anode

    Li+

    Li+

    3.0 V

    +

    LiMnLiMn22OO444.2- 5 V

    LiCoOLiCoO22--NMCNMC4.2- 4.6 V

    LiFeSOLiFeSO44FF3.6 - 4 V

    LiLi22FeSiOFeSiO44

    LiLiLiFePOLiFePO443.45 V

    -

    ac

    TiO2(B)TiO2(B)1.8 V

    LiLi44TiTi55OO12121.5 V

    LiLixxSiSiyy0.4 VLiLixxCC66

    0.2 V

    The Li-ion technology:A versatile technology in terms of potential

  • The Li-ion technology:a versatile technology in terms of power

    Battery

    Supercapacitors

    ENERGY DENSITY (Wh/kg) AUTONOMY

    SP

    EC

    IFIC

    PO

    WE

    R (W

    /kg)

    S

    PE

    ED

  • # ## ## #

    The Li-ion technology: a large potential market

    WhWh kWh kWh MWhMWh WhWh kWh kWh MWhMWh

    2 MW Li-ion storage

    EVs pack

    Different energy domainsDifferent materialsDifferent safety and cost aspects

    186505-10Wh 30-100kWh

  • 210Wh/kg

    625Wh/l

    Is it sufficient for EVs applications ?

    Todays state of the art performancefor the Li-ion technology

  • ForesightForesight

    HigherHigher RateRate

    HigherHigher EnergyEnergy

    LowerLower CostCost

    HigherHigher SafetySafety

    ForesightForesight

    HigherHigher RateRate

    HigherHigher EnergyEnergy

    LowerLower CostCost

    HigherHigher SafetySafety

    Challenges Facing batteries for EVsapplications

    LowerLower CostCostLowerLower CostCostSustainabilitySustainability

    Materials/processes having the minimum environmental footprint and lowest possible life cycle cost

    500 /kWh

    130Wh/kg

    / 2 x2x2

    *Source:Nedo (2009)

    500 /kWh

    130Wh/kg

    / 2 x2

    Energyx2

    *Source:Nedo (2009)

    Cost

    Durability

  • The Li-ion batteries: Sustainable aspects

  • Energy-demanding step(e.g. high CO2 released

    10 Billionbatteries peryear in 2010: compu