kritika - rCeuliSvilis teqstebSi kodirebuli informacia rTuli, kombinirebuli xasiaTisaa. igi Sedgeba

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    SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti

    kritika

    #9

    Tbilisi

    2014

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    UDK(uak)

    redaqtori manana kvaWantiraZe

    saredaqcio sabWo:

    lali avaliani Teimuraz doiaSvili Tamaz vasaZe ani kldiaSvili lela oCiauri irma ratiani maka joxaZe

    garekanis dizaini:

    soso tabucaZe

    redaqciis misamarTi: 0108, Tbilisi, merab kostavas q. # 5 tel. 99-53-00; E-mail: litinstituti@yahoo.com

    ISNN

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    g u r a m r C e u l i S v i l i _ 8 0 *

    manana kvaWantiraZe

    guram rCeuliSvilis teqsti 50-iani wlebis realobis konteqstSi

    istoriis gardamavali etapebebze gansakuTrebuli sim-

    wvaviT dgeba RirebulebaTa da maTTan dakavSirebul mniS- vnelobaTa identobis prob lema. saxelovnebo sferoSi igi gadaizrdeba Janrebisa da formalur-sti listur saSuale- baTa sazRvrebis problemaSi, rac, Tavis mxriv, gulis xmobs enisa da cnobierebis intencias gafarToebisken, axal codnas sam yaroze, adamian ze, drosa da sivrceze, maT kavSirebsa da urTi erTmimarTebebze, da Sesabamisad, salite raturo norme- bisa da kano nebis rRvevas. am dros ena da cnobiereba tovebs nawarmoebis, rogorc tradi ciuli litera tu ruli formis normatiul sazRvrebs da gadis teqstis sivrceSi, romelic literaturul-esTetikur Rirebu le ba Ta sxva xedvasa da Txroba-asaxvis gansxvavebul principebs emorCileba.

    es zogadad. am tendenciebma aSkarad iCines Tavs 50-iani wlebis qar Tul li teraturaSi da gansakuTrebiT radikalu- rad _ guram rCeuliS vil Tan. mis werilebSi, dRiurebsa da CanawerebSi araerTi mosazrebaa ga moT qmu li literaturis Teoriul da esTetikur problemebze, mis fun qci aze ax al realobasTan mimarTebaSi, sakuTar nawarmoebTan avtoris da- moki debu lebaze. amTaviTve unda iTqvas, rom es araa SemTx- veviTi mo saz rebebi axalgazrda literatorisa, romelsac igi SemoqmedebiTi muSaobisas spon tanurad CainiSnavs xolme. esaa myari ori en ti re bi rCeu liSvilis msoflmxedvelobriv- esTetikur SexedulebebSi ga sar kvevad da misi adgilis swo- rad gansasazRvrad qarTuli literaturis is toriaSi.  * 2014 wlis 21 maiss SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutSi Catarda guram rCeuliSvilis dabadebidan 80 wlisTavis aRsaniSnavi saiubileo samec- niero sesia. rubrikaSi warmodgenilia sesiaze wakiTxuli moxsenebebi.

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    rCeuliSvilis literaturuli memkvidreobis nawili aSkarad See saba meba teqstis cnebas Tavisi rTuli, araerT- mniSvnelovani enobrivi struq tu riT, mniSvnelobaTa ga- farToebis principiT, Txrobis Tavisufa li sti liT da sxv.: avtori ar isaxavs saTqmelis, teqstis aRsaniSnis mkafi od gamokveTas: `ra azri unda gamovitanoT? mag mxriv sruli uaz roba unda iyos Cemi piesa~ (g. rCeuliSvili. TxzulebaTa sruli krebu li eqvs tomad. t.4, gv.146); ar zRudavs Txrobas mkacr siuJetur-kompozi ciur Car CoTi (`Se saZlebeli rom iyos literaturulad, me am ambavs davto vebdi ubo lood~ (3, 416); saTqmelamde misasvlelad araerTgvarovan, xSi rad `ara- literaturul~ masalas iyenebs (istoriuls, biografiuls, do ku men turs da a. S.). igi Txrobis TviTdinebis imitacias qm- nis: Txroba TiT qos Tvi Tonve ganagebs avtoris nebas _ `min- doba kalamze~ (5, 435); pie sas arqmevs `sul xans” da SeniSnavs: `piesa originaluria imiT, rom hqvia sulxani, romelic saer- Tod ar Cans. azri: azri ara aqvs~ (5, 472 ). SemoqmedebiTi pro- cesis sabediswero xasiaTze erTgan wers: ̀ Cems Tavze sruliad mou lodnelad daemxo Semoqmedeba da Tanac araCveulebrivi sabediswero Za liT CamiTria Tavis uflebebSi…...…~ (5. 394). igi amocnobis, mig nebis poe tikas gvTavazobs. am TvalsazrisiT, rCeuliSvilis teqstebi war moadgenen mniSvnelovan siaxles XX saukunis qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi.

    aRniSnuli specifikaciebis gamo mizanSewonilad mig- vaCnia, rCeuliS vilis nawarmoebebi ganvixiloT rogorc teq- stebi: rogorc gareTa, oRond rTuli zedapiri siRrmisa; rogorc gacxadeba, niSani raRac fa li kodisa, romlic iqmneba qveteqstiTa da metateqstiT, da imTaviTve, Signidanve axlavs teqstis faqturas, rogorc misi ganuyofeli, metic, mwerlis TviT yvelaze bundovani Canafiqris ganmsazRvreli naw ili. am Tval sazrisiT, teqstis gageba guram rCeuliSvilTan radika- lu rad gan sxvavdeba postmodern istulisgan, sadac teqsti da kon teqsti gaTi Sulia da teqsti Tavsdeba araavTentur konteqstSi.

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    rCeuliSvilis teqstebi warmoadgens sxvadasxva ti- pis teqstebis _ is to riulis, dokumentur-biografiulis, fsiqosomaturis da a.S. _ Tana ar se bobis sivrces da maT mxatvrul-stilistur gardasaxvas: erTgan wers: `ara sodes avtori ise axlos ar misula Tavis nawar moebTan, ro go rc es Cvens epoqaSia~ (5, 431). es `axlos misvla~ aris swo red teqs- tis ga Cenis aucilebeli piroba. teqsti am siaxloviTaa de- ter minirebuli, misi nebiT iqsoveba (maTYSoris, sxeulebrivi siaxloviTac weris procesSi) da Tavi suflebasTan erTad avtorsa da mis enas (cnobierebas) Soris am Si na gan determi- nacias gamoxatavs. swored es faqtori aqcevs teq sts sain- tereso sakvlev masalad. rogorc baxtini ambobs, `sadac ar aris teq sti, iq arc sakvlevi da saazrovno obieqtia~ (Вахтин М.М. Эстетика словсного творчества. М. «Искусство» 1979. gv. 281). rCeu liSvilis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZloa, amgvari faqturis Seqm- nis moT xov nilebas, Rrma SemoqmedebiT intui cias Tan erTad, warmarTavda yofie rebisa da cnobierebis urTierTmimarTe- bis axali, postklasikuri Teori ebi, maT Soris egzistenci- alizmi, fenome no logia, struqtu ra lizmi, rom liTac imxanad gajerebuli iyo inteleq tu aluri siv rce mTel dasavleTSi da garkveulwilad, sabWoTa kavSirSic.

    rCeuliSvilis teqstebSi kodirebuli informacia rTuli, kombinire buli xasiaTisaa. igi Sedgeba msoflmxedvelobrivi, fsiqikuri, genetikuri, inteleqtualuri kodebisa da Sre- ebisagan da qmnis azrisa da gancdis erTian teqstualur re- alobas, romelSic damatebiTi saxiT kodi rebulia avtorisa da misi epoqis socialuri, istoriul-kulturuli, su li eri, inteleqtualuri informacia. gasaTvaliswinebe lia, rom rogorc gan sxva vebul enobriv-gamomsaxvelobiT formebze, rCeuliSvilis teq stebze vsaubrobT ara nawarmoebi/teqstis opoziciis konteqstSi, ara med maTi Tavisufali Tanaarse- bobis konteqstSi mwerlis mier dasaxuli Se moq medebiTi amocanis Sesabamisad. am Tavisuflebis miRma mis mierve mka- fiod gacxadebuli, farTo kulturuli da ideologiuri mniSvnelobis mi za ni da Sesabamisi mxatvrul-esTetikuri

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    amocana unda amo vikiTxoT, maT Soris: `bundovaneba, romlis yvela nawili sinaTliT sunTqavs (4, 419); gulwrfeloba: `xe- lovnebas mxolod gulwrfeloba swams~ (3, 401); da rac misi Semoqmedebis SefasebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, qarTveli kacis wardgena Tanamedrove epoqisTvis. vaxtang WeliZisadmi miweril gaugzavnel werilSi is saubrobs Tavis survilze `zogadi qarTvelis Seqmnisa~: `ai, Cemi zogadi lit- eraturuli survilebi: Sevqmna Tanamedrove qarTveli adami- ani Tavisi mkveTrad gamoxatuli da gansxvavebuli vnebebiT _ tragikuli da sasacilo~ (3, 403). aseve wers Zveli Taobebis sisxlze mis ZarRvebSi, sicocxlis Semmecnebel ganax lebul intuiciaze axal droSi da misiis SegrZnebaze (5, 435).

    am Canaweris konteqsti Zalze farToa da misi erTi veq- tori, vfiqrobT, asociaciurad ukavSirdeba 20-iani wlebis qarTuli moder nistuli mwerlobis mesianistur motivebs, radgan, rogorc misi Cana werebidan irkveva, rCeuliSvils iseve, rogorc qarTul mwerlobas zoga dad, arasdros gauzi- arebia saqarTvelos verSemdgar istoriul misiaze nikolo miwiSvilis pozicia.

    guram rCeuliSvili araCveulebrivi siRrmiT grZnobs epoqas da gamarjvebis yiJinis nacvlad krizisis mauwyebeli xmebi esmis: `teqnikis aseT progresTan erTad moxda erTi adamianis rolis aSkara dacema~ (5, 418). igi saxeSi uyurebs dros da swor arCevans akeTebs: erTi adamianis nebisyofasa da Tavisuflebis nebas mimarTavs situaciis cvlilebisken. brZolis asparezad igi mwerlobas irCevs: `vgrZnob Cems Tav- ze viRacis daRlis vermoSorebas, rac TviTon winadadebis dawyebaSic ki miSlis xels. SeiZleba Tu ara, Tu es marTlac dekadansis boloa, vaqcio igi re ne sansad Cemive TavSi~ (er- lom axvledianisadmi miwerili werilidan. 5, 390). Zlieri inteleqti da uCveulod gamaxvilebuli SemoqmedebiTi in- tui cia uRviZebs survils, dekadansisgan Seqmnas renesansi, `nerviuli saukunis~ is toriuli kanonzomierebis konteqst- Si gaiazros Tavisi `gasakeTebeli saqmec~: `es aris nerviuli saukune _ karebis Wrialic ki saSinlad moqmedebs adamianze,

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    es aris adamianis vnebebis saSineli dawvrimaleba _ mis mier istoriuli kanonzomierebiT dasaxuli gasakeTebeli saqmis monu mentalurobasTan ucnaur kavSirSi myofi~ (5, 430).

    dRes, SesaZloa, aRarc ise Znelia dainaxo es ucnauri kav- Siri, magram 50-ian wlebis bolos radikalurad gansxvave- buli mocemulobebis, struqturebis es `ucnauri kavSirebi~ mxolod erTeulebis, gnebavT, aTeulebis mier Tu aRiqmeboda mTeli siRrmiT. ufro metic, erTi cal keuli adamianis misi- isa Tu funqciis aRqma am kavSirebis konteqstSi, da rac mTa- varia, misi saqmed qceva pirovnuli nebisa da Tavisuflebis metafizikuri determinaciis srul aRiarebas niSnavda da sam- yaroSi adamianis misis pirdapiri miniSneba iyo. am konteqstSi Tavdayira dgeboda pirovnebisa da masis rolTa ganawilebis Teoria da Tanasworoba-Tavisuflebis konceptebis urTier- Sesabamisoba. swored `gasakeTebeli saq mis~ es monumenta- lizmi SeigrZno da irwmuna guramma, xolo misiis SegrZnebam ukarnaxa aramxolod eTikurad, esTetikuradac gamijvnoda sevdas: `sevda – mudmivi da zizRamde mosawyeni...~.

    am amocanebis fonze mniSvnelovan datvirTvas iZens misi mkafio da principuli damokidebuleba Sefasebis procesis mimarT. rogorc Cans, gu ra misTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania in- terpretaciisa da analizis sazRvrebis problema. igi icavs avtoris uflebas da ewinaaRmdegeba teqstze Zala do bas: `drom moiTxova mimeca Cemi moTxrobebisaTvis ideologi- uri saw yisi, biZgi im SeuCveveli kulturuli mkiTxvelisaT- vis, v