LỜI CẢM ƠN - ??I CẢM ƠN -

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  • i

    LI CM N

    Do mi bc u lm quen vi nhng bo co khoa hc, bn thn ti

    gp khng t nhng kh khn v b ng nhng c s ch bo tn tnh ca

    qu thy c v cc anh ch trong c s sn xut tm ging Nhn Anh, s

    ng vin ca gia nh v bn b ti c gng n lc thc hin tt ti

    ca mnh: Tm hiu quy trnh k thut ng nui u trng tm he chn trng

    Litopenaeus vannamei (Boon,1931), qua y ti xin gi li cm n chn

    thnh n:

    TS Lu Th Dung v ThS. Phm B V Tng tn tnh hng

    dn ti trong sut thi gian thc hin ti.

    Ks Bi Qy Anh cng cc cn b k thut ca c s sn xut tm

    ging tn tnh hng dn v gip ti trong thi gian thc tp.

    Khoa nui trng thy sn - trng i Hc Nha Trang v c s

    sn xut tm ging Nhn Anh to iu kin cho ti thc tp v hon

    thnh lun vn ny.

    Cui cng ti xin gi li cm n n tt c bn b trong lp

    47NT3 v gia nh thn yu ca ti lun st cnh cng ti vt qua mi

    kh khn.

    Sinh vin thc hin

    Phm Vn Nam

  • ii

    DANH MC CC T VIT TT

    N : Naupius

    Z : Zoea

    M : Mysis

    PL : Postlarvae

    Ar : Artemia

    TLS : T l sng

    VTM C : Vitamin C

    VSV : Vi sinh vat

    WSSV : Bnh Virus m trng tm he White Spot Syndrome Virus

    IHHN : Bnh hoi t c quan to mu Infectious Hypodermal and

    Hematopoietic Necrosis.

    TSV : Virus gy hi chng Taura Taura Syndrome Virus.

    YHV : Virus u vng Yellow Head Virus

    TNHH : Cng ty trch nhim hu hn

  • iii

    MC LC

    M U .....................................................................................................................1

    PHN 1: TNG QUAN...............................................................................................3

    1. Mt s c im sinh hc ca tm he chn trng .......................................................... 3

    1.1. c im phn loi................................................................................................ 3

    1.2. c im phn b.................................................................................................. 3

    1.3. c im hnh thi ................................................................................................ 4

    1.4. Tp tnh sng ......................................................................................................... 5

    1.5. Tnh n ca loi ..................................................................................................... 6

    1.6. c im sinh sn.................................................................................................. 6

    2. Cc nghin cu trong sn xut ging tm he Chn Trng............................................. 7

    2.1. c im hnh thi ca cc giai on u trng tm he Chn Trng .................. 7

    2.2. Nghin cu v sn xut ging ............................................................................ 11

    2.3. Mt s bnh thng gp ..................................................................................... 12

    2.4. Nghin cu to n tm sch bnh v ci thin cht lng di truyn ............. 14

    3. Tnh hnh nui tm he chn trng trn th gii v Vit Nam.................................. 15

    3.1. Trn th gii......................................................................................................... 15

    3.2. Tnh hnh nui tm he chn trng Vit Nam ................................................... 19

    PHN 2: PHNG PHP NGHIN CU ...............................................................23

    1. i tng v thi gian nghin cu................................................................................ 23

    1.1. i tng nghin cu.......................................................................................... 23

    1.2. Thi gian v a im nghin cu....................................................................... 23

    1.2.1. Thi gian nghin cu........................................................................................ 23

    1.2.2. a im nghin cu ........................................................................................ 23

    2. Phng php thu thp v x l s liu.......................................................................... 27

    2.1. Phng php thu thp s liu ............................................................................. 27

    2.1.1. Phng php thu gin tip ............................................................................. 27

  • iv

    2.1.2. Phng php thu trc tip .............................................................................. 27

    2.2. Phng php x l s liu ........................................................................................ 28

    2.2.1. Mt s cng thc tnh ton............................................................................. 28

    2.2.2. Phng php x l s liu.............................................................................. 29

    PHN 3: KT QU NGHIN CU V THO LUN............................................30

    1. Cc hng mc cng trnh phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ........................................... 30

    1.1. H thng cung cp nc: gm cc ng ng dn nc, b cha

    lng v x l, b lc v b cha nc sau khi lc .................................................... 30

    1.2. H thng thot nc ............................................................................................ 31

    1.3. Cc loi b phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ....................................................... 31

    2. Cc thit b cn thit....................................................................................................... 33

    3. K thut ng nui u trng tm he chn trng........................................................... 35

    3.1. Ngun nc v cch x l nc......................................................................... 35

    3.1.1. Ngun nc................................................................................................. 35

    3.1.2. X l nc................................................................................................... 35

    3.2. Chun b b v th Nauplius ............................................................................... 36

    3.2.1. Chun b b ng........................................................................................ 36

    3.2.2. Th Nauplius ............................................................................................... 37

    3.3. Thc n, khu phn v ch cho n.................................................................. 38

    3.3.1. Thc n ....................................................................................................... 38

    3.3.2 Cch phi trn thc n trong ng nui u trng .................................... 44

    3.3.3 K thut cho u trng n v chm sc ....................................................... 45

    3.4. Ch Siphon thay nc ..................................................................................... 47

    3.5. Ch sc kh ...................................................................................................... 48

    3.6. Din bin cc yu t mi trng trong b ng ................................................. 51

    3.7. Quan st din bin ca u trng trong sut thi gian ng nui....................... 52

    3.7.1. Quan st hot ng ca u trng .............................................................. 52

    3.7.2. Thi gian chuyn giai on ca u trng................................................. 53

    3.7.3. T l sng ca u trng ............................................................................. 54

  • v

    3.7.4. Thu hoch, ng Postlarvae v vn chuyn............................................ 55

    4. Mt s bnh thng gp trong ng nui u trng v cch phng tr ....................... 56

    5. Tm hiu quy trnh x l nc thi, bo v mi trng bn vng .............................. 60

    PHN 4 : KT LUN V XUT KIN.........................................................62

    1. Kt lun .......................................................................................................................... 62

    1.1. Cng trnh, thit b phc v cho sn xut............................................................ 62

    1.2. K thut ng nui u trng ................................................................................ 62

    1.3. Mt s bnh thng gp v cch phng tr bnh ................................................ 64

    1.4. Tm hiu quy trnh x l nc thi, bo v ......................................................... 64

    2. xut kin ............................................................................................................... 65

    TI LIU THAM KHO ..........................................................................................66

  • vi

    DANH MC CC BNG

    Bng 1.1: Tm tt nhng u, nhc im chnh ca vic nui tm he chn trng.......17

    Bng 1.2: Sn lng c tnh ca tt c cc loi tm v tm he chn trng cc

    nc chu (ngun FAO) .........................................................................................18

    Bng 2.1: Nhit khng kh trung bnh cc thng trong nm2008 .........................24

    Bng 2.2: m khng kh trung bnh trong nm 2008..............................................24

    Bng 2.3: Tc gi trung bnh ca tnh Bnh Thun nm 2008 ................................24

    Bng 6: Cc cng trnh xy dng phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ...............................31

    Bng 7: cc trang thit b ca trai phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ...............................34

    Bng 8: Cc loi thc n tng hp c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut ..................39

    Bng 9: Chiu di, trng lng kh v nng lng ca u trng Artemia mi

    n. .....................................