Lte Coverage and Capacitry Dimensioning

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  • Long Term Evolution (LTE) Access NetworkCoverage and Capacity Dimensioning

    This thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor thedegree of high diploma in wireless telecommunicationsystem.

    Submitted by

    Amr Abdel-Magid Kassab Amr Mahmoud Morsy Mohammed Mahmoud Mohammed Saad Mohamed Mahmoud Mohamed Tantawy Mohamed Morsy Mohamed Hanaa Abdelmoety Kamel Walaa Abd-Elhamid Elawam

    Supervised ByDr.Hamed Abdel Fatah El Shenawy

    Cairo 2013

    Ministry of Higher EducationNational Telecommunication InstituteElectronics and Communications Department

  • AcknowledgementsFirst of all, we are grateful to ALLAHALMIGHTY, the most merciful,the most beneficent, who gave us strength, guidance and abilities tocomplete this thesis in a successful manner.We are thankful to our parents and our teachers that guided us throughoutour career path especially in building up our base in education andenhance our knowledge.We are indebted to our supervisor Dr. Hamed Abd El Fattah ElShenawyfor his supervision and his co-operation and support really helped uscompleting our project.

  • AbstractLong Term Evolution (LTE) is set of enhancement to the current

    cellular system in use. LTE is designed to have scalable channelbandwidth up to 20MHz, with low latency and packet optimized radioaccess technology. The peak data rate of LTE is 100 Mbps in downlinkand 50 Mbps in the uplink.

    LTE support both FDD and TDD duplexing.LTE with OFDM technology in the down link, which provides

    higher spectral efficiency and more robustness against multipath fadingLTE with SC-FDMA in the uplink LTELTE with different MIMO configurations

    Dimensioning is initial phase of network planning. It provides estimateof the network elements count as well as the capacity of those elements.The purpose of our project to estimate the required number ofeNodeBs needed to support users with certain traffic load with adesired level of quality of service (QOS) and cover the area ofinterest.This estimate fulfills coverage requirements and verified for capacityrequirements .Coverage dimensioning occurs via radio link budget (RLB), maximumallowable propagation path loss (MAPL) is obtained. MAPL is convertedinto cell radius by using appropriate propagation models. The radius ofthe cell is used to calculate the number of sites required to cover the areaof interest. The cell size and the site count are obtained.Capacity planning deals with the ability of the network to provideservices to certain numbers of users with a desired level of quality ofservice (QOS).Capacity based site count is compared with coverage based site count.The greater one is selected as the final site count.

  • Project objectives Overview of LTE system architecture and specifications Dimensioning of LTE Network Coverage dimensioning via radio link budget and propagation

    models Capacity dimensioning Numerical results using Visual Studio and basic language Conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  • iList of ContentsItem Page

    1.0 Chapter One: Overview of LTE 1-11.1 Introduction 1-22.2 IMT-Advanced 1-21.3 LTE specifications 1-4

    LTE Architecture 1-152.0 Chapter Two: LTE network dimensioning 2-12.1 Introduction 2-22.2 LTE network dimensioning 2-22.3 LTE network dimensioning inputs 2-62.4 Coverage planning inputs 2-72.5 Capacity planning inputs 2-82.6 LTE network dimensioning outputs 2-82.7 Comparison among dimensioning, planning, optimization 2-93.0 Chapter Three: Coverage dimensioning 3-13.1 Introduction 3-23.2 Concepts and Terminology 3-43.3 Link Budget Definition 3-53.4 Why we use Link Budget? 3-63.5 What are the types of Link Budget? 3-63.6 Up Link Budget (Up Link coverage) 3-73.7 Up Link Budget entries 3-73.8 Morphologies Classifications 3-283.9 Down Link Budget(Down Link coverage) 3-293.10 Down Link limited Link Budget 3-35

  • ii

    3.11 propagation models 3-373.12 Classifications of propagation models 3-393.13 Ericsson variant COST 231 Okomara-Hata wave propagation

    model3-42

    4.0 Chapter Four: Capacity dimensioning 4-14.1 Introduction 4-24.2 Uplink capacity 4-34.3 Downlink capacity 4-64.4 Application or service distribution model 4-135.0 Chapter Five: numerical results 5-15.1 Uplink budget 5-35.2 Effects on cell Radius (R) 5-175.3 Downlink capacity 5-216.0 Chapter Six: conclusion and suggestions for future work 6-16.1 Conclusion 6-26.2 Suggestions for future work 6-3

  • iii

    List of figuresItems Page

    Figure(1-1) Overview of IMT advanced 1-2Figure(1-2) Resource element and resource block 1-14Figure(1-3) LTE architecture 1-15Figure(1-4) Evolved Packet System 1-15Figure(2-1) LTE network planning process 2-2Figure(2-2) Dimensioning basic steps 2-3Figure(2-3) LTE network dimensioning inputs 2-6

    Figure(2-4) LTE coverage planning 2-7Figure(2-5) LTE dimensioning outputs 2-9Figure(2-6) LTE optimization process stages 2-10Figure(2-7) LTE optimization process 2-11Figure(2-8) LTE optimization process 2-16Figure(3-1) LTE Dimensioning Process 3-4Figure(3-2) Resource Block Definition in Frequency

    Domain.3-11

    Figure(3-3) Downlink and Uplink User Scheduling in Timeand Frequency Domain.

    3-12

    Figure (4.1) channel bandwidth partitioning 4-22Figure (4-2) subscriber class deployment model 4-29Figure(5-1) flowchart of effective isotropic radiated power 5-3Figure(5-2) Effective Isotropic Radiated Power 5-3Figure(5-3) flowchart of sensitivity of eNodeB 5-5Figure(5-4) Sensitivity of Enhanced nodeB 5-5

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    Figure(5-5) flowchart of Interference Margin 5-7Figure(5-6) flowchart of Log Normal Fading Margin 5-7Figure(5-7) flowchart of total margins 5-8Figure(5-8) Total margin 5-8Figure(5-9) flowchart of total gains 5-10Figure(5-10) flowchart of total losses 5-10Figure(5-11) total gains and total losses 5-11Figure(5-12) flowchart of maximum allowable path loss 5-12Figure(5-13) Max. allowable path loss 5-13Figure(5-14) flowchart of cell radius using Ericson variant

    Okumara -Hata5-14

    Figure(5-15) flowchart of site count 5-15Figure(5-16) cell radius and Site Count 5-15

    Figure(5-17) the effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) Omni

    5-17

    Figure(5-18) the effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) 3 sector

    5-18

    Figure(5-19) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R)omni

    5-19

    Figure(5-20) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R) 3sector

    5-20

    Figure(5-21) downlink capacity 5-21

  • vList of tablesItem Page

    Table(1-1) Improvement in downlink spectral efficiency goingfrom 2G to 4G System

    1-7

    Table (1-2) Targets for average spectrum efficiency 1-8Table (3-1) Bandwidths and number of physical resource

    blocks3-16

    Table(3-2) Channel models specifications 1 3-18Table (3-3) Channel models specifications 2 3-18Table(3-4) Channel propagation conditions 3-19Table(3-5) Maximum Doppler frequency for each channel

    model3-19

    Table(3-6) Semi empirical parameters for uplink 3-21Table(3-7) Examples of F for varying tilt 3-23Table(3-8) Lognormal fading margins for varying standard

    deviation of log normal fading3-24

    Table(3-9) Values of penetration loss on different morphologyclasses

    3-26

    Table(3-10) Summarizes the features of different morphologies 3-28,3-29

    Table(3-11) Examples of Fc at cell edge for varying tilt 3-33Table(3-12) Semi empirical parameters for downlink 3-33Table(3-14) Fixed attenuation A in Ericsson variant COST 231

    Okumara Hata propagation models3-43

    Table(4-1) SINR values corresponding to each modulationcoding scheme (MCS)

    4-4

  • vi

    Table(4-2) semi- empirical parameters for up link 4-5

    Table(4-3) Semi- empirical parameters for downlink 4-11

    Table (4.5) applications or services distribution model 4-14

    Table (4.6) mobile service flows and QoS parameters 4-19

    Table (4.7) subscriber class distribution model 4-28

    Table (4.8) subscriber class traffic model 4-30

    Table (5-1) Default values of User Equipment EffectiveIsotropic Radiated Power(EIRP)

    5-4

    Table(5-2) Default values of Enhanced NodeB sensitivity 5-6Table(5-3) Default values of total margin 5-9Table(5-4) Default values of total Gain and losses 5-12Table(5-5) Default values of Maximum allowable path loss

    (MAPL)5-14

    Table(5-6) values of Cell Radius and Site count withdifference Base stations heights

    5-16

    Table(5-7) The effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) Omni

    5-17

    Table(5-8) The effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) 3 sector

    5-18

    Table(5-9) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R)omni

    5-19

    Table(5-10) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R) 3sector

    5-20

  • vii

    List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

    16QAM: 16 point quadrature amplitude modulation

    3GPP: Third Generation Partnership

    QAM: 64 point quadrature amplitude modulation

    3G: third generation

    4G: fourth generationAACK: AcknowledgementAGC: Automatic Gain ControlAP: Access PointARQ: Automatic Repeater RequestAUC: Authentication centerA/D: Analog to digitalADSL: Assymetric Digital Subscriber LineAMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone ServicesAWGN: Additive White Gaussian NoiseBBCH: Broadcast ChannelBPSK: Binary Phase Shift KeyingBSC: Base Station ControllerBTS: Base Transceiver StationBW: BandwidthBER: Bit Error Rate

  • viii

    CCDMA: Code Division Multiple AccessCW: Continuous WaveCPL: Car Penetration LossCOST: Community Collaborative studies in the areas of science andtechnologyDDL: DownlinkDSL: Digital Subscriber LineD/A: Digital to analogDU: Dense UrbanEEDGE: Enhanced Data Rate for GSM EvolutionEIR: Equipment Identity RegisterEIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated PowereNodeB: Enhanced