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M91 第五組 The Cardiovascular System 組長 9101104 盛少廷 組員 9101005 黃馨慧 組員 9101019 馬兆緯 組員 9101024 陳志安 組員 9101027 方科智 組員 9101028

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Text of M91 第五組 The Cardiovascular System 組長 9101104 盛少廷 組員 9101005 黃馨慧 組員...

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M91 The Cardiovascular System 9101104 9101005 9101019 9101024 9101027 9101028 9101029 9101033 9101042 9101048 9101051 9101076 9101084 9101090 9101091 9101097 9101125 9101144 9101156 9101157 9101158 Slide 2 Slide 3 splanchnic mesoderm primodial myocardium Slide 4 Aortic arch Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Further development of heart Tubular heart elongates and develops dilations and constrictions : Atrium Sinus venosus Ventricle Bulbus cordis Truncus arteriosus Slide 8 Partitioning of Primordial Heart Partitioning of Atrioventricular Canal Cardiac jelly endocardial cushion (by the end of 4th week) Atrioventricular canal left and right atrioventricular canal Endocardial cell AV valves (mitral valve & tricuspid valve) Slide 9 Partitioning of Primordial Atrium Foramen primum - becomes smaller & disappears Foramen secundum becomes larger (fusion of perforations in the central part of septum primum) Septum secundum overlaps foramen secundum oval foramen formed Septum primum - cranial part disappears - caudal part valve of oval foramen oval fossa (after birth) Slide 10 Changes in Sinus Venosus Initially right and left sinus are the same size. 4 th week - Right horn enlarge (1)anastomosis (2) right vitelline vein change into IVC sinus vanarum (smooth part of RA) - Left horn size decreases coronary sinus - Caudal part of sinuatrial valve valve of IVC and coronary sinus Slide 11 Partitioning of Primordial Ventricle Muscular part of the IV septum enlarging ventricle myoblast - ( 6th) IV foramen still exists - ( 7th) IV foramen closed right & left bulbar ridges+ endocardial cushion Membranous part of the IV septum right side of the endocardial cushion Complete partitioning - aorticopulmonary septum + membranous part of IV septum + muscular part of IV septum Slide 12 Partitioning of Bulbus Cordis and Truncus Arteriosus Fusion of bulbar ridges and truncal ridges aorticopulmonary septum 180 degree spiraling of aorticopulmonary septum divides aorta & pulmonary trunk Formation of semilunar valves - by 3 swellings of subendocardial tissue - aortic valve post., right & left cusps - pulmonary valve ant., right & left cusps Slide 13 Congenital cardiovascular defects What is congenital cardiovascular defects? What is congenital cardiovascular defects? What causes congenital heart defects? What causes congenital heart defects? What are the symptoms of congenital defects? What are the symptoms of congenital defects? How are congenital defects diagnosed? How are congenital defects diagnosed? How are congenital heart defects treated? How are congenital heart defects treated? Slide 14 Types of congenital defects Obstruction defects Obstruction defects Septal Defect Septal Defect Cyanotic defects Cyanotic defects Slide 15 Obstruction defects Obstructions are called stenoses and can occur in heart valves, arteries or veins common forms Pulmonary stenosis Coarctation of the aorta Aortic stenosis Related but less common forms Bicuspid aortic valve Ebstein's anomaly Subaortic stenosis Slide 16 Septal Defect atrial septal defect (ASD) atrial septal defect (ASD) ventricular septal defect (VSD) ventricular septal defect (VSD) Eisenmenger s complex Eisenmenger s complex A-V canal defect (endocardial cushion defect) A-V canal defect (endocardial cushion defect) Slide 17 Cyanotic defects Another classification of heart defects is congenital cyanotic heart defects. In these defects, blood pumped to the body contains less-than-normal amounts of oxygen. This results in a condition called cyanosis, a blue discoloration of the skin. The term "blue babies" is often applied to infants with cyanosis. Cyanotic defects Another classification of heart defects is congenital cyanotic heart defects. In these defects, blood pumped to the body contains less-than-normal amounts of oxygen. This results in a condition called cyanosis, a blue discoloration of the skin. The term "blue babies" is often applied to infants with cyanosis. Examples of cyanotic defects are: Examples of cyanotic defects are: Patent ductus arteriosus Patent ductus arteriosus Tetralogy of Fallot, Tetralogy of Fallot, Transposition of the great arteries, Transposition of the great arteries, Tricuspid atresia, Tricuspid atresia, Pulmonary atresia, Pulmonary atresia, Truncus arteriosus Truncus arteriosus Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Slide 18 Slide 19 Transposition of The Great Arteries Slide 20 Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection