Rakesh Sharma From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other people named Rakesh Sharma, see  Rakesh Sharma (disambiguation) . Rakesh Sharma Rakesh Sharma Intercosmos Research Cosmonaut Nationality IndianStatus Retired Born January 13, 1949 (age 62) Patiala, Punjab, India Other occupation Test Pilot Rank Wing Commander , Indian Air Force Time in space 7d 21h 40m Missions Soyuz T-11  /  Soyuz T-10 Mission insignia Awards Ashok Chakra Hero of the Soviet Union 

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Rakesh Sharma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other people named Rakesh Sharma, see Rakesh Sharma (disambiguation). 

Rakesh Sharma

Rakesh Sharma

Intercosmos Research Cosmonaut

Nationality Indian  

Status Retired

BornJanuary 13, 1949 (age 62)

Patiala, Punjab, India 


occupationTest Pilot

RankWing Commander, Indian AirForce 

Time in space 7d 21h 40m

Missions Soyuz T-11  /  Soyuz T-10 

Mission insignia

AwardsAshok Chakra 

Hero of the Soviet Union 

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Wing commander Rakesh Sharma, AC, (born January 13, 1949) is a former Indian Air Force 

test pilot, and Cosmonaut aboard Soyuz T-11 as part of an Intercosmos Research Team. Sharmawas the first Indian to travel in space.[1][2] 



  1 Education and early career 

  2 Spaceflight 

  3 References 

  4 External links 

[edit] Education and early career

Rakesh Sharma was born in 1949 in Patiala, Punjab, India in a Punjabi family and was schooledat [Kendriya Vidyalaya Tirumalagiri, Secunderabad (Hyderabad)|Kendriya Vidyalaya

Tirumalagiri]], Secunderabad Hyderabad. He joined the NDA as an Air Force cadet in July 1966.

He was commissioned into the Indian Air Force as a Pilot Officer in 1970. In 1971 operationsagainst Pakistan, he flew various missions in his MIG aircraft with distinction.[3] 

[edit] Spaceflight

This biographical section of an article needs additional citations for verification. 

Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that isunsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially

libelous or harmful. (April 2011) 

Sharma joined the Indian Air Force and progressed rapidly through the ranks. Sharma, then aSquadron Leader and pilot with the Indian Air Force embarked on a historic mission in 1984 as

part of a joint space program between the Indian Space Research Organisation and the Soviet Intercosmos space program, and spent eight days in space aboard the Salyut 7 space station. 

Launched along with two Soviet cosmonauts aboard Soyuz T-11 on the 3 April 1984, was 35-

year-old Sharma. During the flight, Sharma conducted multi-spectral photography of northern

India in anticipation of the construction of  hydroelectric power stations in the Himalayas. In a

famous conversation, he was asked by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi how India lookedfrom space, to which he replied, '' Main binaa jhijhak ke keh sakta hoon..,'Sare Jahan Se

 Achcha, (a reference to an iconic poem used in India's freedom struggle, usually referred to as

'Saare jahaan se achha Hindustan haamara, ' our land of Hindustan, is the Best in the world').  

He was conferred with the honour of  Hero of Soviet Union upon his return from space. TheGovernment of India conferred its highest gallantry award (during peace time), the Ashoka

Chakra on him and the other two Soviet members of his mission.

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Sharma and his backup, Wing Commander Ravish Malhotra, also prepared an elaborate series of 

zero-gravity Yoga exercises which the former had practised aboard the Salyut 7. Retiring withthe rank of  Wing Commander, Rakesh Sharma joined Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as

a test pilot at its Nashik Division. He was later based at the National Flight Test Center (NFTC)

in Bangalore and worked on the indigenous Light Combat Aircraft program, among others.

Bindra booked his place in the 2008 Olympics by winning the gold medal at the 2006 ISSF WorldShooting Championships with a score of 699.1.


At the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Abhinav Bindra won the gold for the Men's 10m Air Rifle final after shootinga total of 700.5. He scored 596 (fourth) in the qualifying round and out-scored all other shooters in thefinals with a round of 104.5. In the finals, he started with a shot of 10.7, and none of his shots were below10.0. Bindra was tied with Henri Häkkinen heading into his final shot. Bindra scored his highest of thefinals — 10.8 while Hakkinen came with 9.7 to settle for the Bronze medal. It has been alleged thatAbhinav Bindra's gun was tampered with between the qualifying and final round of the event, though noofficial complaint was filed by the Indian contingent. 

This was India's first individual gold medal at the Olympics, and the first gold in 28 years, since the Men'sField Hockey team won the gold at the 1980 Moscow Olympics. Bindra was rewarded by various Indianstate governments and private organizations for his achievement. 

The Flying Sikh - Milkha Singh 

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Sardar Milkha Singh is the greatest living Sikh Athlete. Born in a family of 

modest means, joining the army and then discovering the penchant for running

and winning is his life in summation. . He deservedly

got an epithet named "Flying Sikh" from Pakistan

General Ayub Khan. Till date (Until 2000 SydneyOlympics) the 'Flying Sikh' is the only Indian to have

broken an Olympic record. Unfortunately, he was the

fourth athlete to reset the mark and thus missed thebronze medal in the 400m event at the Rome

Olympics in 1960.

following is the article reproduced from www.rediff.com 

For the man who won 77 of the 80 races he ran, Milkha Singh has no medals. It

has been some years that 'The Flying Sikh' donated his sporting treasures to thenation. No personal souvenirs line his living room walls, no trophies sit on the

mantle. Instead, the walls make do with pictures of the surgeon in America who

saved his wife's life and Havildar Bikram Singh, a Kargil martyr. "I have givenpermission that my medals be transferred from the Jawaharlal Nehru stadium in

New Delhi to the sports museum in Patiala," says the 72-year-old Singh.

Strangely, the stadium gallery lined with many of India's sporting talent does nothave a single picture of Milkha Singh. In a country where great sportspersons are

few and far between, India has a strange way of honouring its stars.

But Milkha Singh's achievements can do without such testimony. "The people of 

this country remember me. I may have started dyeing my beard but I am

recognised at airports, railway stations -- anywhere. School textbooks have

chapters on me, and somehow the sobriquet 'The Flying Sikh' has endured in

people's memory," he says. Singh, however, has no complaints about therecognition given to him by the government. A Padma Shri and Arjuna Award

winner, the legendary athlete who started his career on a Rs 10 wage went on to

become director, sports, ministry of education in the Punjab government. "I havereceived more than I deserved."

It was a hard uphill climb for the refugee from Muzaffargarh in west Pakistan.

The Partition massacres of 1947 took the lives of his parents and Singh wasrejected by the army thrice. He subsequently enrolled in the army's electricalmechanical engineering branch in 1952 when his brother Malkhan Singh put in a

word for him, and experienced his first sport outing at its athletics meet a

fortnight later. "That was the first time I saw a ground bedecked with flags,"reminisces Singh. "I later participated in a crosscountry race with 300 to 400

 jawans. And sat down after the first half mile before starting again -- that was my

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first race."

Determined to be the best and realising his talent as a sprinter, the jawan took to

training five hours every day. Motivated by his

coach Havildar Gurdev Singh, he left it to theelements to hone his craft -- running on the hills,

the sands of the Yamuna river, and against thespeed of a metre gauge train. He says so intense

was his training that very often he vomitted blood

and would collapse in exhaustion.

Every morning Milkha Singh still goes for a jog

by the Sukhna lake in Chandigarh. Most afternoons are spent playing golf and he

uses the gym in his house regularly. "Discipline. You have to be disciplined if 

you want to be world class," he says, "That's what I tell my son Jeev. I give him

the example of Tiger Woods, and hope he would bring the medal I couldn't." JeevMilkha Singh, India's best golfer, was recently awarded the Arjuna Award and is

striving to make a mark on the international golf circuit. Whether he does manageto bring the sporting glory that eluded his father, is yet to be seen. Till then, it is a

disappointment that Milkha Singh will never forget. Forty years on, that failure in

Rome still haunts him. 1960. The Olympics at Rome

After clocking a world record 45.8 seconds in one of the 400 metres

preliminaries in France, Milkha Singh finished fourth in a photofinish in the

Olympics final. The favourite for gold had missed the bronze. By a fraction...

"Since it was a photofinish, the announcements were held up. The suspense wasexcruciating. I knew what my fatal error was: After running perilously fast in lane

five, I slowed down at 250 metres. I could not cover the lost ground after that --

and that cost me the race." "After the death of my parents, that is my worstmemory," says Singh, "I kept crying for days." Dejected by his defeat, he made

up his mind to give up sport. It was after much persuasion that he took to athletics

again. Two years later, Milkha Singh won two medals at the 1962 Asian Games.But by then his golden period was over.

It was between 1958 and 1960 that Milkha Singh saw the height of glory. From

setting a new record in the 200 and 400 metres at the Cuttack National Games, he

won two gold medals at the Asian Games at Tokyo. The lean Sikh went on to wingold at the Commonwealth Games in Cardiff, and was awarded the Helms trophy

or being the best athlete in 1959.

Three years before the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Milkha Singh ran that one race

which made President Ayub Khan christen him 'The Flying Sikh.' His defeat of 

Pakistan's leading athlete and winner of the 100 metres gold at the Tokyo Asiad,

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Abdul Khaliq, earned him India's bestknown sports sobriquet. "It has stuck 

since," he adds.

Thirtysix years later, Britain's Ann Packer remembers him too. This time for his

camaraderie. Jittery about her performance in the 800 metres against formidableFrench German and Hungarian athletes in the Tokyo Olympics in 1964, Packer

clearly remembered her encounter with Singh in the lift they shared on the day of her event. 'Ann you vill win,' she recounted Singh's words to a The Sunday Times

 journalist at her home in Cheshire recently. And vin she did. Packer clocked 2min

1.1 sec and set a new world record. Singh was among the first to congratulate her.

There are many who still congratulate Milkha Singh. "Sirji, I remember seeing

you when I was a young recruit in the army," said Gairwar Singh as he chanced

upon the former athlete getting into his car outside the Chandigarh Golf Club.

Elated that Singh stops to shake hands with him, Gairwar Singh -- now a driver

with a transport company in Delhi -- tells him about his interest in wrestling. "It isappreciation from the people that helps me go ahead at this age," Singh had

earlier said at his home in Sector 8, Chandigarh. With two of his daughtersmarried and one away in the United States, and his son travelling around the

world regularly -- Singh says he enjoys the tranquility. Last year, he adopted the

seven-year-old son of Havildar Bikram Singh who died in the Battle for TigerHill. The child is at a boarding school and Singh has taken on the responsibility

of bringing him up.

"We owe it to those who have died for the honour of our country," he says,

"Unlike our cricketers who have sold our country." Deeply disappointed withthese ambassadors of India's most popular game, he firmly believes the guilty

should be punished. "They cannot mock the aspirations of an entire nation," says

Singh surveying the debris of many a fallen sporting icon.

Decades after he hung up his running shoes, one thing is for sure -- the Flying

Sikh still stands tall. 'He has been a great source of inspiration'

Jeev Milkha Singh on his father (Jeev Milkha Singh's interview by Onkar Singh )

Whenever I look at Milkha Singh, I see a dedicated and determined human

being. He enforced strict discipline in me in particular and was very tough at

times. He wanted me to become a better golfer. There is no way I can match himin any manner. I have always looked up to him for what he has done for the

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country. He is a great motivator and if anyone takes his advice he is bound to

excel in life. I was not even born when he quit running. This is my biggest

misfortune. Of course, I have seen him jogging on the golf course to warm upbefore a game. I have watched some of the documentaries made on him and I am

really impressed. It was nice to see him in action. To realise that 'The Flying Sikh'

is none else than my father. I wish I had seen him participate in a competitiverace in a stadium though, than see him on film.

I was 11 when I went to boarding school in Shimla. I had hardly entered my

classroom when I heard a boy telling another boy that I was Milkha Singh's son.When I heard this, I realised my father was a big name in Indian sport. Till then it

had never ever dawned on me that he is a legend. He is a frank human being, a

no-nonsense man, who does not take no for an answer. At 72, he still has the

same drive. When I play golf with him, he wants to beat me. The zeal to be betterthan his opponent is still there. Like great athletes he believes there is nothing in

the world you cannot achieve provided you have the will to do so.

If I were asked to list five of his great qualities, I would say he is honest,

focussed and knows his goals. He has the determination to achieve his goals and

has great motivation skills. Even an ordinary player can be moulded into a good

one under his guidance. Last, but not least, he is a very disciplined human being.He says if you have achieved one goal, then you should set your eyes on higher

goals and continue your drive to do better and better. "If you have become the

best in Asia, then you should try to be the best in the world" is what he tells me

all the time.

He wanted me to become an athlete. But I wanted to play golf like he did after

giving up athletics. He told me he had nothing against my playing golf. But he

told me, "Son it is no use playing golf if you are not going to be the best.Whatever game you may play, you have to prove that nobody can beat you."

When I am not doing well, he encourages me to do well. He has been a great

source of inspiration.

But even Milkha Singh has his regret. Even now, he cannot forget the 400

metres at the Rome Olympics where he finished fourth in one of the most

competitive races -- all four runners broke the world record and finished the race

in four minutes. He is going to die with this regret at the back of his mind.Sometimes he becomes very emotional about this. Milkha Singh is born once in

many generations. I am lucky to have been born in his family and watch him

from close quarters as his son.

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The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the tenth Cricket World Cup. It was played in India, SriLanka, and Bangladesh. It was Bangladesh's first time co-hosting a World Cup. The World Cup

was also due to be co-hosted by Pakistan, but in the wake of the 2009 attack  on the Sri Lanka

national cricket team in Lahore, the International Cricket Council (ICC) decided to remove

Pakistan from the hosting countries.[1]

 The headquarters of the organising committee wereoriginally situated in Lahore, but have now been shifted to Mumbai .[2] Pakistan was supposed to

hold 14 matches, including one semi-final.[3]

 Eight of Pakistan's matches (including the semi-

final) were awarded to India, four to Sri Lanka and two to Bangladesh.[4] 

All matches in the World Cup were accorded One Day International status, with all matchesbeing played over 50 overs. Fourteen national cricket teams competed in the tournament,

including ten full members and four associate members.[5] The World Cup took place between 19

February and 2 April 2011, with the first match played on 19 February 2011 with co-hosts  India 

and Bangladesh facing off at the Sher-e-Bangla National Stadium in Mirpur, Dhaka.[6]

 Theopening ceremony was held on 17 February 2011 at Bangabandhu National Stadium, Dhaka, two

days before the start of the tournament,[7]

 with the final on 2 April 2011 between India and Sri

Lanka at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai. 

India won the tournament defeating Sri Lanka by 6 wickets in the final in Mumbai. India becamethe first nation to win a World Cup final on home soil.

[8][9] India's Yuvraj Singh was declared the

man of the tournament.[10] 


The great biologist, who showed those plants, too can feel in their own way.

He saved money:he bought a small laboratory and built his equipment; andscientists in Europe and America wondered at his discoveries. A true patriotand a great man.

 Author - Sreemathi Hariprasad  

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Suppose there is a lush green plant and its leaves are a sparkling green in theshining sunlight. We feel like pulling out a leaf to feel it. But we do not think ofwhat goes on inside the plant. May be, we feel that the plant does not suffer

like us. But the plant does suffer. In fact the pulsation of the plant stops wherethe leaf was plucked. In a short time the pulsation again begins at the spot,but this time very slowly. And then it completely stops. That spot is as good asdead for the plant.

It was Jagadishchandra Bose, an eminent Indian scientist, who explained thatplants also suffer pain like us. Though he wored in other fields of science, heis best know for his research into the life of plants. 

In 1917, Raman resigned from his government service and took up the newly created PalitProfessorship in Physics at the University of Calcutta. At the same time, he continued doing

research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta, where he became theHonorary Secretary. Raman used to refer to this period as the golden era of his career. Many

students gathered around him at the IACS and the University of Calcutta.

Energy level diagram showing the states involved in Raman signal.

On February 28, 1928, through his experiments on the scattering of light, he discovered theRaman effect. It was instantly clear that this discovery was an important one. It gave further

proof of the quantum nature of light. Raman spectroscopy came to be based on this phenomenon,and Ernest Rutherford referred to it in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929.

Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was

conferred a knighthood, and medals and honorary doctorates by various universities. Raman wasconfident of winning the Nobel Prize in Physics as well, and was disappointed when the Nobel

Prize went to Richardson in 1928 and to de Broglie in 1929. He was so confident of winning the

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prize in 1930 that he booked tickets in July, even though the awards were to be announced in

November, and would scan each day's newspaper for announcement of the prize, tossing it awayif it did not carry the news. He did eventually win the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work 

on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him". He was the first

Asian and first non-White to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. Before him  Rabindranath

Tagore (also Indian) had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.

C.V Raman & Bhagavantam, discovered the quantum photon spin in 1932, which furtherconfirmed the quantum nature of light.[3] 

Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of  superposition velocities. He was also the

first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the


Raman and his student of mim high school, provided the correct theoretical explanation for the

acousto-optic effect (light scattering by sound waves), in a series of articles resulting in thecelebrated Raman-Nath theory. Modulators, and switching systems based on this effect have

enabled optical communication components based on laser systems.

In 1934, Raman became the assistant director of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, 

where two years later he continued as a professor of physics. Other investigations carried out byRaman were experimental and theoretical studies on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies (published 1934-1942), and those on the effects produced

by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light.

He also started a company called cv Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in 1943 along with

Dr. Krishnamurthy. The Company during its 60 year history, established four factories inSouthern India. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government

of Independent India.

In 1948, Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behavior of crystals, approached in a newmanner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. He dealt with the structure and properties of 

diamond, the structure and optical behavior of numerous iridescent substances (labradorite, 

pearly feldspar, agate, opal, and pearls). Among his other interests were the optics of  colloids, 

electrical and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision.[4]


Kargil War: A Glorious Victory for India 

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July 26, 1999 will go down in the annals of Indian history as a day whenthe determined Indian forces achieved a glorious victory over theretreating Pakistani army. 

It was on this day that the Indian victory over Pakistan was complete. True to itscharacter despite having to pay a heavy price for fighting a war within its

territory, the Indian forces allowed the Pakistanis to return across the Line of Control (LoC). It was agesture which depicted the great Indian tradition of forgiving even the enemy, when it pleads for it. ForPakistan, it was another lesson which it would probably not forget for a long time. It would also putPakistan to shame, for it chose to torture and kill the Indian prisoners of War (PoWs), rather than handingthem over safely as was done by India through the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).  

Fighting against all odds in the icy heights of Kargil, a remote region in the stateof Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian forces ensured that the supreme sacrificemade by their gallant soldiers did not go waste. As the nation stood like a rockbehind the men fighting a war forced upon India by Pakistan, the plea fromIslamabad to allow a safe passage to the trapped Pakistani soldiers was an

ultimate proof about the capabilities of the Indian defence. The successfuleviction of Pakistanis by the concerted action of the Indian Armed Forcesclearly demonstrated that while India remains a votary of peace, it has the willand the capability to fight and win a war. The advancing Indian forces left no stone unturned to ensurethat not even one Pakistani soldier remained on the Indian soil. With the backing of the Indian Air force(IAF), the Indian Army achieved a feat which would be hard for any of the armies around the world tomatch. It was also a milestone in the history of military aviation, as it was for the first time that air powerwas deployed with such effectiveness in such a hostile environment. The lessons from Kargil would alsobe applicable to all Air Forces for the world. 

Though Indian forces initially suffered some losses, they were able to gain control ofvarious heights very quickly. From Patalik to Chorbatla, from Valdor to Shangruti, theIndian soldiers were victorious everywhere. The Pakistanis were surrounded from all

sides. Despite fighting uphill, the brave Indian officers and jawans cut through thePakistani barricades. And for once the nation stood united like never before. The religionwas relegated to the background and all communities were one. From Kashmir toKanyakumari there was an outpour of emotion for the valiant Indian soldiers. Every timea body returned from the battlefield, entire nation shed tears and only vowed with furtherresolve to show no mercy for the Pakistanis. The nation also did not lag behind in

lending the much needed financial support for the families of the soldiers who had laid down their livesprotecting the Indian sovereignty. Aware of the need for a boost in the morale of the soldiers going to thefront who had knowledge that they may never return home, singers and stars turned up in large numbersat the railway stations. The Indian cricketers also palyed their part and visited the hospitals where thewounded were being treated. It was an effort to show India was not divided as the enemy was hoping. 

Incidentally, our policy of restraint and resolve during the Kargil crisis was appreciated by the international

community. The blatant misadventure of the Pakistani military establishment in Kargil failed miserably onthe politico-diplomatic and military fronts. The Pakistani attempt in Kargil has had such far reaching effectthat it has still not been able to emerge from the indignity it invited upon itself. 

Viewed against the background the historic initiative taken by Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee to visitLahore in February 1999 and the signing of the Lahore Declaration, which clearly reflected India’swillingness and determination to resolve its differences with Pakistan through a process of dialogue andconfidence building, the Pakistani intrusion in Kargil was a betrayal of trust. Even while accepting India’sextended hand of friendship in Lahore, Pakistan was planning its clandestine, unprovoked full-scale

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intrusion across the LoC. Taking undue advantage of the unheld gaps in the continous and glaciatedterrain, Pakistan attempted this aggression against India which led to the occupation of strategic territoryon the Indian side of the LoC. 

But in the end a great disservice was done by the Pakistani Army to not only all their countrymen butparticularly to their soldiers, who were laying down lives in a war which had no idea, ideology or purpose.

They did not know as to why they were fighting. While here in India there was an outpour of emotion andsolidarity, the Pakistani soldiers died an unrecognised death. They were also not given a decent burial bytheir own men, whereas the Indian soldiers despite knowledge that these were the bodies of the enemychoose to give them a burial. For it goes by the Indian tradition to pay respect to the dead human,whoever he or she may be. Instead of recognising their sacrifices, the best traditions of the Armed forces,the Pakistani army not only treated their soldiers as cannon fodder, but adamantly refused toacknowledge their presence across the LoC. Later, despite being made fully aware of the identities oftheir slain soldiers, it continued to turn its back on the dead. This evidently was so because it would haveimmediately exposed the direct involvement of the Pakistani army.