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  • MAUVAIS APPARIEMENT DES COMPÉTENCES DANS LES PAYS DE L’OCDE : L’ENQUÊTE PIAAC ET LES INDICATEURS SKILLS FOR JOBS

    Glenda Quintini Head of skills unit Skills and Employability Division Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs

    Colloque DARES Les tensions sur le marché du travail Paris, 18 décembre 2018

  • Outline

    1. How skills matter vs education 2. Which skills matter 3.Ensuring a good match

    1. How skills matter vs occupations 2. Which skills matter where

    1. How focusing on skills helps the #FutureofSkills debate

  • 2013

    A few facts about the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)

    2016 2018

    What is PIAAC

    Household survey

    38 countries and regions

    21 EU countries and regions

    Cycle 1: 3 rounds

    5K to 30K observations

    What we measure directly

    Literacy

    Numeracy

    Digital/Adaptive Problem solving

    Reading/Numeracy components

    The background questionnaire

    How skills are distributed

    How people build their skills

    How people use their skills

    Which benefits skills bring to people

  • 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400

    Lower than upper secondary

    Upper secondary

    Tertiary

    Score

    Italy

    100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400

    Lower than upper secondary

    Upper secondary

    Tertiary

    Score

    Japan

    25th percentil

    e

    Mean and .95 conf idence interv al f or

    mean

    75th percentil

    e

    Japanese high school graduates have literacy skills comparable to

    those of Italian tertiary graduates

    Education Skills

  • 0 5

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

    High levels of trust

    High levels of political efficacy

    Participation in volunteer

    activities

    High levels of health

    High wages

    What people know has a major impact on economic and non- economic outcomes

    Literacy and positive outcomes

    Percentage-point difference between Level 4 or 5 and Level 1 or below

    How skills matter…

  • 0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Years of education Proficiency in literacy

    …on top of education

    %

    Wage returns

  • How people use their skills is key too, on top of what they know

    Wage and satisfaction returns to education, skills proficiency and skills use

    Percentage change in wages

    0%

    2%

    4%

    6%

    8%

    10%

    12%

    14%

    16%

    18%

    20%

    Use of reading at work

    Use of ICT skills at work

    Problem solving skills at work

    Skills proficiency Skills use at work Years of education

    Source: Employment Outlook (2016)

    -4

    -2

    0

    2

    4

    6

    Use of reading at work Use of ICT skills at work

    Problem solving skills at work

    Skills proficiency Skills use at work Years of education

    Percentage-point change in job satisfaction

  • Developing the right skills is key

    Source: Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012)

    Incidence of Qualifications Mismatch

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    France Ireland

    England/N. Ireland (UK) Australia

    Canada Sweden

    Japan Estonia

    Italy Austria Norway Average

    Germany Netherlands

    United States Korea Spain

    Finland Flanders (Belgium)

    Czech Republic Denmark

    Poland Slovak Republic

    Overqualification

    Underqualification

    0 5 10 15 20 25

    Ireland Spain

    Austria Czech Republic

    Italy Cyprus¹ ²

    Slovak Republic Germany

    England/N. Ireland (UK) Average Norway

    Japan United States

    Korea Denmark Australia

    Estonia Flanders (Belgium)

    Sweden France

    Canada Finland Poland

    Netherlands Over-skilled

    Under-skilled

    Incidence of Skills Mismatch

  • Around 4/10 workers are mismatched by field of study

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60

    Korea England/N. Ireland (UK)

    Italy Australia

    Japan United States

    Spain France

    Russian Federation Ireland Poland

    Flanders (Belgium) Average

    Czech Republic Slovak Republic

    Canada Estonia

    Denmark Netherlands

    Sweden Norway Austria

    Germany Finland

    Source: Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012)

    Incidence of Field of Study Mismatch

  • Qualification, literacy and field-of-study mismatch affect wages

    Percentage difference in wages

    -25

    -20

    -15

    -10

    -5

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    Over-qualified (Ref: same qualifications, well-matched job)

    Overskilled in literacy (Ref: same skills, well-matched job)

    Field-of-study mismatched (Ref: same field of study, well-matched job)

    %

    Source: Skills Matter (OECD, 2016)

  • Literacy mismatch and productivity

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    POL CAN BEL SWE USA FRA NLDDNK JPN FIN EST KOR GBRNOR SVK AUS DEU AUT IRL CZE ESP ITA

    Percentage of workers with skill mismatch (LHS)

    Gains to labour productivity from reducing skill mismatch (RHS)

  • 12

    Household vs Employers Perspective

    ‘ ’

    Not employed

    Over-skilled Well-matched

    Well-matched

    Under- skilled

    Over-skilled Under- skilled

    Unfilled vacancies

    Employed

    ‘ ’

    Employed

    Household survey (skills supply)

    Employer survey (skills demand)

  • The Skills for Jobs database

    Objective and comparable information

    Wage

    Employment

    Unemployment

    Hours worked

    Under-qualification

    Critical thinking

    Complex problem solving

    Engineering and technology

    Arts and humanities

    Deductive reasoning

    Finger dexterity

    Skills Shortages and surpluses

    Knowledge

    Abilities

    Skills

    13

  • 1

    2

    Skills for Jobs Framework: from occupations to skills

    Physics

    ICT

    Oral and Written comprehension

    Critical Thinking

    Complex problem Solving

    32

    3

    33

    31

    Shortage

    Surplus

  • What are the occupations in shortage?

    0% 20

    % 40

    % 60

    % 80

    % 10

    0%

    Fi nl

    an d

    N et

    he rla

    nd s

    N or

    w ay

    Ic el

    an d

    Sw ed

    en Lu

    xe m

    bo ur

    g Ge

    rm an

    y Sw

    itz er

    la nd

    Be lg

    iu m

    N ew

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    la nd

    Fr an

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    ly De

    nm ar

    k Es

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    a Ire

    la nd

    Au st

    ria Li

    th ua

    ni a

    O EC

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    ai n

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    ia Po

    rt ug

    al U

    ni te

    d St

    at es

    Au st

    ra lia

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    da U

    ni te

    d Ki

    ng do

    m Sl

    ov en

    ia Gr

    ee ce

    Cz ec

    h Re

    pu bl

    ic Po

    la nd

    Sl ov

    ak R

    ep ub

    lic Hu

    ng ar

    y Ch

    ile M

    ex ic

    o Tu

    rk ey

    Bu lg

    ar ia

    Ro m

    an ia

    Ar ge

    nt in

    a So

    ut h

    Af ric

    a Br

    az il

    Pe ru

    High-skilled Medium-skilled Low-skilled

    Health-care Executives Teaching Science and Eng.

    ICT prof. Personal Service

    Building & trades

    Metal & machinery

    Handicraft & creatives

    Agriculture

    High-skill Medium-skill Low-skill

    50%

  • Increasing shortages of high-level cognitive skills

    -0 ,2

    0 -0

    ,1 0

    0, 00

    0, 10

    0, 20

    0, 30

    W ri

    tt en

    E xp

    re ss

    io n

    O ra

    l E xp

    re ss

    io n

    D ed

    uc ti

    ve R

    ea so

    ni ng

    In du

    ct iv

    e R

    ea so

    ni ng

    O ra

    l C om

    pr eh

    en si

    on

    Fl ue

    nc y

    of I

    de as

    O ri

    gi na

    lit y

    M at

    he m

    at ic

    al R

    ea so

    ni ng

    Sp ee

    ch R

    ec og

    ni ti

    on

    C at

    eg or

    y Fl

    ex ib

    ili ty

    N um

    be r

    Fa ci

    lit y

    Sp ee

    d of

    C lo

    su re

    M em

    or iz

    at io

    n

    Se le

    ct iv

    e A

    tt en

    ti on

    V is

    ua liz

    at io

    n

    E xp

    lo si

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    tr en

    gt h

    Fi ng

    er D

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