Mekong Ecology 8Dec2009

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Text of Mekong Ecology 8Dec2009

Upper Mekong

Lower Mekong

Mekong Basin Catchments area: 795,000 sq.km. Mainstream length: 4,800 km. Annual discharge: 475,000 million cm. Population: 250 million people

( )

18%

90%

95%

Mekong in Tibet and China

Dams in Upper Mekong

Mekong

Dams in Upper Mekong, China

Nuozhadu Jinghong

Manwan Dam

Manwan Dam

Manwan Dam

Construction started: 1986 Operate: 1993

Dachaoshan Dam

Dachaoshan Dam Construction started: 1996 Operate: 2003

Jinghong DamConstruction started: 2003 Operate: 2008

Dams in Lower Mekong

One of 11 proposed hydropower dams on lower Mekong mainstream. There are proposed 7 dams in Laos, 2 dams on the boundary between Thailand and Laos and 2 dams in Cambodia. The original plan has developed in 1970 by Mekong Committee and reproposed again in 1994. In September 2008, the Mekong River Commission (MRC) organized Regional Multi-Stakeholder Consultation on the MRC Hydropower Program to promote the idea of sustainable Mekong hydropower dams.

Source: TERRA

Lower Mekong mainstream dams350 +340 300 +310

Pak beng 1,350 MW Luang Prabang 1,410 MW Xayabouri 1,260 MW +265 Pak Lay 1,320 MW+240

250

200

masl

+192

Pak Chom 1,079 MW Tha Uthein 1,596 MW+145

150

Ban Koum 1,872 MW100 +115 +72 50

Don Sahong 240 MW Stung Treng

+55 +30

0

Sambor 3,300 MW

-50 2,400 2,200 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400

Distance from Delta (Km)

Lower Mekong mainstream dams, September 2008Project 1. Pak Beng (Laos) Status MoU for construction: GoL - Datang International Power Generation Co.Ltd, 29 Aug ust 2007, US$ 1.88 billion Install Capacity (MW) 1,350 Likely market Thai Construction plan 2008-2013

2. Luang Prabang (Laos) MoU for construction: Gol PVPower Engineering Consulting Joint Stock Company , Moscow Irrigation and Construction Design Institute, 14 October 2007, US$ 1.828 billion (PVPower is PetroVietnam Power Corporation)

1,410

Vietnam

2007-2014

3. Xayabouri (Laos) 4. Pak Lay (Laos)

MoU for feasibility study: Gol CK, 4 May 2007, US$ 1.7 billion MoU for feasibility study: Gol China Electronics I&E Corp. of China , Sinohydro Corp . of China, 11 June 2007, US$ 1.7 billion

1,260 1,320

Thai Thai

2011-2015 -

5. Pak Chom (Laos-Thai) Thai: Pre-feasibility study finished by May 2008. 6. Ban Koum (Laos-Thai) 7. Lat Seua (Laos) MoU for feasibility study: Gol Thai, 25 March 2008, US$ 2.22 billion MoU for feasibility study: Gol Thailand's Charoen Energy and Water Asia Company, April 2008 MoU for developing project: GoL Mega First Berhad Consortium of Malaysia, February 2008, US$ 300 million MoU for feasibility study: GoCam - Guangxi Grid Company (subsidiary of China Southern Po wer Grid), 31 October 2007

1,482 1,872 +800 MW

Thai Thai Thai

-

8. Don Sahong (Laos)

240

Vietnam, Cambodia

2009

9. Sambor (Cambodia)

465 to 3,300

Vietnam, Thai

-

Pak Beng dam site

MoU for construction: GoL - Datang International Power Generation Co.Ltd, 29 August 2007, US$ 1. 88 billion Photo: TERRA

Pak Beng dam site

Photo: TERRA

Luang Prabang dam site

MoU for construction: Gol PVPower Engineering Consulting Joint Stock Company , Moscow Irrigation a nd Construction Design Institute, 14 October 2007, U S$ 1.828 billion (PVPower is PetroVietnam Power Cor poration)

Photo: TERRA

Luang Prabang dam site: Vietnamese camp

Photo: TERRA

Xayabouri dam siteMoU for feasibility study: Gol CK, 4 May 2007, US $ 1.7 billion, 1,260 MW

Photo: TERRA

Xayabouri dam site

Photo: TERRA

Pak Lay dam site

MoU for feasibility study: Gol China Electronics I&E Corp. of China , Sinohydr o Corp. of China, 11 June 2007, US$ 1.7 billion 1,320 MWPhoto: TERRA

Pak Lay dam site: Chinese survey boat

Photo: TERRA

Pak Lay dam site:

Photo: TERRA

Pak Chom modelThai: Pre-feasibility study finished by May 2008., 1,482 MW

Pak Chom dam site

Photo: TERRA

Agriculture on the small island above Pak Chom dam

Photo: TERRA

Ban Khum picture model.

MoU for feasibility study: Gol Thai, 25 March 2008, US$ 2. 22 billion, 1,872 MW

Ban Khum dam site

Photo: TERRA

Mekong above Ban Khum dam.

Photo: TERRA

Fishery above Ban Khum dam.

Photo: TERRA

Agriculture on the river bank above Ban Khum dam.

Photo: TERRA

DonD on Sa h ong

Sa d

am

Phapheng Falls Don Pha ph e ng

Don Sahong dam

Hou Sahong

Don

Don Loppakdi

Peuay Neua

Don Peuay Ta

Don Tholathi

LaosDon Sangiat

Don Khon Gnouak

CambodiaDon Langa

Don Sahong dam in Siphandon

Don Sahong dam site at Hou Sahong Channel.MoU for developing project: GoL Mega First Berhad Consortium of Malaysia, February 2008, US$ 300 million, 340 MW

Photo: TERRA

Villages name around Samphin island. 1. Sambo 2. Donmeas 3. Bay Somnom 4. Svaychek 5. Chueng Peat 6. Kohchba 7. Kompong Phune 8. Ponchea 9. Kohkhgne lue 10. Kschach leav 11. Damre 12. Kompongrotes 13. Koh Dombong 14. Yeav 15. Tonsaung thleak 16. Agen 17. Ampiltuk 18. Kompong Keabei 19. Kohphdeo 20. Samphin 21. Bungchar 22. Kampongdamrei 23. Kompongrotes 24. Kohdambong

Samphin island MoU for feasibility study: GoCam Guangxi Grid Company (subsidiary of China Southern Po wer Grid), 31 October 2007 , 3,300 MW

Sam Bor propose dam site

Sam Bor dam site cross the Mekong 4 kilometers.

Photo: TERRA

Bench mark by the Chinese company.

Photo: TERRA

Mekong fishes

The Mekong has the worlds largest inland fishery1.5-3 million tonnes per annum (calculation in 2000 was 2.6 million tonnes)Lower Mekong 1-1.3million tonnes Lower Mekong system Middle Mekong 0.9-1.2 million tonnesMiddle Mekong system

Upper Mekong 60,000 Mekong system Upper tonnes

Source: MRC

Mekong fisheries are valuableEconomic value Estimated at US$ 2-3,000 million per annum Tonle Sap - 80% of people fish Lao PDR > 50% fish; 80% in south (20% household income) Fish main source of animal protein (49-82%), Vit A and calciumSource: MRC

Employment and Income

Nutrition

Migration is a key feature of the life history of many Mekong speciesBetween 40-70% of total fish catch in the lower Mekong basin is dependent on long distance migrants(upper end, > 1.3 million tonnes worth >US$2 billion)

Source: MRC

Mekong Deep Pools

Transboundary impacts on deep poolsBan Koum Dam will change the ecosystem of deep pools in the Mekong mainstream by increasing the depth of pool, blocking water flow system. MRCs study about deep pools states that; Deep pools in the mainstream of Mekong are important habi tats in the life cycle of many c ommercially important fishes. In addition to supporting a sed entary fauna of their own, the pools offer a dry season refug e for many of the migratory s pecies that provide the recruit ment for the large-scale fishe ries further downstream.

Ban Koum dam

Source: MRC

There are 12 deep pools that has depth more 20 meters located upstream from Ban Koum dam site, some part of Mekong river between Ban Pha-chan and Ban Dong-na Ubon Ratchathani province. The deepest pool in that area is 84 meters depth. The villagers call this area Vern Rua Khang or Hanging boat deep pool.

In dry season, every deep pools are the very important fishing ground for the villagers

Photo: TERRA

rapid

Chiang Rai, Thailand

Photo: TERRA

Chiang Rai, Thailand

Photo: TERRA

Chiang Rai, Thailand

Photo: TERRA

..

Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand

Photo: TERRA

Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand

Photo: TERRA

Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand

Photo: TERRA

Lao PDR

Photo: TERRA

Cambodia

Photo: TERRA

Cambodia

Photo: TERRA

,

Cambodia

Photo: TERRA

Cambodia

rapidPhoto: TERRA

Cambodia

Photo: TERRA

Tole Sap

Tolesap river

Cambodia

Photo: TERRA

CambodiaTolesap river

Photo: TERRA

Tolesap river

Cambodia

Photo: TERRA

Tolesap river

Cambodia

Photo: TERRA

Tolesap

Cambodia

Tolesap river

Cambodia

Tolesap river

Cambodia

Mekong Delta

Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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Siphandone

Don

Don Loppakdi

Peuay Neua

Don Peuay Ta

Don Tholathi

LaosDon Sangiat

Don Khon Gnouak

CambodiaDon Langa

Don Sahong dam in Siphandon