Metodologi Penelitian (Research Methodology)

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Metodologi Penelitian (Research Methodology). Sri Atmaja P. Rosyidi , Ph.D . D E F I N I S I. PENELITIAN adalah upaya menemukan jawaban yang benar terhadap suatu masalah dalam rangka : Menyusun Menerapkan dan mengembangkan Pengetahuan dan Ilmu dan Teknologi - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Metodologi Penelitian (Research Methodology)

Metodologi Penelitian (Research Methodology)

Metodologi Penelitian(Research Methodology)

Sri Atmaja P. Rosyidi, Ph.D.D E F I N I S IMateri Metodologi PenelitianPENELITIAN adalah upaya menemukan jawaban yang benar terhadap suatu masalah dalam rangka :MenyusunMenerapkan dan mengembangkan Pengetahuan dan Ilmu dan TeknologiDengan menggunakan Metode-metode tertentu menurut prosedur yang sistematis yang berguna bagi :Masyarakat Ilmiah khususnya danMasyarakat pengguna pada umumnyaDalam definisi tersebut terkandung 6 (enam) komponen :Masalah yang ditelitiMaksud penelitianTujuan penelitianKegunaan hasil penelitianMetode-metode tertentuProsedur yang sistematis

METODE PENELITIANMETODE adalah setiap prosedur yang digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan akhir.METODE PENELITIAN:Tujuan akhirnya adalah:Data-data yang terkumpul2. Metodenya adalah:Alat mengumpulakan data-data tersebut.(Sulistyo, 2006: 92)METODECara yang teratur dan terpikir baik untuk mencapai maksud, cara kerja sistematis untuk memudahkan pelaksanaan penelitian guna mencapai tujuan yang ditentukan.METODE PENELITIANMengungkapkan cara teknis tentang metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian.Membahas konsep teoritis berbagai metode, kelebihan dan kelemahannya.

Logika atau teori deduktif dan induktifDeduktif:mencerminkan pandangan paling umum tentang hubungan antara teori dan penelitian.

Induktif:menekankan pentingnya menempatkan teori sebagai hasil dari proses penelitian. (Pendit, 2003: 167 -174)Research methodologytends to govern, or at least limit, the range of choices: how the data will be collected, how it will be analyzed,how results will be reported, and the nature of the conclusions that may reasonably be drawn from the results.

Selection of a research methodologyWhat is (a) the most practical, (b) the most efficient, (c) The most promising, and (d) the most readily available way to solve the research problem or answer the research question?

The methodology choice influences the outcomes of the research.

the types of research1. AnalyticalClasses of data are collected, and studies are conducted to discern and explicate principles that might guide action. Special subtypes under this heading include micro-, macro-, and policy analysis.

Examples: State court interpretations of permissive legislationon nonschool use of school propertyCriteria for accepting applicants in housing cooperativesManagement of extremes of human behavior in hospital emergencyroomsEmployment of handicapped high school graduates in an economically depressed region

2. Case studyThe background, development, current conditions,and environmental interactions of one or more individuals,groups, communities, businesses, or institutions are observed, recorded, and analyzed for stages or patterns in relation to internal and external influences.

Examples: A case study of open admissions in an American juniorcollegeThe development of cognitive functions in three autistic children:case records analysesEstablishment and growth of the National Association of RetiredPersonsThe National Association of Manufacturers labor policy; a case study of development

3. ComparativeTwo or more existing situations are studied to determine and explicate their likenesses and differences.Examples: Concepts taught in secondary school chemistry inCanada, Great Britain, New Zealand, and the United StatesSelf-control of children and adults during cardiac diagnostic proceduresBid specification procedures for public playground and recreation supply and equipment purchases in New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and California

4. Correlational-predictiveStatistically significant correlation coefficients between and among relevant phenomena are sought and interpreted; this type includes the determination of the extent to which variations in one or more factors correspond with variations in one or more other factors and the use of such findings in making predictions.

Examples: Interaction of gasoline prices and automobile travel for business and vacation purposesRelationships between nature of crime and amount of recidivismRelationships among size of family, age, and use of home healthagenciesRelationships between teacher backgrounds and their attitudestoward international cooperation

5. Design and demonstrationNew operationally related business systems, personnel training curricula, professional education programs, instructional materials, disease control plans, and the like are constructed and described; this type is often called action research and includes, at least, formative evaluation.

Examples: A literacy program for the SudanFeasibility of a lighter-than-air freight transport system for AfricaA curriculum in motor development for the period birth to 3years of ageA cytotoxicity test for insoluble dustsDesign and establishment of a comprehensive health information system for western Australia

6. EvaluationA program or a project is expected to be carried out in a certain way and expected to produce a certain result; research is intended to determine whether the anticipated procedure and the outcome are realized. Evaluation research that focuses on the procedure is called formative, and that which attends particularly to the outcome is called summative.Examples: Effectiveness of mental health programs that serve hearing-impaired childrenEvaluation of a regional family planning programImpact of county drug and alcohol programsEvaluation of a rural marketing plan for fire insuranceEffectiveness of rehabilitation counseling: an evaluation

7. DevelopmentalThe changes over time in one or more observable factors, patterns, or sequences of growth or declinemay be traced or charted and reported.

Examples: Growth of child care centers in American businessand industryEmergence and spread of credit card utilizationThe written language development of childrenThe computer and the knowledge explosion: a developmental study

8. ExperimentalOne or more variables may be deliberately manipulated and the results analyzed and rationalizedtrue experiments requiring tight controls and subject randomization.Examples: Reduction of separation anxiety through use of mentalimageryUse of programmed instruction to correct errors in the written language of deaf adolescentsThe effects of listening training on salesperson effectivenessEffects of a parental intervention strategy on reading skill developmentEffects of different options for continued employment on retirement decisions

9. ExploratoryInvestigations into new or relatively unknown territory for the purpose of searching out or closely scrutinizing objects or phenomena to lead to a better understanding of them.Examples: Telescopic and satellite observations of the compositionof the surface of the moons of JupiterThe parasitic life in the feces of wild horse herds of the RockyMountain regionThe behavior of molten metals under conditions of virtually zerogravityThe characteristics of private languages used by twins andtriplets in communication between and among themselvesThe study of extraterrestrial objects for evidences of life forms

10. HistoricalIndividuals or activities are studied to reconstruct the past accurately and without bias to ascertain, document, and interpret their influences or to check the tenability of an hypothesis.Examples: The relevance of the thought of Albert Camus foreducationSources of individual differences in solutions to management problemsHistorical landmarks in the management of environmental noiseThe search for the perpetual motion machine: its contribution to engineeringOrigins and status of the Montessori movement in the United States

11. Meta-analysisA procedure for combining results of research across areas in which measurement systems are not preciseby adding together sources of variance to get a population value of the standard deviation as the basis for establishing effect sizes. Used both in assembling meaningful literature reviews and in testinghypotheses.Examples: How real is the gender gap in aptitude test results?What is the evidence that air pollution is associated with human illnesses?Are large automobiles safer?The effectiveness of hypnosis in curing addiction

12. MethodologicalThese studies examine new approaches (methods) with potential advantages over present approaches (methods). The study content includes, but is not limited to, building, measuring, observing, organizing, displaying, and communicating. Such studies frequently make use of both developmental and evaluative procedures.Examples: The relative advantages and disadvantages of digitaland analog televisionLongitudinal versus cross-sectional age cohort approaches in studying personality developmentAdvantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis in gauging the import of past researchPrestructured or self-designed majors in collegiate education: pros and cons

MEMILIH MASALAH PENELITIAN Masalah yang dipilih untuk penelitian khususnya dalam rangka menyusun Skripsi atau Tugas Akhir yaitu masalah atau fenomena yang mengandung kesenjangan

Kesenjangan adalah ketidak cocokan antara :Kenyataan dan Harapan yaitu suatu yang semestinya menurut kaidah-kaidah keilmuan dan atau kewajaran, ketentuan yang merupakan konsep, Variabel, teori atau hukum yang berlaku.

Masalah tersebut harus disusun menjadi kalimat judul, suatu kalimat yang singkat,padat tetapi menyatakan secara spesifik inti kandungan didalamnya yang akan dijadikan judul Skripsi atau Tugas Akhir.

Pada umumnya judul Skripsi atau Tugas Akhir mengandung beberapa elemen :Variabel bebasVariabel terikatSubjek penelitianDomiisili subjek

Variabel-variabel itulah yang sebenarnya menjadi objek penelitian.