Micro Hydro

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    Micro Hydro Power

    Resource Assessment Handbook

    Prepared for

    APCTT

    Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology Of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

    By

    Dilip Singh

    September 2009

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    Disclaimer

    The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect

    the views of the Secretariat of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for

    Asia and the Pacific. The report is currently being updated and revised. The information

    presented in this report has not been formally edited.

    The description and classification of countries and territories used, and the arrangements

    of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the

    Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, of its

    authorities, concerning the delineation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its

    economic system or degree of development. Designations such as developed,

    industrialised and developing are intended for convenience and do not necessarily

    express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the

    development process. Mention of firm names, commercial products and/or technologies

    does not imply the endorsement of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission

    for Asia and the Pacific.

    .

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    Table of Contents

    Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................... v

    Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1

    1.1. History of Small Hydro Power technology ...................................................................... 1

    1.2. Small Hydro Power Project Classification ...................................................................... 2

    1.3. General principles of MHP ............................................................................................... 4

    1.4. Power from a MHP ........................................................................................................... 4

    1.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of MHP plants ................................................................ 5

    1.5.1. Pros (Advantages) of Micro Hydro .......................................................................... 5

    1.5.2. Cons (Disadvantages) of Micro Hydro ..................................................................... 6

    1.6. Typical uses ...................................................................................................................... 7

    1.7. Components of a MHP scheme ........................................................................................ 9

    1.7.1. Civil works ............................................................................................................. 10

    1.7.2. Penstock .................................................................................................................. 13

    1.7.3. Turbines .................................................................................................................. 16

    1.7.4. Turbine selection .................................................................................................... 25

    1.7.5. Drive systems ......................................................................................................... 27

    1.7.6. Electrical power ...................................................................................................... 29

    1.7.7. Governors (Turbine controls) ................................................................................. 30

    1.7.8. Switchgear equipment ............................................................................................ 31

    1.7.9. Automatic control ................................................................................................... 31

    Chapter 2 Resource Assessment ..................................................................................................... 33

    2.1. National and Regional levels .......................................................................................... 33

    2.1.1. Regional flow Duration Models ............................................................................. 33

    2.1.2. Remote Sensing Data for Catchment Analysis ....................................................... 34

    2.1.3. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) ............................................................................. 34

    2.2. Resource estimation at local levels (site specific) .......................................................... 35

    2.2.1. Measurement of head.............................................................................................. 35

    2.2.2. Measurement of flow .............................................................................................. 37

    Chapter 3 System sizing ................................................................................................................. 40

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    3.1. Demand assessment ........................................................................................................ 40

    3.1.1. Step 1: Need-wise Estimation of Energy Demand ................................................. 40

    3.1.2. Step 2: MHP System Sizing ................................................................................... 42

    3.1.3. Step 3. The Load Scheduling Chart ........................................................................ 43

    3.1.4. Example from a typical village in India ................................................................. 44

    3.2. MHP ECONOMICS AND COSTS ................................................................................ 46

    3.2.1. Simple Payback method ......................................................................................... 47

    3.2.2. Return on Investment method ................................................................................. 47

    3.3. Management of MHP plants (Institutional Mechanisms) ............................................... 48

    Chapter 4 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 50

    4.1. Summary......................................................................................................................... 50

    4.2. Environmental impact .................................................................................................... 51

    4.3. Misconceptions about hydro power ................................................................................ 51

    Annex 1 .......................................................................................................................................... 53

    Tools for Site assessment, Feasibility, and planning for Micro hydro Power ............................ 53

    Annex 2 .......................................................................................................................................... 55

    References (Books and manuals) ............................................................................................... 55

    References (websites) ................................................................................................................. 55

    Bibliography (suggested readings and websites) ........................................................................ 56

    Annex 3. Select Case Studies of successful MHP installations ...................................................... 58

    Microhydro in Kenya ............................................................................................................. 58

    Microhydro in Nepal .............................................................................................................. 60

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    Acknowledgements

    At the outset I would like to thank the Asia Pacific Center for Technology Transfer (APCTT) for giving me this opportunity of working on an assignment which is close to my heart. In the course of writing this report on resource assessment and planning for micro hydro power, I revisited the exciting early days of my career installing village micro hydro in the hilly regions.

    Dr. K. Ramanathan, Head, APCTT in Delhi provided guidance and encouragement from the very beginning of this assignment. I am grateful to him for his gentle, well-timed inputs and support.

    Thanks are due to Mr Parimal Sadaphal and Mr Deepak Nanda, Lead Consultants to this activity at the APCTT, for their constant support and unbiased opinions.

    Thanks are also due to Ms Rosemarie Saldanha for providing and handling all the background support to help this assignment reach this stage.

    Dilip Singh New Delhi. September 2009

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    Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1. History of Small Hydro Power technology

    Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environmentally benign source of energy. Hydropower is based on simple concepts. Moving water turns a turbine, the turbine spins a generator, and electricity is produced. Many other components may be in a system, but it all begins with the energy in the moving water. The use of water falling through a height has been utilized as a so