Neurohypophysial Hormone

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    Hormones produced in the hypothalamus.

    Forms a family of structurally and

    functionally related peptide hormones.

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    Recent studies have begun to investigate

    oxytocin's role in various behaviors,including orgasm, social recognition, pair

    bonding,anxiety, and maternal behaviors.

    For this reason, it is sometimes referred to

    as the "bonding hormone".

    It plays an important role in

    the neuroanatomy of intimacy, specificallyin sexual reproduction, in particular during

    and after childbirth

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    EFI IEN IES

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    Vasopressin regulates thebody's retention of water by acting toincrease water absorption in thecollecting ducts of the kidneynephron.

    Its two primary functions are to retain

    water in the bodyand to constrictblood vessels.

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    A conditioncharacterized by

    Excessive thirst andExcretion of largeamounts ofseverely diluted urine,

    with reduction of fluidintake having no effecton the concentrationof the urine.

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    CLASSIFICATIONS OF DIABETES

    INSIPIDUS

    There are several forms of namely:

    1. Neurogenic diabetes insipidus- more

    commonly known as central diabetesinsipidus, is due to a lack

    of vasopressin production in the brain due

    to a range of causes.

    2. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus- due to the

    inability of the kidney to respond normally

    to vasopressin.

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    3. Dipsogenic DI- due to a defect or damage

    to the thirst mechanism, which is located inthe hypothalamus. This defect results in anabnormal increase in thirst and fluid intakethat suppresses vasopressin secretion andincreases urine output.

    4. Gestational DI- only occursduring pregnancy. During pregnancy, all

    women produce vasopressinase inthe placenta, which breaks down ADH.Gestational DI is thought to occur withexcessive vasopressinase production.

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    Treatment

    Central DI

    Central DI and gestational DI respond

    to desmopressin which is given as intranasal

    or oral tablets. Carbamazepine, ananticonvulsive medication, has also had

    some success in this type of DI. Also,

    gestational DI tends to abate on its own four

    to six weeks following labour, though somewomen may develop it again in subsequent

    pregnancies. In dipsogenic DI, desmopressin

    is not usually an option.

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    Nephrogenic DI

    Desmopressin will be ineffective in

    nephrogenic DI and is treated by reversing

    the underlying cause (if possible) and

    replacing the free water deficit.The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide(a thiazide

    diuretic) or indomethacin can be used to

    create mild hypovolemia which encourages

    salt and water uptake in proximal tubule andthus improve nephrogenic diabetes

    insipidus.

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    An electrolytedisturbance that is

    defined by an

    elevated sodium level in

    the blood. It is causedby a relative deficit

    of free water in the

    body. For this reason,

    hypernatremia is oftensynonymous with the

    less precise

    term, dehydration.

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    Treatment

    The cornerstone of treatment is

    administration of free water to correct the

    relative water deficit. Water alone cannot be

    administered intravenously (because ofosmolarity issue), but rather can be given with

    addition to dextrose or saline infusion solutions.

    However, overly rapid correction ofhypernatremia is potentially very dangerous.

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    Therefore, significant hypernatremia should

    be treated carefully by a physician or other

    medical professional with experience in

    treatment of electrolyte imbalance, specifictreatment like ACE inhibitors in heart failure

    and corticosteroids in nephropathy also can

    be used

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    A condition usuallydefined as excessive

    or abnormally largeproduction orpassage of urine (at

    least 2.5 or 3 L over24 hours in adults).

    Regulation of urine production by

    ADH and aldosterone

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