Nitrogen fertilization

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E. Ndasy-M. Ndasy: Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilization. Essential to the optimal nutrient supply of the plants. Useful effects: more crop better quality Harmful effects: leaching to the groundwater or surface water - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • 5th ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP 2006. Opatija

    Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers

    ERZSBET NDASY - MIKLS NDASY

    University of Veszprm, Georgikon Faculty of Agriculture, Institute for Plant Protection, Keszthely

  • A nitrt talakulsa a nvnyben s az emberi szervezetben

  • A nitrogn-krforgalom elemei s folyamatai

    (Nmeth, 1996)

  • Tltrgyzott monokultrs kukoricatblk talaj-szelvnyeinek nitrt-N profilja

    (Nmeth, 1996)

  • A Nitrt direktva

    Az Eurpai Kzssgek Tancsa irnyelveket (91/676/EEC) adott ki 1991 decemberben: - rendelkezik a mezgazdasgi eredet nitrt szennyezs elleni vzvdelemrl, - az llattart telepek trgyakibocstsnak szablyozsrl, - a talajvizek megengedett nitrttartalmt 50 mg/l-re korltozza, - a szerves trgyval kijuttatott nitrogn mennyisgt vi 170 kg/ha-ra maximlja, - behatrolja az szi nitrognmtrgya mennyisgt (maximum 80 kg nitrt, vagy 40 kg ammnium/ha) Magyarorszgon a 49/2001. (IV.3.) Kormnyrendelet clja: - A vizek vdelme a mezgazdasgi eredet nitrtszennyezdssel szemben, s a meglv nitrt-szennyezettsg cskkentse. Szigor kvetelmnyeket llt a magyarorszgi llattartkkal s mezgazdasgi termelkkel szemben az llattart telepekkel s szerves trgya kijuttatssal kapcsolatban.

  • A zldsgflk csoportostsa az akkumullt nitrt mennyisge alapjn

    (Terbe et al., 1986)

    SYMBOL 129 \f "Wingdings" 200 mg NO3/kg tartalom alattiak:

    burgonya, sprga, csiperke, paprika, paradicsom, kelbimb, cikria, zldbors, zldbab

    SYMBOL 130 \f "Wingdings" 200-500 mg NO3/kg tartalmak:

    tojsgymlcs, uborka, karfiol, brokkoli, dinnye, vrshagyma, feketegykr

    SYMBOL 131 \f "Wingdings" 500-1000 mg NO3/kg tartalmak:

    fejes kposzta, kelkposzta, vrs kposzta, leveles kel, srgarpa

    SYMBOL 132 \f "Wingdings" 1000-2500 mg NO3/kg:

    endvia salta, gumszeller, petrezselyem, karalb, rebarbara, prhagyma

    SYMBOL 133 \f "Wingdings" 2500 mg NO3/kg felett:

    halvnyt zeller, hnapos retek, tli retek, fejes salta, spent s egyb saltaflk

  • Zldsgflk megengedhet nitrtkoncentrcija a klnbz orszgokban

    Szovjet-

    uni

    SYMBOL 129 \f "Wingdings"

    Cseh-szlovkia

    SYMBOL 130 \f "Wingdings"

    Nmet-

    orszg

    SYMBOL 131 \f "Wingdings"

    Hollandia SYMBOL 132 \f "Wingdings"

    Svjc SYMBOL 133 \f "Wingdings"

    Ausztria SYMBOL 134 \f "Wingdings"

    NDK SYMBOL 135 \f "Wingdings"

    nov.-mrc.

    pr.-okt.

    nov.-mrc.

    pr.-okt.

    nov.-mrc.

    pr.-okt.

    salta veghz

    1825

    3000

    4300

    3000

    4000

    3500

    4000

    3000

    salta szntfld

    730

    2500

    spent

    730

    2000

    4300

    3500

    3500

    3000

    2000

    1200

    retek

    2190

    3000

    4500

    3500

    srgarpa

    300

    730

    3000

    4000

    3500

    3000

    4500

    3500

    ckla

    1400

    2190

    prhagyma

    1500

    fokhagyma

    150

    vrshagyma

    60

    75

    kposzta

    300

    440

    875

    uborka

    160

    300

    zldbors

    220

    zldbab

    220

    uborka

    160

    300

    tk

    45

    150

    nyers zldsg

    900

    SYMBOL 129 \f "Wingdings"

    SYMBOL 130 \f "Wingdings" =Prugar et al. (1991); SYMBOL 131 \f "Wingdings"

    SYMBOL 132 \f "Wingdings" = Kmecl (1991); SYMBOL 133 \f "Wingdings" = Claus (1983), Kmecl (1991); SYMBOL 134 \f "Wingdings" = Bogdnn (1992), Kmecl (1991); SYMBOL 135 \f "Wingdings" = Paschold et al. (1986a)

  • A nvnyek nitrttartalmnak hatrrtkei

    NO3 mg/kg frisstmeg a nvny nitrttartalma500 alattalacsony500-1500kzepes1500-2500magas2500 felettigen magas

  • A nvnyek nitrtfelhalmozst befolysol tnyezk

    Genetikai tnyezk:Krnyezeti tnyezk:-nvnyfaj s fajta -talajtulajdonsgok-fejlettsgi stdium -fny-nvnyi rsz -hmrsklet -vzellts, csapadk Agrotechnikai tnyezk: lelmiszer feldolgozsi -nvny tpanyagelltsa eljrsok-vets, termeszts, betakarts ideje-nvnyvd szerek hatsa

  • Klnbz fejes salta fajtk nitrttartalmnak vltozsa nvekv N-mtrgya adagok hatsra

  • N-mtrgyk hatsa a borslevl nitrttartalmra

    termsrskor

    virgzskor

    4-6 leveles korban

  • A fokhagyma levl- s hagyma-nitrttartalom vltozsa a N-mtrgyzs hatsra

  • A N-mtrgyzs s a vzellts hatsa a salta nitrttartalmra

  • A nitrttartalom cskkentsnek mdja a termeszts sorn

    - kevesebb nitrtot akkumull fajtk termesztse - a termshez szksges mennyisg, optimlis N-mtrgya felhasznlsa - a megfelel N-forma megvlasztsa - optimlis vzellts - napstses idben val lehetleg dlutni betakarts

  • Nitrogen fertilizationEssential to the optimal nutrient supply of the plants.Useful effects:more cropbetter qualityHarmful effects:leaching to the groundwater or surface water get into the food chain as nitratedirect or indirect effect on animals living in the soil : changing pH and salinity of the soil, influences feeding of the pestsE. Ndasy-M. Ndasy: Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers

    5th ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP 2006. Opatija

  • Transformation of nitrate in the plants and in the human organizm5th ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP 2006. Opatija

  • Classification of vegetables on the basis of accumulated nitrate(Terbe et al., 1986)

    SYMBOL 129 \f "Wingdings" under 200 mg NO3/kg fresh mass:

    potato,asparagus, champignon, green pepper, tomato,brussels sprouts, chicory,

    green beans, green pea

    200-500 mg NO3/kg fresh mass:

    aubergine, cucumber, cauliflower, broccoli, melone, onion

    SYMBOL 131 \f "Wingdings" 500-1000 mg NO3/kg fresh mass:

    cabbage, savoy cabbage, red cabbage, leafy cabbage, carot

    SYMBOL 132 \f "Wingdings" 1000-2500 mg NO3/kg fresh mass:

    wild endive, bulbous celery, parsly, kohlrabi, rhubarb, leek

    SYMBOL 133 \f "Wingdings" above 2500 mg NO3/kg fresh mass:

    garden radish, black radish, head lettuce, and other species of lettuce, spinach

  • Classification of the plants according to the nitrate content

    NO3 mg/kg fresh mass Nitrate content of the plant< 500 low500-1500medium1500-2500high2500 > very high

  • Maximum level of nitrate in vegetables in EU

    product

    harvest time

    growing

    maximum level

    (mg NO3/kg)

    fresh spinach

    1. October-31. March

    3000

    fresh spinach

    1. April-30. September

    2500

    Preserved,deep-frozen

    or frozen spinach

    2000

    Fresh lettuce

    1. October-31. March

    Grown under cover

    4500

    Fresh lettuce

    1. October-31. March

    Grown in open air

    4000

    Fresh lettuce

    1. April-30. September

    Grown in open air

    2500

    "Iceberg" tipe lettuce

    1. October-31. March

    Grown under cover

    2500

    "Iceberg" tipe lettuce

    1. October-31. March

    Grown in open air

    2000

    Official Journal of the European Communities (2001, 2005)

  • Determinants of nitrate accumulation of plants Genetical factors:Environmental factors:- species and varieties of plant - characteristics of soil- stadium of growth - period and intensity of light- plant part - temperature - water supplyCultivation factors: Food-industrial processes-plant nutrition, mainly N -plant protection, pesticides-time of sowing and harvesting, growing period

  • Effect of N-fertilizers on nitrate content of pea leavesAt ripeningIn blossomAt 4-6 leaf stage0800160024003200400048005600640004080160320640N-treatments (mg N/kg soil)NO3 mg/kg fresh massNH4NO3(NH4)2SO4Ca(NO3)20800160024003200400048005600640004080160320640N-treatments (mg N/kg soil)NO3 mg/kg fresh massNH4NO3(NH4)2SO4Ca(NO3)20800160024003200400048005600640004080160320640N-treatments (mg N/kg soil)NO3 mg/kg fresh massNH4NO3(NH4)2SO4Ca(NO3)2. Ndasy-M. Ndasy: Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers

    5th ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP 2006. Opatija

  • Effect of nitrogen fertilization on lettuce varieties

    Methods

    pot experiment in green housefour replicationsRamann brown forest soilvarieties: Kobak, Mjus kirlya, Great lakes0, 100, 400, 800 mg N/kg soil as NH4NO3irrigation by weigh to 70% of MWHCleaf samples were collected at 8 week ageE. Ndasy-M. Ndasy: Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers

    5th ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP 2006. Opatija

  • Nitrate concentration of different lettuce varieties influenced by N- fertilizer doses01000200030004000500060000100400800N-treatments mg /kg soilmg NO3/kg fresh masskobakmjus kirlyagreat leaksE. Ndasy-M. Ndasy: Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers

    LSD5%:227

  • Effect of nitrogen and water supply on lettuce

    Methods

    pot experiment in green housefour replicationsRamann brown forest soilvariety: Balaton zld0, 100, 200, 300, 400 mg N/kg soil as NH4NO3irrigation by weigh to 40, 60, 80 % of MWHCleaf samples were collected at 6 week age

    E. Ndasy-M. Ndasy: Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers

    5th ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP 2006. Opatija

  • Effect of nitrogen and water supply on fresh mass of lettuceE. Ndasy-M. Ndasy: Some harmful or useful environmental effect of nitrogen fertilizers

    5th ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP 2006. Opatija

    Diagram1

    28.93527.62633.986

    47.02150.08354.157

    52.79156.85264.883

    21.9151.62266.75

    22.4974