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  • 5th Nano Satellite Symposium held at University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, on Nov. 20‐22, 2013

    Development of University Ground Station  for Nano Satellite Operationfor Nano Satellite Operation

    Shigeru Aso1, Kiyotaka Fujisaki2, Hiroshi Hirayama1, Kazuhiko Morisita1,  Tsutomu Tokifuji3, Naomi Kurahara4 and Yoshihiro Tsuruda4

    1 Dept of Aeronautics and Astronautics Kyushu University Japan1 Dept. of Aeronautics and  Astronautics, Kyushu University, Japan 2 Dept. of Advanced Information Technology, Kyushu University, Japan 3 Micro Lab Co. Ltd., Fukuoka, Japan, , p 4 Nano Satellite Center, University of Tokyo, Japan

    1

  • ContentsContents

    B k d• Background • Nano‐satellite Operation • Development Concept • Kyushu University Ground Station

    – Location – Antenna Facility P f T R l– Performance Test Results

    – System Diagram TERRA d AQUA i l i t• TERRA and AQUA signal experiments

    • Conclusions

    2

    SA1

  • スライド 2

    SA1 Shigeru ASO, 2012/09/30

  • Coming nano‐satellites in Japan Hodoyoshi‐3

    STARS‐Ⅱ/香川大学

    Chubusat‐1

    STARS Ⅱ/香川大学 テザー衛星 寸法 質量

    微生物観察衛星 TeikyoSat‐3/帝京 大学

    微小重力環境と宇宙放射線が粘菌 に与える影響観察

    Hodoyoshi‐2 QSAT EOS

    に与える影響観察

    可視光通信実験衛星/国立大 学法人信州大学

    衛星地上間の双方向可視光通 信実験QSAT‐EOS 信実験

    KSAT2/鹿児島大学 大気水蒸気の独創的観測

    芸術衛星 INVADER/多 摩美術大学

    Hodoyoshi‐1 Hodoyoshi‐4 摩美術大学

    衛星データ(テレメトリ) の芸術利用

    OPUSAT/大阪府立大学 リチウムイオンキャパシタの 宇宙実証など

    TSUBAME

    宇宙実証など

    ITF‐1/筑波大学 小型衛星を利用したネット ワークの構築

    Early 2014 Dnepr

    Feb. 2014 H‐IIA

    3

  • Proposed Small Satellite R&D for MEXT  Objectives: 1) Development of Universal Bus System for Small Satellite) p y 2) Development of Small Satellite for Earth Observation

    ①mass: 50kg ②size:0.5m cubic ③life span: 2 years ④altitude: H=650km(Sun

    synchronous Orbit)

    QSAT-EOS →High resolution CMOS‐camera for earth observation g with 5m resolution 

    →Star sensor and reaction wheel for high quality attitude control system

    →High speed data transfer with Ku band→High speed data transfer with Ku‐band

    4

  • 5

  • ・ high efficiency of wide observation from space

    How to manage much data from Hodoyoshi-1,2,3,4

    • Data process system for safety of the people and preservation of

    High spatial resolution and M lti t l C t

    high efficiency of wide observation from space ・ quasi-steady real time information gathering due to constellation

    the people and preservation of national properties

    Multispectral Camera system 1) Alert for land slip due to climate

    disaster 2) Observation of plants, crops and UniversitiesUniversity

    E th

    2) Observation of plants, crops and sea food

    → efficient managements → senior workers

    Local governments Regional companies

    University Ground Station

    GIS engine

    Earth observa tion data

    GIS server

    internetdata

    DBMS

    server

    DBMS

    6

  • In 2004, 10 universities and colleges started , g the Ground Station Network Project Japan (GSNPJ)  in University Space Engineering Consortium (UNISEC)

    So far, technology demonstration mission Amateur Radio (VHF/UHF: ~9.6 kbps  in maximum) 

    Recently, some advanced missions by using nano‐satellites e.g., 5 to 10 meter spatial resolution of Earth ground imaging 

    Those advanced missions often require much higher data rate mission data downlink: from 10Mbps to 100 Mbps

    “GHz‐band Ground Station (S, X, Ku‐band) is needed in  U i it G d St ti N t kUniversity Ground Station Network

    7

  • Ground System CategoryGround System Category S d iSegment Node Function

    Ground Segment Ground Station Antenna and Pointing

    RF / Modulation / DemodulationRF / Modulation / Demodulation

    Base‐band Processing

    Satellite Operation Center Operation Planning

    Telemetry / Command Processing

    Orbit Analysis

    Mission Data Center Primary Processing

    Data Storage

    Data DistributionData Distribution

    Service Segment Service Center

    User Segment User

    8

  • Characteristics of amateur VHF/UHF and GHz‐band 

    Typical University ground Station for

    Ground Station for “GHz-band”

    amateur VHF/UHF (S, X, Ku-band) Antenna Yagi-Antenna

    Not so large Parabola Antenna Large and Complicatedg

    Ease to handle g p

    Tracking Performance

    Pointing Accuracy is not so severe

    Precise Pointing control is requiredPerformance is not so severe

    about 1 - 5 deg is required Accuracy: 0.01 - 0.1 deg

    Number of Available References

    Relatively popular for nano-satellites operation

    like CubeSat

    Many products for conventional satellites Not so many examples for

    (no business use) university nano-satellite (business use can be

    possible)p ) Cost Low-cost Relatively expensive

    9

  • Strategy for Ground Station DevelopmentStrategy for Ground Station Development  C diti d C t i t• Conditions and Constraints – In University Environment (Operation and Maintenance by Students) – Cost‐effective Development (Antenna and  Operator Interface)p ( p ) – For S‐band Telemetry/Command and X‐band Mission Data Downlink

    • Concept ki d f i l d f i l lli– Taking advantages of commercial products for conventional satellite 

    operation – Reducing the number of hardware elements and interfaces – Taking advantages of software functions – Taking advantages of the universal interface of components 

    (e.g., LAN (Local Area Network) based on Ethernet and TCP/IP)(e.g., LAN (Local Area Network) based on Ethernet and TCP/IP)

    10

  • Location ( Ito campus, Kyushu University)

    Address Ito Campus, 744, Motooka, Taiki cho HokkaidoAddress Nishi‐ku, Fukuoka, Japan

    Latitude N 33.59879 deg

    Taiki cho, Hokkaido

    Longitude E 130.21204 deg

    Altit d 79 mAltitude 79 m Kyushu University

    Antenna & Control Room

    Campus Building Dept. of Aero. And Astro.p

    Kyushu University Ito Campus, Fukuoka, Japan Hodoyoshi/UNIFORM Program Ground Stations

    11

  • S t llitSatellite  communication  station

    12

  • 13

  • Antenna OverviewAntenna Overview

    Antenna No.1  for C‐band, X‐band (~40Mbps)

    Antenna No.2  for S‐band (~100kbps), ( p )

    Cassegrain type parabola antenna

    ( p ) Center‐feed type mesh 

    parabola antenna Diameter:2.4m Diameter:2.4m

    14

  • Skyline data of KUGS 

    15

  • Specifications of satellite tracking systemSpecifications of satellite tracking system Total Mass ~ 900 kg

    A AAntenna Aperture  Diameter 2.4 m

    Antenna F / D Ratio 0.31 Antenna Control

    Method 2-axis Control Azimuth & Elevation

    C l R Azimuth: -270 to + 270 deg Elevation

    Control Range Azimuth: 270 to 270 degElevation: +5 to +95 deg

    Control Unit  0.01125 deg per 1-pulseof Servomotor Control

    Axis

    Angle of Servomotor Control(= 90deg / 8000 pulse)

    Tracking Speed Nominal: 18.8 deg/secM 33 3 d /

    Azimuth AxisTracking Speed Max.: 33.3 deg/sec

    Survival Wind Speed 60 m/s Electrical Power AC 200V, 5A

    Axis

    Control Ethernet, 100 Base-T 16

  • Examples of Performance TestExamples of Performance Test Test  #1 A t P k G i SG R f H A t#1 Antenna Peak Gain : SG + Reference Horn Antenna #2 System Noise Temperature:R‐SKY (ROOM‐SKY) Method #3 Beam Width:Sun Noise Observation #4 Cross Polarization : SG + Reference Horn Antenna#4 Cross Polarization : SG + Reference Horn Antenna

    Conditions Target KUGS2.4 No.1X‐band feedhornConditions Frequency X‐band: 8.25 GHz

    Antenna Peak Gain 45 dB

    Results

    BeamWidth ±0.7 deg

    System Noise 326 1 KSystem NoiseTemperature 326.1 K

    Cross Polarization  Characteristics

    Tx:R – Rx: L, 20.1 dB Tx:L Rx: R 19 2 dBCharacteristics Tx:L – Rx: R, 19.2 dB

    17

  • S stem Dia ram (1) O tside Fa ilities Baseline Concept of Ground Station of Kyushu University  

    System Diagram (1):Outside Facilities Targetg Satellite

    Antenna Facility Antenna

    TrackingSignal

    Safety

    Feed

    Tracking Mechanism

    Φ2.4m Parabola Antenna y Antenna

    Wind &  Weather

    Az/El Control

    Az/El Monitor

    Spotlight

    Safety  System

    SSPA

    Ante