optical fiber book ¨§„¹±¨

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1.1: ) ( Optical Fibers . 1.2: . 1.3: ) ( Optical Fibers .

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1.1: ) ( Optical Fibers . . 1971 002 51 . 4581 0881 . 0691 6691 0791 02 0001 . 02,. 0551 . 1.2: . 52 .

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) (Photo phone . 8591 . 0791 20 B/km Corning Inc . 850 nm ) ( First Window 3 dB/Km . ( Second ) Window 0031 nm .0.5 dB/Km 7791 Third Window ) ( NTT 1550 nm 0.2 Db/Km . .

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) (Airborne Light Optical Fiber Technology 6791 AT&T GTE 7791 . ) ( Bell 0891 116 . 1300 nm 1550 nm ) (WDM ) (Bell Labs )(Sol tons Transmission 0991 2.5 Gbit/s 7500 Km ) (EDFA ) . (Regenerators 8991 001 )400 Km (10 Gbit/s WDM ) ( Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing ). (DWDM 1.3: ) ( Optical Fibers . ) (Optical Fibers .

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)(Wavelength Division Mull) ( WDM ) telexing

). (Er

0551 ( Erbium ) Doped) (Fiber Amplifiers) ( EDFAs . ) (EDFAs ) (Sol tons . . . .

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2.1: 2.2: Types of Optical Fibers 2.3: Advantages of Optical Fibers 2.4: . 2.5: . 2.6: . 2.7:

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2.1: . : 2.1.1: ) (Core . 2.1.2: ) :(Cladding . 2.1.3: ) :(Buffer Coating . 2.1 .

2.2: . Types of Optical Fibers : )( Multimode Step Index Fibers . 9

. 2.2.1: . .Multimode Graded Index Fibres . . . 2.2.2: .Single Mode Fibres . . ) (evanescent

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2.2 .

2.3: . Advantages of Optical Fibers , , , , , , ,

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2.3.1: . . 01 ) ( SEA-ME-WE3,FLAG 46,2 021 . 01 001 . ) .( Information Carrying Capacity 2.3.2: . 521 6 8. 009 01 : 1 64 032 7 81 5,2.

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2.3.3: ) (CROSSTALK . 2.3.4: )(dielectrics . 2.3.5: 2.3 . 2.3.6: .

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2.3.7:

. 2.3.8: . 2.3.9: ) ( Repeaters 001 4 6 . 2.4: . )(Core )(Cladding .

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2.3 .

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2.5: . : 2.5.1: ) ( Optical Fibers . 2.5.2: ). (Optical Regenerator

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. . ) ( . 2.5.3: .Transmitter . 2.5.4: .Receiver )( Photocell )(Photodiode .... 2.6: . 71

2.7: ) (Optical Fibers System . . . ) (Snells Law 09 ). (Total Internal Reflection81

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3.1: )(System Components 3.2: ) .( Optical Fiber Applications 3.3: 3.4: . 3.5: . 3.6: ) . ( Fiber Modes

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3.1: System Components , . ). (Laser Diodes . . . . i ii iii

. . ) (PIN . APD 3.1.1 : .Attenuation

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3.1.2 : .Dispersion : ) (Intermeddle dispersion . . . material dispersion ) ( waveguide dispersion ii i

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3.1.3 : Numerical Aperture ) (Sine . 3.2: . Optical Fiber Applications . 3.2.1: . Telephone Communications 22 7791 6.3 ) (Light Emitting Diodes ) (avalanche photodiodes 42

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3.2.2: .TV communications ) (Cable television 611 .

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3.3: 3.1 .

. : i ii iii

) (modified chemical vapour deposition

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. 3.2

009,1- 002,2 . . 02.m/s

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. : . 3.4: . .Light and geometric optics optical fibres . ) (Carrier Electromagnetic radiation : )(Waves Theory )(Geometric Optics )(Quantum Theory ....... (.

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3.4.1: . Ray Theory Transmission . ) .( n n = Co / Cn Cn Co ) CO = ( 3108 m/s 3.1 . 3.1: . 1 33.1 5.1 5.3 4 63.1 95.1

3.4.2: . Snell's Law . )3.3( .

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3.3

2(1) n1=sin1= n2.sin 1 n 2 n : .................. )2(2sin 1 n = 1sin 2 n

2 n1> n . )2.(1