Osnove ekonomije predavanja

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2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

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2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

*RVSRGDUVND VIHUD LYRWDQDMYDQLMH SRGUXMH OMXGVNH DNWLYQRVWL LQWHUHV ]D JRVSRGDUVNRP VIHURP LYRWD MDYLR VH X WUHQXWNX NDG YLH QLMH ELOR VORERGQLK GREDUD X SULURGL ]D ]DGRYROMDYDQMH OMXGVNLK SRWUHED UD]YLOD VH DNWLYQRVW NRMD VH EDYL RVLJXUDYDQMH VUHGVWDYD ]D MHOR VWDQRYDQMH RGMHX L VO JRVSRGDUVND DNWLYQRVW JRVSRGDUVND DNWLYQRVW SUHGVWDYOMD QDVWDQDN JRVSRGDUVNH PLVOL QD UD]YRM JRVSRGDUVNH PLVOL XWMHFDOH VX GYLMH JUXSH RGQRVD UD]YRM GUXWYD SRMDYD SUREOHPD X JRVSRGDUVNRM VIHUL LYRWD NRPELQDFLMD LPEHQLND SURL]YRGQMH

MDYOMD VH LVWUDLYDQMH X]URND L SRVOMHGLFD JRVSRGDUVNLK SRMDYD L SURFHVD SURFHV JRVSRGDUVNH ]QDQRVWL SRYLMHVW ELOMHL GD VH MR X 6WDURP ]DYMHWX VXVUHX QD]QDNH JRVSRGDUVNH PLVOL X DQWLNRM *UNRM $ULVWRWHOD L 3ODWRQD ]DQLPDMX SUREOHPL UD]PMHQH L QRYFD SUREOHPL YULMHGQRVWL L XSRWUHEQH YULMHGQRVWL GREDUD LQWHUHV ]D JRVSRGDUVNH SUREOHPH SRND]XMX L VWDUL 5LPOMDQL EUDD *UDV &LFHURQ 6HQHND L /XNUHFLMH .DU X ULPVNRP UD]GREOMX QDVWDMX EURMQL LQVWLWXWL L NDWHJRULMH JRVSRGDUVNRJ LYRWD NRMH VX YDQH L GDQDV X UD]GREOMX VUHGQMHJ YLMHND LVWLFDR VH 7RPD $NYLQVNL EUDQLR SULYDWQR YODVQLWYR JRYRULR R SUDYHGQRM FLMHQL RGEDFXMH NDPDWX NDR OLKYDUVNX NDWHJRULMX

' LLQDLQ SUHG

2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

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

3RMDYD SROLWLNH HNRQRPLMH

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2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

RG SRMDYH 0RQWFKUHWLHQD GR NUDMD NODVLQRJ UD]GREOMD SUHGPHW L]XDYDQMD SROLWLNH HNRQRPLMH MH ELOR XHQMH R GREURP JRVSRGDUHQMX X SRVWNODVLQRP UD]GREOMX GROD]L GR UDVFMHSD X VKYDDQMX SUHGPHWD SROLWLNH HNRQRPLMH MHGDQ SUDYDF SRVWNODVLQD HNRQRPLMD SRGUD]XPLMHYD GD VH SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD WUHED EDYLWL SRMHGLQLP NRQNUHWQLP SLWDQMLPD JRVSRGDUVNRJ LYRWD SRVHEQR GROD]L GR L]UDDMD SRMDYRP -RKQD 0D\QDUGD .H\QHVD X WUHWLUDQMX SUHGPHWD HNRQRPLMH QH SUDYL UD]OLNX QLWL SRVWNHQ]LMDQVNR XHQMH X HPX VH SRVHEQR LVWLH LNDND NROD 0LOWRQD )ULHGPDQD GDNOH SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD VH EDYL L]XDYDQMHP UHSURGXNFLMH GREDUD

5DVFMHS X SROLWLNRM HNRQRPLML

GUXJL SUDYDF QD HOX VD VRFLMDOXWRSLVWLPD SRGUD]XPLMHYD GD VH SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD EDYL L]XDYDQMHP UHSURGXNFLMH GUXWYD RGQRVQR L]XDYDQMHP RGQRVD SURL]YRGQMH YHOLNL GRSULQRV RYDNYRP VKYDDQMX SUHGPHWD HNRQRPLMH GDR MH .DUO 0DU[ 0DUNVLVWLND SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD UDGQLNH NODVH SUYL SULVWXS RULJLQDODQ LOL JUD DQVNL HNRQRPLMD LVSLWXMH RGQRVH RYMHND SUHPD LPEHQLFLPD SURL]YRGQMH X RYRP SULVWXSX GROD]L L GR QDSXWDQMD QD]LYD SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD $OIUHG 0DUVKDOO JRGLQH L]GDR 1DHOD HNRQRPLNH ]DVHEQD JRVSRGDUVND GLVFLSOLQD NRMD WUHWLUD ]DNRQLWRVWL L SULQFLSH UHSURGXNFLMH GREDUD DOL X WRP GMHOX VH EDYL EURMQLP SLWDQMLPD L] SRGUXMD SROLWLNH HNRQRPLMH GUXJL SULVWXS L]YHGHQL PDUNVLVWLNL LOL VRFLMDOQL HNRQRPLMD L]XDYD RGQRVH SURL]YRGQMH X NRMH OMXGL VWXSDMX WLMHNRP SURL]YRGQMH UDVSRGMHOH UD]PMHQH L SRWURQMH GREDUD

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2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

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

SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD MH ]QDQRVW NRMD VH EDYL REMDQMDYDQMHP RSLK RGQRVD SURL]YRGQMH QMLKRYLP ]DNRQLWRVWLPD L NDWHJRULMDPD X NRMLPD VH RGYLMD JRVSRGDUVNL LYRW RSD JRVSRGDUVND ]QDQRVW NRMD QH GDMH RGJRYRUH QD NRQNUHWQD SLWDQMD JRVSRGDUVNH SUDNVH YODGDMXL RGQRVL SURL]YRGQMH PDQLIHVWLUDMX VH DNWXDOQLP JRVSRGDUVNLP NDWHJRULMDOQLP VXVWDYRP

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2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

GUXWYHQD ]QDQRVW GUXWYHQL NDUDNWHU VH RJOHGD X LVWUDLYDQMX RGQRVD ]DNRQD L NDWHJRULMD L]PH X VXGLRQLND UHSURGXNFLMVNRJ SURFHVD JRVSRGDUVND ]QDQRVW EDYL VH JRVSRGDUVNRP VIHURP LYRWD SRYLMHVQD ]QDQRVW DQDOL]LUD QDVWDQDN UD]YRM L QHVWDQDN RGUH HQLK SURFHVD RGQRVD SRMDYD NDWHJRULMD L ]DNRQD VRFLMDOQD ]QDQRVW X DQDOL]L XNXSQLK JRVSRGDUVNLK RGQRVD ]DJRYDUD RQH GUXWYHQH L RGQRVH NRML VX RVLJXUDYDOL GUXWYHQL QDSUHGDN

.DUDNWHULVWLNH SROLWLNH HNRQRPLMH

*2632'$56., 2'126, =$.21, , .$7(*25,-( SUHGDYDQMH

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2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

JRVSRGDUVNL RGQRVL REXKYDDMX XNXSQRVW RGQRVD X NRMH OMXGL VWXSDMX WLMHNRP JRVSRGDUVNH RGQRVL WUL YUVWH JRVSRGDUVNLK RGQRVD RGQRVL RYMHND SUHPD SULURGL RGQRVL L]PH X VXGLRQLND JRVSRGDUVNLK DNWLYQRVWL RGQRVL X NRMH OMXGL VWXSDMX V RE]LURP QD JRVSRGDUVNH SRMDYH L SURFHVH JRVSRGDUVNH SRMDYH L SURFHVL VX PH XVREQR SRYH]DQL L XYMHWRYDQL SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD WHLWH VYRMLK LVWUDLYDQMD VWDYOMD QD RGQRVH L]PH X OMXGL X JRVSRGDUVNRP SURFHVX L WR XRSDYDQMHP L JHQHUDOL]DFLMRP SRMDYQLK REOLND JRVSRGDUVNRJ LYRWD D WR VX JRVSRGDUVNH NDWHJRULMH

*RVSRGDUVNL ]DNRQL

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

' LLQDLQ SUHG

2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

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

*RVSRGDUVNL ]DNRQL

' LLQDLQ SUHG

2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

PH X EURMQLP NDUDNWHULVWLNDPD JRVSRGDUVNLK ]DNRQD LVWLX VH VOLMHGHH GUXWYHQL VX L RGUD] VX GDQRJ VXVWDYD RGQRVD SURL]YRGQMH SURPMHQMLYL VX X VNODGX V SURPMHQDPD RGQRVD SURL]YRGQMH REMHNWLYQL VX MHU GMHOXMX QHRYLVQR RG OMXGVNH YROMH VSRQWDQL VX MHU QDVLOQR WMHUDMX SRMHGLQFH L GUXWYHQH JUXSH QD RGUH HQR SRQDDQMH IHWLL]DP MH WDNR HU NDUDNWHULVWLND RYLK ]DNRQD MHU LPDMX PR QDMXVSMHQLMHJ UHJXODWRUD SURFHVD UHSURGXNFLMH GMHOXMX NDR WHQGHQFLMD MHU VH PDQLIHVWLUDMX X VYRP SURVMHNX

SROMVNL HNRQRPLVW 2VNDU /DQJH SRGLMHOLR MH JRVSRGDUVNH ]DNRQH V RE]LURP QD QMLKRY SRYLMHVQL GRPDDM RYD SRGMHOD UD]OLNXMH HWLUL YUVWH JRVSRGDUVNLK ]DNRQD RSL JRVSRGDUVNL ]DNRQL GMHOXMX X VYLP VXVWDYLPD SRVHEQL JRVSRGDUVNL ]DNRQL GMHOXMX X YLH VXVWDYD SULYUH LYDQMD SRMHGLQDQL JRVSRGDUVNL ]DNRQL GMHOXMX X MHGQRP VXVWDYX RGQRVD SURL]YRGQMH VSHFLILQL JRVSRGDUVNL ]DNRQL GMHOXMX X MHGQRM HWDSL RGUH HQRJ VXVWDYD RGQRVD SURL]YRGQMH

' LLQDLQ SUHG

2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

*RVSRGDUVNH NDWHJRULMH JRVSRGDUVNL RGQRVL L QMLKRYH ]DNRQLWRVWL PDQLIHVWLUDMX VH PQRWYRP SRMHGLQDQLK NDWHJRULMD JRVSRGDUVNH NDWHJRULMH SUHGVWDYOMDMX WHRUHWVNL L]UD] GDQLK RGQRVD SURL]YRGQMH URED QRYDF FLMHQD WULWH SRQXGD SRWUDQMD LWG RYH VH NDWHJRULMH UD]OLNXMX X SRMHGLQLP RGQRVLPD SURL]YRGQMH FUWH QDVWDQND L]PMHQD L QHVWDQND SRMHGLQLK NDWHJRULMD QDMHH QLVX QL MDVQH QL YLGOMLYH JRVSRGDUVNH NDWHJRULMH NRMH REUD XMH SROLWLND HNRQRPLMD LPDMX RSH ]QDHQMH

0(72'( 32/,7,.( (.2120,-( 2'126 (.2120,-( 35(0$ '58*,0 *2632'$56.,0 ',6&,3/,1$0$ SUHGDYDQMH

' LLQDLQ SUHG

2VQRYH HNRQRPLMH

PHWRGX PRHPR GHILQLUDWL NDR SRVWXSDN NRML SULPMHQMXMHPR GD ELVPR GROL GR QHNRJ FLOMD D WDM SRVWXSDN SUHGVWDYOMD XNXSQRVW SRVORYD L QMLKRY UHGRVOLMHG NRMH PRUDPR SULPLMHQLWL X REDYOMDQMX RGUH HQRJ ]DGDWND PHWRGD X GUXWYHQLP ]QDQRVWLPD QLMH MHGQRVWDYQR XROMLYD GUXWYHQH ]QDQRVWL PRUDMX SULPLMHQLWL SRVHE