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    OVIDIU MUREŞAN

    De la ANTICHITATEA TÂRZIE

    la AMURGUL EVULUI MEDIU

    (sec. IV XIII)

     

    OVIDIU MUREŞAN

    De la

    ANTICHITATEA TÂRZIE

    la

    AMURGUL EVULUI MEDIU

    (sec. IV XIII)

    EDIŢIA A III A, REVZUT ŞI ADUGIT

    !

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    1

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    3./. ?%&%al al #>a## /

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    1. Cal#6a$%l OBe#a"4+

    3. Cal#6a$%l Aas#" 41

    5. E7as#%ea Ba$#B9 K# c*Be&c#al9 a a&a#l*& 41

    a) A&a## e Me"#$e&aa 43

    ) A&a## F Ocea%l I"#a 43

     TENTATIVA DE RE'TAURARE IM:ERIAL

    A LUI CAROL CEL MARE 4-

    !. Re&%a&ea Ca&*l##e#l*& 4-

    +. :*l#$#ca e7$e&9 a l%# Ca&*l cel Ma&e 44

    1. '$&%c$%&a #$e&9 a s$a$%l%# ca&*l##a 8

    3. ReaK$e&ea ca&*l##a9 8!

    'CHIŢ :ENTRU O IZIONOMIE A 'OCIETŢII MEDIEVALE 81

    !. N*#l## 81

    a) Rec&%$a&ea *#l#B## 81

    ) :>#le##le *#l#B## 83

    c) O&a#

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    5. V#### !!

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    /

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    ?I?LIOGRAIE !35

     

    A:OGEUL ŞI DECLINUL

    IM:ERIILOR UNIVER'ALE

    C

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    a al#Be$el*& c9$&e 9$%le "e6a>*#a%s, F De %e&a$#*e De#, e>*c9 % #B*"9 c*### e%s$*l*&"e scla>#. 'ea "e e7ac;#%# scale c*$%#e la &%#a&ea #&e>e&s##l9 a&*e$9;## B#c# K# B#l*c## K# la "eclaKa&ea %*& &9sc*ale e"eB#ce, &ec%B celeale c#&c%Bcell#*#l*& S %B#;# K# a*#s$#c#, "# A6ca (sec. IV V) S sa% aa%e&s%B aa*s), A%&el#%sV#c$*& (De Caesa%s), Z*s#B*s (H#s$*a), :&*se&%s T&* (C=&*#Pc*), I"a$#%s(C=&*#c*) K# 'al>#a%s (De %e&a$#*e De#).

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    8

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     F6&e&e ca$as$&*6al9 (&eele l*& B*a&e F l%$9), *;## se &e$&a F Ae##, %"e>*& ca#$%la F a%l 555.

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    al;# a$&% %&BaK#, C=ae&$, G*$&a, '#ee&$ K# C=#lec=, ca&e >*& 6&aBe$a,la &"%l l*&, 6*&Ba;#%ea s$a$al9 e ca&e * B*K$e#se&9.

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    "%ce ("%7), s%e*& F &a 6a;9 "e c*B#;#. Aces$a "#s%ea "e &*a sa ec=#9"e B##s$. E7#s$a K# % *&a "e c*$&*l c*B%s "# B#ss# &eales ($B#K## &eal#),ca&e a>ea% a$%;##le %*& #sec$*.

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    ?alca#c9. ee&al, s$a$ele F$eBe#a$e "e *%la;##le e&Ba#ce K# $%&a#ce >*&a>ea * >#a#l#$a$e l#B#$a$9 F $#B, e c" c#a$ele K# &ea$ele sla>#l*& sa%cal#6a$ele, s%l$aa$ele K# eB#&a$ele a&ae se >*& "*>e"# "%&a#le.

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    aK$e&ea s$a$%l%# a&a % a 6*s$ % 6e*Be "e ee&a;#e s*$aee. a#$e "eaa#a #slaB%l%#, >as$a :e#s%l9 A&a#c9 Fl*a &e#%# &e*"e&e$ "eKe&$#cesa% seB#"eKe&$#ce K# * *%la;#e "*a& >a *B*e9, c*Ble$ "ee"e&e *l#$#c, s*c#al K# &el##*s. $e$*#le Be"#*ale (\eBe,Ha"&aBa%$), "a$*$9 s*l%l%# Ba# 6e&$#l, a>a$aa$ "e &ec##$a;##le B%s*#ce,l*c%#$*# s a% a"a$a$ "e $#B%% %%# s$#l "e >#a;9 se"e$a&. A&a#ase$e$*al9 K# ce$&al9, e7%s9 cac##l*& %e# l%>#*#a;9 "e 9s$* *Bae"e$$e K# 6&ec>e$e &ae "e 6e"e&al#%$ % s%cces "*a& l*cal K# * "%&a$9 e6eBe&9.

    &*7#B#$a$ea E%6&a$%l%#, "e e7eBl%, s a c*s$#$%#$ &ea$%l la=B#asal 6a;9 "e :e&s#a sasa#"9, #a& la 6&*$#e&a c% '#a, &ea$%l =assa#ec#9$a$e, la U

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    ) Ma=*Be", &*6e$%l #slaB%l%#

    a%l 5- se aK$e la Mecca, F cla%l h%&aK#$ ?ak Hc=#B, Ma=*Be", %l l%#A"alla=, >##$*&%l &*6e$ al #slaB%l%#. $&%c$ $a$9l s9% "ece"ase, e c" BaBasa, AB#a, e&a le=%a &ec%*sc%$ K# l%a$ s% &*$ec;#e "e%#c%l a$e&, A" al M%$$al#. De la >&s$a "e *$ a#, #e&a c&esc%$ "e %c=#%l a$e&, Ak Tl#, "e>e#$ Ke6 alcla%l%# ?ak Hc=#B. De $9&, >##$*&%l &*6e$ >a a$&ea$ F c*Be&;%lca&a>a#e&. D%9 ce cK$#9 * #c*$es$a#l9 e7ee;9 e%s$*&easc9 Fc*Ba#a %c=#%l%# s9%, Ma=*Be" #$&9 F sl%a %e# >9"%>e *a$e, =a"F"a.Aceas$a, B%l;%B#$9 "e &es$a;#a sa Be&ca$#l9, F# &*%e s9 K# %easc9 "es$#ele. c#%"a "#6e&e;e# "e >&s$9 (=a"F"a a>ea 3 "e a#, #a& Ma=*Be" "*a& +5),

    Bea%l a&e s9 6*s$ %%l 6ec#$. Ma# #e "e % "ece#% K# %B9$a$e, >##$*&%l6*"a$*& al #slaB%l%# >a "%ce * e7#s$e;9 l#s#$9 "e # Ba$eale, al9$% "ec*s*a&$a sa.

    A#a la >&s$a "e 3 "e a#, a>" *#ce#%l "e a c*l#"a, "e %%l s#%&, FB&e%B#le *&aK%l%# Mecca, Ma=*Be" a&e Ba &e>ela;#e, F$& * &*$9 "e eB%$ele H#&a. T&a"#;#a &e$#"e c9, F l%a &aBa"a, # s a F69;#Ka$ Fe&%l Gael,ca&e # a *&"*a$ s9 &ec#$eJ * s%#$9 "e Besae ale "#>##$9;##. Aces$e &e>ela;##, s%6*&B9 "e >e&se$e, a>ea% s9 alc9$%#asc9, %l$e*&, C*&a%l (al j%&], &ec#$a&eJ).

     Te7$%l c9&;## sac&e a #slaB%l%# aa&e as$6el ca * "#c$a&e s%&aa$%&al9 F&e#s$&a$9

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     F$&%c$ "#s$&%e&ea #"*l#l*& K# a"*&a&ea %e# "#>##$9;# s#%la&e a& a6ec$a$$&a"#;#*alele eleae, e7$&eB "e &*$a#le e la c*Be&c#al. B## a#a"e&9 la *%a &el##e s*;#a :&*6e$%l%#, =a"F"a, % >9& al aces$e#a, [a&aha #Na%6al, c;#>a BeB a# 6aB#l#e#, &ec%B Al#, Za" K# scla>%l e&% ?#ll.A$&ae&ea $&e a"e;## #slaB%l%# a %*& e&s*al#$9;# Ba&ca$e (A% ?a&,

    OBa&) c*s$#$%#e e7ce;## *$a#le. '% &es#%ea e&sec%;##l*& e&Bae$e,e7e&c#$a$e "e 9$%&a e%s$*l*& a>%;# "# Mecca, F a%l /!5, a&*7#Ba$#> !"e a"e&e;# a# #slaB%l%# se &e6%#aea

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    +. :B## cal# K# Fce%$%le e7as#%## #slaB#ce

    C

    *6*&B $&a"#;#e#, %&BaK## l%# Ma=*Be" e&a% el###l#, Fs9 "*a& "# ce&c%l &es$&sal 6aB#l#e# :&*6e$%l%#. E# se >*& %B# cal# K# >*& c%B%la a$$ 6%c;#a "e l#"e&&el##*s (#BaB), c$ K# cea "e l#"e& *l#$#c. As$6el, Ma=*Be" &9Bea %#c%l :&*6e$(&esWl). :B## cal# a% 6*s$ A% ?a& (/1+ /13), OBa& (/13 /33), O$=Ba (/33/5/) K# Al# (/5/ //!). OBa& K# O$=Ba a% 6*s$ asas#a;#, "eclaK", Fc*sec#;9, "*%9 se*ase cal%l s9%, M*a#a, >9&%l l%#O$=Ba K# %>e&a$*&%l '#e#, F c#%"a 6a$%l%# c9 e&a a$$ >9&%l, c$ K# #e&ele

    l%# Ma=*Be". A% %&Ba$ c#c# a# "e #$e&&e. Ce# "*# &e$e"e;# s a% F6&%$a$ F9$9l#a "ec#s#>9 "e la '# (/54). Ul$e*&, FKela$ "e M*a#a, Al# a &e%;a$ la&e$e;##le sale. 'l9#c#%ea sa F# >a "e$e&B#a e =a"#;# (&9sc%la;#J) s9 laa"*ea a#, F //!, la Al %6a, Al# >a asas#a$ "e %BeB&% al &esec$#>%l%# &% #slaB#c "#s#"e$. M*a#a, s#%&%l &e$e"e$&9Bas F >#a;9, >a B%$a &eKe"#;a cal#l*& B%s%lBa# la DaBasc, F '#a. C% elacce"e la %$e&e, F 6&%$ea #Be%l%# #slaB#c, "#as$#a OBe#aa a$&ae l%$9$* B%s%lPBaP# "# F$&eaaA&a#e F &9a ec&e"#c#*K#l*& (#*& s$%ea$e. T&%ele B%s%lBae c%ce&esc '#a K#:ales$#a, "e la #a"eaa Fl*a$ F s$a$%l a&a ea&c%&s%l a%l%# /5!, F >&eBea cal#6%l%# O$=Ba.

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    e# Ba# seB#ca$#># cal# *Be#a#l#P96%c;#*al9 K# a #B%s F e&a$*&%l e&el*&, a%$a$ "e s%al$e&%l s9%, Tah e Z#a". Te$a$#>aOBe#a#c#e "e e l#$*&al%l M9# Cas#ce (-1-). T*$

     F %&Ba %%# &a#" al a&a#l*& e e6%#$ I$#l, *&aK ca&a>a#e&, s#$%a$ e V*la, ca&e e&a,$*$*"a$9, &eKe"#;a =a#l*& =ae$%&a la s%" "e Ca%caa s%c*Ba F %&Ba %e# &9sc*ale"eclaKa$e F =*&asa (-3-) "e %&BaK## l%# al Aas, %c=#%l :&*6e$%l%#. al,&e$e"e$%l A% al Aas e &*claBa$ cal#6 "e **

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     F"&e$a$e s&e #s%la C#&%, F $#B ce F Maa R*K#e e >#*ca;# s%"e%B#&ea :* sse, "e #*a&ele c=#e#a$* s$&9## s%$ *Be#;# la Ca$* K# al$e &e#%# "e c*as$9 ale C=#e#. Te&B#*l*#a a%$#c9 a&a9 es$e a&*ae F e7cl%s#>#$a$e "e s*&#$e e&sa9.Aces$ asec$ le"ea*a&ea #*$e9;a$ a&$aa>#a;#e# "e la l*c%#$*# "e e c*as$ele G*l6%l%# :e&s#c.

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    Ne%s$a K# ?%&%"#a. :&es$##%l s%cces*&%l%# s9%, Ca&*l Ma&$el (-!5 -3!), seaBl#c9 F %&Ba sec$ac%l*ase# >#c$*# e ca&e * *;#e FB*$>a #>a"a$*l*&sa&a" c*s#B;9B$%l *$#ca$%l%# &*Ba, a c*>*ca$ *a"%a&e a Fal$e# as$*c&a;## K# a &ela;#l*& "# Rea$%l &ac la '*#ss*s (-5!),ca&e l a "e$&*a$ e %l$#B%l &ee Be&*>##a, C=#l"ec= al III lea. Aces$a a 6*s$$B#s la B99s$#&e. l*c%l s9%, aceeaK# &e%#%e l a &*claBa$ &ee e 6*s$%lBa*&"*B, :e# cel 'c%&$ (-5! -/4).

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    C

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    A$ac%le F$&ese "e *&Baasal%l $a$9l%# s9%, "%cele ?a>ae#, Tass#l* al III lea. E "&e$, aces$a "e%;ase $&a$a$%l Fc=e#a$ c% :e# F -/1. sc=#B, F a%l --4, a&$#c#ase c% 6*&;e B#l#$a&e la caBa#a #ec9, #a& F -4-&eF*#se %&9B$%l "e >asal#$a$e. C% $*a$e aces$ea, Ca&*l cel Ma&e Fl

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    c%l$%#J. La ##;#aP$#>a l%# Alc%#, se F$eBe#ae$ a*&"a;# s%$ 'all%s$#%, '%e$*#%,

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    BeB&% >#le#a$ al s*c#e$9;## se $&asB#$ea e&e"#$a&, *#l#Bea #" S c%e7ce;#a e*a"e# "e eeal9 *#l#Bea "e se.

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    ") F "*Be#%l "&e$%l%# >a$2 "ac9 6ac a&$e "# 9$%&a *#l#a&9, 9#e;## s%$c*s#"e&a;# Ba* la + +! "e a#, #a& 6e$ele la !5 + "e a#^ 9#e;## e*#l# s%$"ecla&a;# Ba* la !5 a#, #a& 6e$ele la !+ a#^ F $#B ce *#l## "#s% "e s##l#%&*%, e*#l## s%$ *l#a;# s9 se a"&eseel*& c*ces#%#, &*e$a# &e$#"ea% ces, a"#c9 * &e"e>e;9 79 sa%c=aBa&$ (caB# a&s), * &e"e>e;9 &**&;#*al9 c% &ec*l$a.

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    '%asal%l FK# "a$*&a% "el#$a$e, l*#al#$a$e K# as#s$e;9 &ec#&*c9. 'e#*&%l%&Ba s9 K# &*$eeasal%l F $*a$e c#&c%Bs$a;ele, #a& aces$a e&a *l#a$ s9&es$eale& "# 6aB#l#a s%asal%l %$ea a"&esa * le&e s%asal%l FK# $&9"a s%eea "eces%l s%asaPl%l%#, c% c*"#;#a ca &esec$#>%ls9 &es$eaPsal%l%#, "e *#ce#, s%9 (e6 6%c;#e) ca&e a"%ce >e#$%#B*&P$a$e. Ce&eB*#a %l#c9 a *Ba#%l%# se "e&ec#ae&al al ac*&"%l%# c*$&ac$%al F$&e s%asal, c% #>e$a&%l"e$al#a$ a ceea ce e&a c*ce"a$ F cal#$a$e "e e6 K# 69&9 a se el#a $*a$e*l#a;##le c*&ela$#>e.

    >#;a *l#a;##l*& >asal#ce, &e>e"ele lea$e "e c*s#l#%B &9Besc=#Ba$e. A%7#l#%B %l, ses##l &ec*"#ca$, #c%B9 %&B9$*aP&ele sa&c##2 !.*s$ ("e>9 "# =*s$#s, a"#c9 "%KBa) S >asal%l, ec=#a$ e c*$ &*% K#, "ac9e&a caeac%l al XIIIlea, *e&a;#%#le B#l#$a&e ale *#l#B## FK# "#B#%eae&%&a, F$&%c$, $&e$a$,&9a$e s%$ a#=#la$e K# &*=##$e la ##;#a$#>a %$e# ce$&ale, eB9s%&9 ce #B*&$a;a a&Ba$e# &eale se aBl#c9. :e "e al$9 a&$e, a%$*&%lec%#a& "a$*&a$ "e >asal s%&s$#c9 se B9$9^ 3. "ac9 s%

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    B%l;#. ca< "e &9ec=# *Ba#% a>ea

     F$#e$a$e 6a;9 "e cele Ba# &ece$e. a;9 "e %&9B#$ele "e "el#$a$e &es$a$ea$e*&, *Ba#%l &eal a>ea F$*$"ea%a *$a$e, F$&%c$ B*a&=%l acce$ae7cl%s#> "*a& % =*BBa#%B l##%B.

    :e a&c%&s%l sec*lel*& XII XV, >asal## *;# "&e$%l "e e&e"#$a$e K# al#ea#l#$a$eas%&a e6%l%#. *%a c*%c$%&9, la B*a&$ea >asal%l%#, B*K$e#$*&%l s9%&es$eaa&s9 F $ee#$%l e % a al e6%l%#. '%$&e>9&s$#c, F cal#$a$e"e s%&s$#c B*K$eea cas$el%l K# %cle%l "*B#a$ al "*Be#%l, #a& eea %%# B#*&, 9 la Ba*&a$%l aces$%#a,"*Be#%l e&a es$#*a$ "e c9$&e s%asal#ce.D# sec*l%l al XIII lea e6%l "e>#e al#ea#l F %&B9$*a&ele c*"#;##2 !. ces#*a&ea%%# "*Be#% c9$&e * #s$#$%;#e ecleasal#ce c$ K# s%Bele "e &9sc%B9&a&e^ +. ces#*a&ea %%# "*Be#%c9$&e % al$ >asal e *s##l9 c% c*"#;#a ca s%ale,%$eB >*&# "e * s$c$9 #e&a&=#e a &a%l*& *#Pl#a&e, c*ce%$9 F Ba#e&a%%# B*"el e*Be$c #&aB#"al.

    >&6%l e"#c#%l%# s*c#al Be"#e>al $&*a %&a FB9&a$%l%#. RaP%l #Beal,"e>a$ "# $&a"#;#a R*Be# a$#ce, a 6*s$ &eac$%al#

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    "e B*K$e#$*&%l $&*%l%# sa#*l. O **ca&ea %%# "*c%Be$6als, "a$a$ F a%l !!5/. D%9 ce "#as$#a l*& a acaa&a$ c*&*aa #Beal9, $#$l%la&=#"%cal, >al#"a$ "e D#e$9 (!314), a 6*s$ c*6e$ $%$%&*& BeBl*& 6aB#l#e#

    #Beale. ?#ale$%l &a%l%# c#a& a 6*s$ cel "e "es*$, ac*&"a$, Fce" c% sec*l%l al XIII lea, BeBl*& 6aB#l#e# #Beale, *"a$9 c% aaa%l$e$*al a6e&e$ ("es*$a$). T#$l%l a 6*s$ F B*" a% Fs%K#$ K# "e c9$&es%>e&a## a%B#$*& 6*&Ba;#%# s$a$ale alca#ce (caae#, #a& ce# Ba# &e&e# "%c# 6&ace#c al XI lea (!3/! !341), s%asal# Fs9&c#a$9 "e FB9&a;##ca&*l##e# c% a"B##s$&a&ea c#>#l9 K# B#l#$a&9 a %*& &*>#c## "e 6&*$#e&9, %B#$eB9&c#. T#$%la# "eB#$9;## &esec$#>e % "e#"ea% "e "%cele F a c9&%# &*>#c#ee&a s#$%a$9 Ba&ca, c# "*a& "e a%$*$a$ea #Beal9. ce" c% sec*l%l al XII leaBa&c=#e, #a& F Ţa&a R*BPeasc9 a## Ol$e#e#.

    De%B#&ea "e c*$e0c*B#$e, &a s#$%a$ e a Kasea $&ea$9 F #e&a&=#a *#l#a&9,&*>#e "# la$#%l c*Bes, $e&Be ca&e "eseBa % Fal$ 6%c;#*a& &*Ba.:a"a$%l e&Ba#c al aces$%# c*Bes e &a* sa% &a6. Ce# a&*7#Ba$#> 1 "ec*B#;# "e ca&e "#s%ea Ca&*l cel Ma&e, e7e&c#$a% $*a$e &e&*a$#>ele c#>#le K#B#l#$a&e F c#&c%Bsc;##le $eP$*ale ca&e le 6%sese&9 Fc&e"#;a$e. D# a%l 4--,$#$%la# aces$e# "eB#$9;#, as#%&"% K# e&e"#$a$ea 6%c;#e#, a% F$eBe#a$>e$a#le "#as$##, &ec%B cele ale c*;#l*& "e ?l*#s, :as K# O&lgas. Al#a,c*$ele s a %B#$ Ea&l ($e&Be "e *#e sca"#a>9) K# a 6*s$ %>e&PaP$*&%l

    e&e"#$a& al %%# '=#&e (c*B#$a$). IBe%l R*Ba* Ge&Ba, e l9 *#K%#;##

    4+

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    &a, 6%c;#*a% c*;## "e ;a&9 (La"&a) K# c*;## ala$## (:6al#c*$ele0>#cec*B#$ele e&a % "elea$ sa% % &e&e#e

    e&e"#$a&9, ca K# celelal$e &a% *#l#a&e, e a&c%&s%l sec*lel*& X XI. :e lac*$#e$al &ela$#> %;#e >#cec*PB#$a$e a% "e>e#$ e6% e&e"#$a&e c% &a%l&esec$#>. U e7eBl% "e >#c*;# %$e&#c# a% 6*s$ ce# "# 6aB#l#a *#l#a&96&ace$%l cel$#c e& sa% "# 6&aceea seB#ca;#a"e *B l#e&. De%B#&ea a&e "*%9 acce;#%# B*&"#ale. :Ba es$e aceea "e*#l "e;#9$*& al %%# "*Be#% #B*&$a$, %B#$ a&*#e sa% se#*e. A "*%aacce;#%e a "e%B## "e a&* es$e cea "e se#*& %$e&#c, cas$ela. Al#a*;#%ea "e L*&" es$e % s#*#B e$&% a&*. Uaa Be"#e>al9 Ba# *#l#se %Bea% a&*es &e#, *$#Ba$es K# Baa$es. 'a#a a&*## e&a%"eseBa;# $e&Be%l c*s =*B&es (*aBe# *a;#). Ce=#a K# :*l*#aec=#>ale$%l acel%#aK# $#$l% e&a a, #a& F ?alca# %a. s%" es$%l K# es$%lE%&*e# $e&Be%l "e *#e& a 6*s$ Fs9 &e*"e&e$. Ma# *#l# "# 6*&Ba;#%#les$a$ale &*BeK$#, s&eK$#, %l9&eK$#, &%seK$# K# l#$%a#ee sa% %B#$ *#e.?a&*## a% alc9$%#$ &ac$#c 9$%&a s%e*a&9 a *#l#B## e%&*ee, c%#c*$e, la ##;#a$#>a &eel%# Iac* I (!/!!), a 6*s$ cel "e a&*e$.

    Desc=#s9, la Fce%$%le E>%l%# Me"#%, $%$%&*& cel*& s%c#e$ "e a>%;# e$&% a K#&*c%&a % cal K# * a&B%&9, 9$%&a s*c#al9 a ca>alel*& $#"e, "# sec*l%l al XIIIlea, s9 "e>#9 * cas$9 Fc=#s9, % aaa al cel*& c% se alas$&%J. De al$6el,$*;# *#l##, #"#6e&e$ "e &a%l e ca&e Fl B*K$eea% %l$e*&, e&a% ##;#al #>es$#;#ca>ale. : %&Ba&e, &a%l "e ca>ale&, as#B#la$ F ee&al B#c## *#l#B#, c%a$%;## &e*"e&e$ B#l#$a&e, e&a Ba $&ea$9 "e acces K# asces#%e F#e&a&=#a as$*c&a$#c9 Be"#e>al9. De%B#&ea ec=#>ale$9 e$&% ca>ale a 6*s$ F:*l*#a Klea=$#c#, F Ce=#a a"*>#, #a& F Uaa B#l#$es, *#lessa% se&>#e$es. Re&e*&e#,

    #a& F ;9le &*Be c%&$e#, =sa, "9&9a#. Ul$#B%l &a "e *le;e, cel "esc%$#e& e&a Ba# c%&" * s$a&e "e $&aa&ea aces$%# as#&a$ la &a%l"e ca>ale& se 69cea #>es$#$%&9.

    +. Clec##

    41

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    s*c#e$a$ea Be"#e>al9 clec## s%$ e7$&eB "e %Be&*K# K# 6*&Bea#le##2 !. sc%$#&e "e #B*#c#% B#l#$a&^ +. >#le#%l "e 6*& (>#le#%B 6*), "a$*$9 c9&%#a % %$ea% c#$a;# "ec$ F 6a;a 6*&%l*& %"#ce ale #sec##^ 1. >#le#%l "e ca* ca&eas#%&a * &*$ec;#e sec#al9, &*%;a&ea e7c*B%#c9# FB*$>a la#c#l*&ca&e e7e&c#$a% ac$e "e >#*le;9 la a"&esa clec#l*&.

    I$e&"#c;##le e ca&e $&e%#a% s9 le &esec$e clec##, &ec%B cel#a$%l K# e>#$a&eaac$#>#$9;#l*& l%c&a$#>e, a% 6*s$ "es$%l "e >a &esec$a$e F E>%l Me"#%. $#B%l"eca"e;e# ca&*l##ee B%l;# &e*;#, e#s*# K# a&=#e#sc*# se c9s9$*&esc sa%

    $&9#esc F c*c%#a. A#a s#*"%l c*>*ca$ la R*Ba (!-3) "e aa G*&e al VIIlea "ecla&9 e7cl%K# "# #sec9 e clec## ca&e % se sea&9 "e e>es$ele sa%c*c%#ele l*&.

    ) c9l%9# "e% %&9B$%l "e cas$#$a$e, s9&9c#e K# s%%e&e, "a& F &es$ a% %s$a$%$ s#B#la& c% cel al cle&%l%# =#&*$*#s#$. : %&Ba&e $&e%#a% s9 &esec$e *#$e&"#c;#e s%l#Be$a&92 % %$ea% s9 "e;#9 sa% s9 lase B*K$e#&e %a$B*#%. : %&Ba&e %K$## ca*#c# c*s#"e&a% c9 e>e$%alele B*K$e#, "ec#%% a$B*#ale, ale c9l%9l*& &e>eea% a%$*Ba$ B99s$##, F $#B ce ce#la#c# s%s;#ea% c9 &esec$#>ele %% se c%>eea% &e"a$e B*K$e#$*l*& le#$#B#.

     

    1. OaBe## "e &"

    U

    ##, %;## la %B9&, s%$ B#c# &*e$a "e $e&e% ac*le. Ce# Ba# B%l;# s%$"ee"e;# "e 9B$%l se#*l*&, "a& FK# 9s$&eaale, F

    43

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    cal#$a$e "e *ase;# (=*s#$es). aceeaK# e*a"9 B%l;# Ke&# "e># *aBe# l#e,ac=#$" se#*l*& * $a79 "e &9sc%B9&a&e. Al;## se eBac#eaal9, l#e&$a$ea &%&al9 e&a Ba# &es$&s9 "ec$ cea %&a9.

    3. Şe&## &*% #l9 #6e*a&9 "e>#e Ba*$a&9 F sec*l%l al XI lea. :e a&c%&s%l>eac%l*& XII XIV, "a$*$9 a&$#c#9# la e*eea "e6K9l*& K# a "esec9l*&, "a&K# e7*"%l #leal s&e *&aKe, %Be&*K# Ke&# "e># *aBe# l#e. Ul$e*&, Fsec*lele XIII XIV, F aa E%&*e# *cc#"e$ale se "e&%lea#$%$e, "ese* c=#a& la ##;#a$#>a &eal#$9;##.

    a) c#alele s%&se ale Ke&#e#2 !. aK$e&ea S c*### "e># Ke&# c" aB## 9;#s%$ Ke&# sa%, "ac9 &*># "#$& * c9s9$*e B#7$9, c" BaBa e ase&>#$9. +.#$&a&ea >*l%$a&9 F se&>#$%$e S c*### s%$ Fc=#a;# %e# #s$#$%;## eclee# l#e&, % *a$e %c#s FB*" a&#$&a&), e l9 %Be&*asele *l#a;## e ca&e le a&e 6a;9 "e s$9%l"*Be#%l%#. +. Ke&%l e lea$ "e 9B$%l se#*&%l%# K# "ac9 6%e, *a$e %&B9$K# &ea"%s c% 6*&;a e a&cela sa^ e %"eca$ "e s$9 F "*Be#%l %s"#c;#e# c#>#leK# eale^ % se *a$e c9s9$* 69&9 ac*&"%l se#*&%l%#^ "ac9 aB## B# s%$ "e eacelaK# "*Be#% se ac=#$9 "*a& * &e"e>e;9 e$&% *;#e&ea ac*&"%l%#^ "ac9Ke&%l se c9s9$*&eK$e 69&9 a&*a&ea se#*al9 c% * a&$e&9 "e e % al$"*Be#%, &*$" "e 6a$%l c9 #seca >al#"a aseBeea c9s9$*#, sac;#%#le

    Be&ea% "e la aBe"a "e 6*&Baae 9 la c*sca&ea a$B*#%l%#. Ue*c9s9$*#le aB#$#$e seal##e * $a79 B*"#c9 K# % s#B*l al se&>#$%;##^ +. Ke&## l9$esc $all#a, * $a79 ca&ese e&cee a&#$&a& 9 F sec*l%l al XII lea, c" se $&as6*&B9 F$& * #B%e&e&e%la$9, e$&% ca "# sec*l%l al XIII lea s9 se c*6%"e c% ces%l^ 1. Ke&## e&a%*l#a;# s9 &es$ee

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    ac=#$a se#*&%l%# B*K$e#$*&%l "e e "*Be#% e$&% a #$&a F *ses#aa$B*#%l%#.

    ") acces%l la l#e&$a$e se %$ea *;#e 2 !. el#e&a&e c% ase$#PBeP$%lse#*&%l%#, "# #$e&es, B*$#>e ac#a&e sa% B*#l #*s^ +. c9s9$*a c% % *B

    l#e& sa% *#l^ 1. FB&9;#Ka&ea cae&e# clecale^ 3. &e6%#% sa% &eal "e #>aeac%le IVVII. D#s&e &e#%#le *&eale a$ac%le s%$ *&c=es$&a$e, >&eBe "e a&*ae $&e#sec*le, "e "#>e&se seB#;## sca"#a>e ("aee#e#, s%e"ea&e#.:%$eB c*s#"e&a 6e*Be%l aal* c% &a#"%le F$&ese "e a%B#$e *%la;##e&Ba#ce, *#a&e "# *&"%l c*$#e$%l%#, as%&a "#>e&sel*& &*>#c## aleIBe%l%# R*Ba, e a&c%&s%l sec*lel*& IV V. AseB99le % se Fc=e#e c% aces$"e$al#%. D#s&e es$, 9$&%" 9 F ##Ba E%&*e# Ba# B%l$e c*l*Be&a$e "e*Ba&eBe. :a&a"*7al, "eK# F$B#9 *&ee&s%l *l#$#c, s*c#al K# ec**B#cal E%&*e# c&eK$#e, "ec$ e las9 s9 9%#B aa&e$ele ca$as$&*6e, claBa$e c%

    a$*s F #*a&ele a&a$#>e ale >&eB##, e "&e$, &e*"e&e$ ecle*ca&e a B#&a$*l*&, *s$a *cc#"e$al9 se >a 6ace s#B;#$9 las6&K#$%l sec*l%l%# al XI lea, $& * *6es#>9 c*Be&c#al9, %&a9 K# B#l#$a&9(c&%c#a"ele), a"e>e" c%*sc%$a s#$aB9, c9 $*$ ceea ce % $e "#s$&%e $e

     F$9&eK$eJ.

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    !. Ma=#a#

    L

    #Ba Ba=#a&9 aa&;#e &%%l%# %a al l#B#l*& * %ce K# e F&%"#$9 c%>*%la K# *s$#aca. Ma=#a# se "esa&$ "e %e# (>*%l# K# *s$#ac#), F sec*l%l V

     F.H&., %"e>a e c%&s%l Q%>#%l%# O#. :9 F sec*l%l VIII 6ac a&$e "# #Be%l "es$e9 **%&* %la&. :&ac$#c" &ela;## c*Be&c#ale c% H*&e#$e $%&c#ce. ?##a$*l% (48+) K#, %l$e*&, #c#$a;# "e##K#l9 Me&se%& (811081/) "e s%>e&a%l e&Ba Hec :9s9&a&%l, ca&e, F&eala#l, le l9$#se $%$.

    C=#a& K# "%9 aces$ B eKec, c*"%K# "e =*&a ?%lcs%, Ba=#a# $e&*ec## #c*B*

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    (!!) K# a %e# B#$&**l## la al*csa (!!3). 'n& (Ala Re#a), "e>#e&eKe"#;a *%l%# s%>e&a c&eK$# Ba=#a&. D%9 "*B#a l%# Ş$e6a cel '6$ (88-!14) S a 6*s$ ca*#a"a$*# s%$ c*6&%$a;# c% * c

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    s%&a>#e;%#$*# "ee&$esc, se a&e, la #slaB. ?#ea9 c$ K# c% sa;#%l e7$&aca&a$#c, e# >*& #$&a

    "ese* F c*Q#c$ c% ce# K# c% as#le## #, ca&e %l>e

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    3. C%Ba##

    :

    c#alele s%&se &e6e$*a&e la c%Ba# s%$2 #sc;##le %#%&e, C*"e7 C%Ba#c%s,% >*ca%la& la$# e&sa c%Ba, ela*&a$, &*a#l, F c*l*##le *$#cee*>e*#a9 a l%# Hec "e L#$%a#a, Ges$a H%a&*&%B a l%# '#B* "e e* &e#s#, #*a&ele #al, C$ec "es&e *s$ea l%# I*&, e>*c9 $*cBa# c*Q#c$ele cea c% "%KBa## s9# "e eaB $%&c#c, la ele sec*l%l%# al XII lea. C%Baa a"e>e#$ * l#B9 scs9 e6*&$%le B#s#*al*&, ca&e se s$&9"%#esc s9 # a$&a9

    e aceK$# *Ba

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    as%&a c*as$el*& K# a &e#%#l*& "e 6&*$#e&9 ale E%&*e# *cc#"e$ale, ca&e s a&el%#$ >&eBe "e Ba# #e "e "*%9 sec*le. AceK$# #>a"a$* s%&###, Ba"%s, &%*$s#, &%s, >a&e#, >a&a#, >aa.

    cal#$a$e "e #&a;#, e7l*&a$*, c*l*#e&sa;# F #$# "#l*Ba$#ce, e# FK# >*& 6ace s#B;#$9 =eeB*#aBa$#B9, B#l#$a&9 K# c*Be&c#al9, $#B "e s%$e "e a#, "e e c*as$ele *&"#ce aleABec## 9 la =*$a&ele I"#e# K# "e e ;9&B%le A6c## 9 F *&"%le M9#N*&"%l%# sa% *l6%le M9# ?al$#ce. A>e$%le l*& a%$#ce K# &a#"%le l*&%s$##$*a&e *$ %K*& &ec*s$#$%#$e, c*s%l$" * la&9 aB9 "e #*a&e a&a$#>eBe"#e>ale. Asal$%le *&Ba"e as%&a c*as$el*& 6&ace#;a ca%e, e$&% ca, F %l$#Ba #s$a;9, s9 *&a#*a&ea &9##9, c*s$a$9B c9, F a%l 48,*&>e#e## *&esc * >e$a#l9 *6es#>9 FB*$>a 6&a#lel*& 6*&BaP;#%# s$a$ale

    8!

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