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T Δx Δθ DETECTOR LAYERS DETECTOR LAYERS INCOMING MUON OUTGOING MUON Particle Physics Research Particle physics is the study of the fundamental building blocks of matter and how they interact with each other. Modern particle physicists build large experiments where particles are made to smash into one another at high energies. Particle detectors are built around where these collisions occur, and we study the particles resulting from the collision interactions. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is colliding protons at higher energies than ever before, and accumulating a huge dataset, allowing us to probe nature at its most fundamental level. The Bristol Particle Physics group is involved in two experiments that run at the LHC: CMS and LHCb. We are also involved in a variety of research and development projects for future experiments. Now is a very exciting time in particle physics! The CMS experiment at CERN The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general purpose experiments at the LHC. It has a broad programme of physics, including the discovery of the Higgs boson and searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model. At Bristol, we are leading the way in direct searches for new phenomena such as dark matter, Supersymmetric particles, and additional exotic Higgs bosons. We are also precisely measuring the properties of the top quark, to enhance our understanding of the heaviest known particle of the Standard Model. Our work on the MasterCode Project brings together the results of all of these measurements and searches to constrain models of new physics. We have been heavily involved with the design and construction of the tracker, the electromagnetic calorimeter, and the first level trigger for CMS. We continue to contribute strongly in the day to day running of the CMS detector, and also in the upgrade of several aspects of the detector. Research and Development The Bristol group is actively researching and developing new solid-state particle detector technologies. These will be used in future particle physics experiments, such as upgrades to the LHC experiments, the search for lepton-flavour violation at Mu3e, and the SiD detector at the ILC and CLIC linear collider experiments. We also develop applications of our detector technologies in other fields, such as medical X-ray therapy and radiation detectors. We are also working on the exploitation of natural cosmic rays to scan shipping containers and nuclear waste containers using Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors. We are entering a completely new realm of sensitivity to New Physics. We do not know which approach will discover evidence of New Physics first: the highly sensitive search for deviations from Standard Model predictions in precision flavour physics at LHCb and NA62, or direct observation of new particles at CMS. However, it is certain that the input from both will be needed if we wish not merely to break the Standard Model, but to understand and exploit the physics that lies beyond it. Flavour Physics The detailed study of quark transitions provides insights into the structure of the Standard Model, and allows the discovery and study of physics beyond the Standard Model. Precision flavour physics is sensitive to loop effects caused by particles that can be far heavier than those directly produced at colliders — it can see beyond the energy frontier being probed by the general purpose detectors at the LHC. Bristol has a comprehensive flavour physics programme, covering B physics (LHCb), charm physics (CLEO-c and LHCb) and kaon physics (NA62). These areas complement each other in their sensitivity to New Physics, providing an unprecedented experimental precision where a whole host of New Physics models could become apparent. Bristol has one of the most far-reaching programmes in the UK. In addition to our established flavour physics programme, we are expanding our activities into the neutrino sector, with a search for sterile neutrinos at the SoLid experiment, and preparations for the DUNE project, which will study how neutrinos oscillate between different flavours over a distance of 1,300km. We are also contributing to the SHiP experiment, which aims to hunt for new weakly interacting particles that would be inaccessible to the LHC experiments, as well as studying the tau neutrino in great detail.

Particle Physics Research -  · Particle Physics Research Particle physics is the study of the fundamental building blocks of matter and how they ... The Bristol Particle Physics

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    ResearchParticlephysics isthestudyofthefundamentalbuildingblocksofmatterandhowthey interactwitheachother.Modernparticlephysicistsbuild largeexperimentswhereparticlesaremade to smash intooneanotherathighenergies.Particledetectorsarebuiltaroundwherethesecollisionsoccur,andwestudytheparticlesresultingfromthecollisioninteractions.

    TheLargeHadronCollider(LHC)atCERNiscollidingprotonsathigherenergiesthaneverbefore,andaccumulatingahugedataset, allowing us to probe nature at itsmost fundamental level. The Bristol Particle Physics group is involved in twoexperimentsthatrunattheLHC:CMSandLHCb.Wearealsoinvolvedinavarietyofresearchanddevelopmentprojectsforfutureexperiments.Nowisaveryexcitingtimeinparticlephysics!

    TheCMSexperimentatCERNThe Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general purposeexperimentsattheLHC.Ithasabroadprogrammeofphysics,includingthediscoveryoftheHiggsbosonandsearchesfornewphysicsbeyondtheStandardModel.

    AtBristol,weareleadingthewayindirectsearchesfornewphenomenasuchasdarkmatter, Supersymmetricparticles, andadditional exoticHiggsbosons. Wearealsopreciselymeasuringthepropertiesofthetopquark,toenhanceourunderstandingoftheheaviest knownparticleof theStandardModel. Ourworkon theMasterCodeProject brings together the results of all of these measurements and searches toconstrainmodelsofnewphysics.

    Wehavebeenheavily involvedwith thedesignandconstructionof thetracker, theelectromagnetic calorimeter, and the first level trigger for CMS. We continue tocontribute strongly in the day to day running of the CMSdetector, and also in theupgradeofseveralaspectsofthedetector.

    ResearchandDevelopmentThe Bristol group is actively researching and developing new solid-state particledetectortechnologies.Thesewillbeusedinfutureparticlephysicsexperiments,suchasupgradestotheLHCexperiments,thesearchforlepton-flavourviolationatMu3e,andtheSiDdetectorattheILCandCLIClinearcolliderexperiments.

    We also develop applications of our detector technologies in other fields, such asmedical X-ray therapy and radiation detectors. We are also working on theexploitation of natural cosmic rays to scan shipping containers and nuclear wastecontainersusingResistivePlateChamber(RPC)detectors.

    WeareenteringacompletelynewrealmofsensitivitytoNewPhysics.WedonotknowwhichapproachwilldiscoverevidenceofNewPhysicsfirst:thehighlysensitivesearchfordeviationsfromStandardModelpredictionsinprecisionflavourphysicsatLHCbandNA62,ordirectobservationofnewparticlesatCMS.However,itiscertainthattheinputfrombothwillbeneededifwewishnotmerelytobreaktheStandardModel,buttounderstandandexploitthephysicsthatliesbeyondit.

    FlavourPhysicsThe detailed study of quark transitions provides insights into the structure of theStandardModel,andallowsthediscoveryandstudyofphysicsbeyondtheStandardModel.Precision flavourphysics is sensitive to loopeffects causedbyparticles thatcanbefarheavierthanthosedirectlyproducedatcollidersitcanseebeyondtheenergyfrontierbeingprobedbythegeneralpurposedetectorsattheLHC.

    Bristol has a comprehensive flavourphysics programme, coveringBphysics (LHCb),charmphysics(CLEO-candLHCb)andkaonphysics(NA62).Theseareascomplementeach other in their sensitivity to New Physics, providing an unprecedentedexperimental precision where a whole host of New Physics models could becomeapparent.Bristolhasoneofthemostfar-reachingprogrammesintheUK.

    In addition to our established flavour physics programme, we are expanding ouractivities into the neutrino sector, with a search for sterile neutrinos at the SoLidexperiment,andpreparationsfortheDUNEproject,whichwillstudyhowneutrinososcillate between different flavours over a distance of 1,300km. We are alsocontributingtotheSHiPexperiment,whichaimstohuntfornewweakly interactingparticlesthatwouldbeinaccessibletotheLHCexperiments,aswellasstudyingthetauneutrinoingreatdetail.