Pht trin-cng-ng3651

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  • 1. CHNG I L THUYT PHT TRIN CNG NG PTC l mt tin trnh tng trng kinh t cng vi tin b cng ng theo hng hon thin cc gi tr chn, thin, m ca cng ng. PTC t pht v PTC t gic l hai trnh khc nhau, vi tc ng ca yu t khoa hc trong cc chin lc, quy hoch tng th, d n, c t chc thit ch qun l s pht trin. Cc nguyn l PTC gm : tnh tng i, tnh a dng v tnh bn vng. Vi t chc x hi l ng thun, t qun v tham gia, hnh ng x hi ca cng ng l ng bin, t bin v hip bin. L thuyt PTC c 6 quan im : t di ln; ng b, tham d; chuyn bin x hi; pht trin nng lc; ch trng nghin cu v 4 mc tiu : ci thin cht lng sng; to s bnh ng trong tham gia; cng c thit ch, t chc; thu ht ti a. Trit l tham d l c s quan trng ca l thuyt PTC, trong , nghin cu tham d l mt dng tham gia c cht lng, vi nhiu k thut khc nhau. I. Lch s hnh thnh v din tin ca pht trin cng ng 1- Lch s : PTC (Community Development) xut hin vo nhng nm 1940 ti cccu thuc a u tin ca Anh. Ghana, mt ngi Anh tt bng ny ra sngkin gip dn t ci thin i sng bng cc n lc chung ca chnh quyn vngi dn a phng.NghoSn xut kmTrnh vn ha kmSc khe km 2- Din tin : Kinh nghim tch cc ny c lan rng hu ht cc cu thuc a chu v chu Phi. Nm 1950 LHQ cng nhn khi nim PTC vkhuyn khch cc quc gias dng PTC nh mt cng c thc hin cc chng trnh pht trinquc gia. Thp k 1960-1970 c chn l thp k pht trin th nht vi nhngchng trnh vin tr quy m ln v k thut, phng php, vn ling. Nm 1970 LHQ lng gi thp k pht trin, rt ra mt s phng hng : S tham gia ca qun chng l yu t c bn.1PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

2. Yu t t chc l quan trng : cn h tr s hnh thnh v cng c t chc ca chnh ngi dn. Khng t nng chng trnh, d n t bn trn hoc bn ngoi a vo m ch trng cc cng trnh va tm do ngi dn xng v thc hin vi s h tr t bn ngoi. To c s chuyn bin x hi mi l quan trng. l s thay i nhn thc, hnh vi ca ngi dn nhm mc ch pht trin. To c s chuyn bin trong t chc, c cu v cc mi tng quan lc lng trong x hi. PTC ch c hiu qu khi nm trong mt chin lc pht trin quc gia ng n. Pht trin cp lng x phi t trong k hoch pht trin cp vng. Hun luyn trang b cho dn v nhng ngi c trch nhim k nng t chc, lnh o l mt b phn khng th thiu. T thp k 80 cho n nay, PTC c bit n mt cch rng ri qua cc chngtrnh vin tr pht trin ca nc ngoi ti Vit Nam trong yu t tham gia cangi dn l mt trong nhng nhn t quyt nh. B mn PTC v t chc cng ng c ging dy trong mt s trng i hcpha Nam. Tuy nhin, PTC vn l khoa hc mi hnh thnh nc ta, cn c nhng tngkt l thuyt v thc tin hon chnh n. Pht trin cng ng v t chc cng ng : PTC xut pht t cc nc ang pht trin. TCC l phng php gip cc C dn c ngho th ( cc nc cng nghippht trin) bin chuyn, on kt v t chc tt hn gii quyt cc vn vnhu cu ca mnh. Thc cht PTC v TCC rt gn gi v trng lp. Pht trin cng ng : mt b mn khoa hc. PTC l mt phng php vn ng, gio dc v t chc qun chng nn trit lv phng php ca n c p dng trong nhiu lnh vc nh : khuyn nng,gio dc sc khe, xy dng v pht trin mng li y t cng ng, k hoch hagia nh, pht trin kinh t gia nh, tn dng tit kim, xy dng np sng th,ci to khu nh chut PTC vn dng nhiu ngnh khoa hc khc nh : tm l hc, nhn chng hc, xhi hc, CTXH, qun tr hc, kinh t hc, chnh tr hc, t chc hc II. C s l thuyt pht trin cng ng 1- Khi nim pht trin cng ng - thc cht v phm vi Pht trin cng ng: PTC thc cht l qu trnh tng trng kinh t cng ng cng vi tin b cng ng theo hng hon thin cc gi tr chn, thin, m. nh ngha ca Lin Hip Quc (1956) : PTC l nhng tin trnh qua n lc ca dn chng kt hp vi nlc ca chnh quyn ci thin cc iu kin kinh t, x hi, vn ha cacc cng ng v gip cc cng ng ny hi nhp ng thi ng gpvo i sng quc gia Theo Murray v Ross :2PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com 3. T chc cng ng l mt din tin qua mt cng ng nhn r nhu cu hay mc tiu ca mnh, sp xp cc nhu cu v mc tiu ny, pht huy s t tin v mun thc hin chng, tm kim ti nguyn (bn trong v bn ngoi) gii quyt nhu cu hay mc tiu y. Thng qua s pht huy nhng thi v k nng hp tc vi nhau trong cng ng. l mt chin lc pht trin nhm vn ng sc dn trong cc cng ng nng thn cng nh th phi hp cng vi nhng n lc ca Nh nc ci thin h tng c s v tng kh nng t lc ca cng ng1 Pht trin cng ng s bao gm mt s hot ng ch yu sau : Cng ng xc nh cc vn cn gii quyt ca cng ng (Nhu cu v mctiu). Chn la cc vn u tin bng cc phn tch nh lng v nh tnh (Nhucu v mc tiu u tin). Xy dng cc chng trnh hnh ng trn c s phi hp cc ngun lc bntrong v bn ngoi. Trin khai, bao gm c iu chnh cc chng trnh hnh ng. Lng gi cc chng trnh hnh ng khng ch trn c s nguyn l lchng phi to ra nhng chuyn bin x hi hn l mt s hiu qu trc mt hocmang tnh hnh thc, khng cn bn. 2- L thuyt pht trin cng ng Nguyn l PTC da trn nguyn l pht trin x hi, cn nguyn l pht trin x hi da vo nguyn l pht trin ph qut, thc cht l cc nguyn l bin chng. Php bin chng l c s chung ca l thuyt pht trin. Bin chng ca s pht trin coi tn ti khch quan phi bao gm 4 nguyn l tng qut : (1) Tn ti (2) Tng i (3) Bin ha mu thun (4) Thng nht a dng. Cc nguyn l ny khi p dng vo x hi c din t cng bng 4 nguyn l c bn nh : (1) Sinh tn (2) Hnh thi kinh t-x hi ( t chc v thit ch x hi) (3) Tin b vn ha vn minh (vai tr ca lc lng sn xut, ca khoa hc cng ngh) (4) Pht trin bn vng (th hin mi quan h gia x hi ngi vi mi trng). Ba kha cnh ch yu ca nguyn l tng qut ca pht trin cng ng : Tnh tng i : ngi ta cp ti nhng quan nim rt khc nhau v PTC, nn khng tuyt i ha mt s vt, mt hin tng no c. Tun T 1 Pratt, Brian & Jo Boyden, The Field Directors Handbook, Oxfam Manual for Development Worker. 3PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com 4. nhn nh : C ci ring thy th ng nhin c ci ring khc b che.V d, ci gi l pht trin v km pht trin l nhng quy c theo mt hquy chiu, vi mt h quy chiu khc, ta li c cch nhn khc, khng nntuyt i ha. Pht trin v km pht trin l trong mi quan h tng ivi nhau, bi v c th pht trin ci ny th km pht trin ci kia v ngcli. LNin ni y l pht trin khng u ca cc t chc v thit ch xhi, ca cng ng x hi ni ring. Tnh a dng : cng ng l mt tnh nhng biu hin rt phong ph, rt adng. Tnh bn vng : cng ng c tnh bn vng, loi ngi da trn tnh cngng lm cn bn tn ti v pht trin. Tm li, c s ring ca l thuyt pht trin cng ng bao gm 3 nguyn l, to nn tam v nht th nh sau : (1) Nguyn l tng i ca pht trin cng ng. (2) Nguyn l tnh a dng ca pht trin cng ng. (3) Nguyn l tnh bn vng ca pht trin cng ng.Nguyn l a dngNguyn l tng iNguyn l bn vng L thuyt pht trin cng ng cng cp n mi quan h gia cc th chx hi, ch yu l ba th ch x hi c bn tham gia vo s pht trin cng ng. - Th nht l t qun cng ng. - Th hai l s qun l ca nh nc. - Th ba l s can thip ca th trng Trit l tham d hay tham gia (participation) l mt trong nhng quan imquan trng ca pht trin cng ng. Tham d l tham gia mc thp, cn tham gial tham d l mc cao. Trit l ny th hin nh sau : cho cng ng pht trintt p, bn vng th phi c s hp tc ca tt c cc lc lng x hi, ca cc tchc v tht ch x hi, m ta tm hnh dung c 4 lc lng ch cht sau y thamgia vo pht trin cng ng : - Th nht l bn thn cng ng. - Th hai l Nh nc. - Th ba l th trng. - Th t l cc nhn t x hi. Vn pht trin :4PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com 5. Th no l pht trin v km pht trin ? Pht trin : Pht trin l qu trnh bin i v cht v lng. V s lng th l s tng trng, v phm cht th nht nh phi c s bin i v mt cht lng theo hng tin b. Pht trin x hi : pht trin x hi l s tng trng, c bit l tng trng kinh t cng vi s bin i x hi theo chiu hng tin b x hi, ngha l ng hn, tt hn v p hn. Km pht trin : Km PT th hin ch cc nhu cu c bn khng c p ng y : thiu n, thiu mc, thiu nc sch, thiu in, nh ti tn, thiu cu ng, lu thng kh khn, thiu thuc cha bnh,... Cc nhu cu sinh hot tinh thn, gii tr yu km, m ch cao, thiu trng lp v gio vin, thiu thng tin, lc hu v khoa hc k thut. Tm l thiu t tin, trng ch, li. Mc ch ca pht trin : Mc ch v mc tiu ca pht trin l nng cao cht lng i sng ca ngi dn v nhm cung cp cho con ngi nhng c hi pht trin ton din cc tim nng. Pht trin khng th ch nh ngha nh tng s thu nhp u ngi ca mt quc gia, tng cc ch s sn phm sn xut ca a phng, ca vng, hoc tng tit kim ca c nhn hay nhm. Pht trin khng ch hm s tng ln v ti nguyn v thm k nng, m cn l to ra nhng thay i, ci tin tch cc.Pht trin cn gip nhng ngi dn thit thi trc y c th ci thin cc iu kin sng ca h v tha mn nhng nhu cu c bn nh vic lm, nh , mi trng an ton.Pht trin c ngha l ngi dn thit thi trong cng ng ngy nay c kh nng tr tin hc ph cho con ci, tr y t ph v m mang kin thc v x hi hin ang sng.Pht trin ng rng ng s, cu cng c xy dng, lu thng c ci tin v mng li thng tin hu hiu c thit lp.Pht trin cng c ngha l ngi dn trong cng ng c th t c nhiu mt ci thin nu trn thng qua nhng c gng ca h, v s tham gia vo nhng quyt nh c nh hng n i sng ca h. iu ny c xem nh yu t ch yu quyt nh xem pht trin cng ng ng ngha c xy ra hay khng.Cui cng Pht trin ty vo sng kin khi s ca ngi dn trong cng ng, v Pht trin ch c th xem nh ng ngha ch thc nu ngho i v tht nghip gim i, nhn quyn v cng bng x hi c cng c2 2nh ngha ca United Nations Center for Regional Development, 1988 Trung tm pht trin vng ca Lin Hip Quc.5PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com 6. Cc ch bo pht trin : Cc nh nghin cu v cc nh lnh o cho rng khng th ng nht pht trin vi tng trng. Tng trng kinh t khng c ngha l pht trin x hi. Tng trng kinh t l mt ch s ca s pht trin ch khng phi l tan b cc ch s ca s pht trin. Pht trin x hi hin nay c hiu theo ngha ton din gm c rt nhiu ch s. Trong bo co pht trin hng nm ca Ngn hng Th gii (WB) ta thy c hn 200 ch s v s pht trin x hi so snh gia cc nc v s pht trin, gia cc khu vc, trong nu gom li th c cc nhm ch s c bn : Nhm ch s tng trng kinh t, c bit l ch s v bnh qun thu nhp u ngi so snh gia cc cng ng v cc khu vc. Nhm ch s pht trin x hi : ngi ta quan tm rt nhiu n nhiu n ch s pht trin x hi, c bit l ch s pht trin dch v x hi, trong c 2 dch v c bn nht l dch v gio dc v dch v y t. Ch s pht trin con ngi HDI Human Development Index l ch s tng hp kinh t x hi ca s pht trin, bao gm : Thu nhp bnh qun u ngi Tui th trung bnh Trnh hc vn trung bnh Ngoi hai ch s pht trin kinh t v x hi ni trn, ngi ta quan tm n mt nhm ch s quan trng na : - Ch s pht trin c s h tng (in, ng, trng, trm) - Ch s pht trin bn vng : y l mt quan nim hin i. Lu nay chngta mi ch quan tm n nhng ch s pht trin kinh t, x hi, con ngi,vn ha... nhng t cp ti quan h gi

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