PRJ 702 jasdeep kaur

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    Project Title

    Cloud Data Confidentiality- Various Encryption techniques

    Graduate Diploma in Information Technology

    PRJ 702

    2016

    Submitted by -Jasdeep Kaur

    Student Id- 13466554

    Blog - https://jasdeepit.wordpress.com/

    https://jasdeepit.wordpress.com/

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    Abstract

    In the modern world, the data is growing at an exponential rate. It gives rise to the adoption of an advanced data

    storage technology, which is known as cloud-computing.

    Cloud-computing provides online access to a pool of resources including computational platform, storage,

    applications, and services. Cloud-computing is a very cost effective as you have to pay only for the resources that

    you have used. It is a user-friendly measure to handle vast amount of data. IT businesses are shifting towards the

    cloud-computing. However, cloud-computing also facing several data security challenges. Integrity,

    confidentiality and availability are the major concerns of the cloud-computing. Data integrity and confidentiality

    has a significant effect on the cloud security and performance. This research report aims at identifying various

    techniques for ensuring data confidentiality in the cloud. Encryption is widely accepted mechanism for cloud data

    confidentiality. It is used to protect data in static and dynamic form. There are various types of encryption

    techniques including Homomorphic Encryption. Identity-based encryption, Attribute based Encryption etc. Each

    technique of encryption has its own complexity and usage. This paper demonstrated each encryption techniques in

    context to its usage for cloud-data confidentiality.

    Keywords

    Cloud-Computing, Encryption, Data Confidentiality, Security, Algorithm, Cryptography, Encryption- Key

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    Acknowledgment

    I would like to show my gratitude to every person who contributed for the successful completion of my

    research report. First, I am very grateful to my research guide Mrs. Charanya Mohanakrishnan for her

    valuable guidance and encouragement. She gave me opportunity to work in my interest area. I am really

    thankful for her helpful discussions and suggestions.

    I would also like to show my gratitude towards all NMIT staff members and my colleagues who helped

    me during my research for this report.

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    Table of Contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................................3

    Acknowledgment ........................................................................................................................................................4

    Table of Figures ..........................................................................................................................................................7

    Abbreviations .............................................................................................................................................................8

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................9

    Aims and Objectives ............................................................................................................................................ 11

    Background .............................................................................................................................................................. 12

    Basics of Cloud-Computing .................................................................................................................................. 12

    Key Features Of Cloud Computing .................................................................................................................. 12

    Deployment models ........................................................................................................................................ 13

    Models of cloud-computing ............................................................................................................................ 14

    Known Cloud Service Providers ....................................................................................................................... 15

    Importance of security in cloud computing ............................................................................................................ 16

    Cloud Data Security Requirement ........................................................................................................................... 17

    Literature review ..................................................................................................................................................... 19

    Ensuring Data Confidentiality in the cloud .............................................................................................................. 21

    Cryptography fundamentals ................................................................................................................................ 22

    Introduction to Encryption .................................................................................................................................. 23

    Cryptographic techniques used in the cloud computing......................................................................................... 24

    Identity-based Encryption (IBE) ........................................................................................................................... 24

    Attribute-based Encryption ................................................................................................................................. 27

    Fully homomorphic Encryption (FHE) .................................................................................................................. 29

    AES (Sachdev & Bhansali, 2013) .......................................................................................................................... 31

    DES Algorithm ...................................................................................................................................................... 34

    3DES ..................................................................................................................................................................... 37

    RC4 (Mousa & Hamad, 2006) .............................................................................................................................. 38

    Blowfish ............................................................................................................................................................... 41

    RSA ....................................................................................................................................................................... 43

    Diffie-Hellman ...................................................................................................................................................... 45

    ElGamal ................................................................................................................................................................ 46

    Paillier Cryptosystem (Benzekki, Fergougui, & Alaoui, 2016) ............................................................................. 47

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    Goldwasser-Micali ............................................................................................................................................... 48

    Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 49

    Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................. 50

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    Table of Figures Figure 1 Unauthorized Access to Cloud Data (Maddineni & Ragi, 2011) .................................................................9

    Figure 2 Survey Graph of Cloud Computing Challenges (Whyman, 2008) .............................................................. 16

    Figure 3 Identity-based encryption scheme (Neven & Kiltz, p. 3) ........................................................................... 25

    Figure 4 AES Algorithm (Pansotra & Singh, 2015) ................................................................................................... 32

    Figure 5 Flow Diagram of DES Algorithm (T.N.Srimanyu & Singla) ......................................................................... 35

    Figure 6 TDEA Algorithm (Pansotra & Singh, 2015) ................................................................................................ 37

    Figure 7 RC4 Algorithm (Mousa & Hamad, 2006) ................................................................................................... 39

    Figure 8 Blowfish Encryption (Verma & Singh, March 2012) .................................................................................. 42

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    Abbreviations 1. CSP-Cloud service Provider

    2. NIST- National Institute of Standards and Technology

    3. USDA- United States Department of Agriculture

    4. IDC- International Data Corporation

    5. DOJ-Department of Justice

    6. ERP- Enterprise resource planning

    7. CRM- Customer relationship management