Progress and self-assessment in clinical practice in occupational therapy education in Japan

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  • Progress and self-assessment in clinical practice in Occupational Therapy education in JapanChihiro SasakiOTR KeikoSatomura OTR Kaoru InoueOTR NoboruOhshimaOTR Tokyo college of welfare Department of occupational therapy Graduate School of Human Sciences,Tokyo Metropolitan University


  • IntroductionThe knowledge standard can keep a constant standard by passing it by a national examination.

    Result of the clinical practice the technical standard is at school, and to perform just becomes the standard after the qualification(cf.Table1,2). I think that it is necessary to consider an education method to keep a fixed technical standard by a current clinical practice system.


  • Table 1 Basics Information of Occupational Therapist in Japan200904 data.

    Occupational TherapistLegislation1965National examination started1966Qualified people47,759Training schools179Entrance to school capacity7,606


  • Table 2 Curriculum Summary of Occupational EducationThe ratio of Clinical practice credits to Total credits

    Itemcommentsqualifications needed to join Occupational schoolHigh school graduationStudying termMore than three yearsTotal credits93 unitsClinical practice credits18 unitscredits number ratio27%


  • PurposeA purpose of this study is to investigate the change of the time progress of self-assessment that the students who were registered as " clinical clerkship" " clinical internship " (I abbreviate it to clerkship and internship as follows) and their education objects and practicing school year (cf. Table 3).


  • Table 3 Clinical Experience Objects of Occupational EducationTo perform it in two institutions; six weeks in totalTo perform it in two institutions; fourteen weeks in total

    clinical clerkship clinical internship Grade to performthird graderfourth graderCondition to performFinished a basic subject in the occupational therapyFinished clinical clerkship Term to performthree weeksseven weeksEducation objects1.The acquisition of the Assessment skill in the occupational therapy1.The acquisition of the Approach skill in the occupational therapy2.The acquisition of the professional as the careerist2.The acquisition of the professional as the careerist

  • MethodI investigated 40occupational therapy students in (2007) and 37 in (2008) who were registered at college A of occupational therapy schools in Tokyo.

    I have carried out a questionnaire. It included questions regarding experiences learned from clinical practice and description of what they got.


  • Data analysisThe analysis method classified description contents in reference to KJ editor. In the following, I simply explain the procedure of the classification that took KJ editor into account.

    I open a short sentence card and I collect the near things of the meaning and make a small group.I read over each small group again and can thrust "category" expressing a meaning of the whole the small group.I consider the "category" to be one piece of card and I collect the near cards of the meaning again and make a higher small group.I continue this process till the near thing of the meaning disappears.I illustrate the relations of each group after I finish arranging the whole and express a theme in a sentence while watching the illustration.It is necessary to perform that while arguing by a plural number to raise the validity of "category" and a figure concerned.


  • ResultsTable4Summary of the answers by OT student, collected rate and Investigation period

    clinical clerkship clinical internship Sex (man/woman)19/1518/14Average age (age)266.1265.1Collected rate (%)85.0 86.5 Investigation date2008.032008.09

  • ResultsThe label total number to constitute a category was 179 pieces of " clerkship " and " internship " 194 pieces. As a result of analysis, free description and students comment on meanings of clinical practice was classified in a category of " Practice of the occupational therapy ", "Self-knowledge ", " Form makes of the occupational therapist ", " Others".


  • Results" Practice of the occupational therapy " and " Form makes of the occupational therapist "

    Along education targets, the description contents of the students changed, too. Therefore it was noticed that there is a different in the sub categories and the description contents.(cf.Table5)"Self-knowledge "

    there was no difference in the categories and the sub categories by the difference of education targets. However, there was the qualitative change of description contents.(cf.Table6)


  • Table 5 " Practice of the Occupational Therapy " different in the sub categories and the description contents and label number

    lPractice of the Occupational Therapyclinical clerkship label number(pieces)clinical internship label number(pieces)l2Practicel2PracticeReasoning of the practice plans7Reasoning of the practice plans10Technology of the practice8Technology of the practice19Various practice methods9Activities4Use of self for practice3

  • Table 6 "Self-knowledge " change in the qualitative of description contents.

    description contentsclinical clerkship clinical internship rSelf-knowledgeKnow oneselfKnow the influence that one's behavior and action give a patientrSelf growthVision and the expanse of the thoughtConquest of a concrete problemsProfessional responsibilityResponsibility as a member of society / the careeristResponsibility as the therapist


  • Discussion " The technology of the occupational therapy "

    It was understood practice with the large frames in clerkship, but there was little understanding of what they understood from different angles in internship."Self-knowledge "

    It was limited at Know oneself level in clerkship, but it was realized the influence that one's behavior and action could give a patient level understanding that changed into management in internship.


  • Discussion " Self growth "

    It was limited in vision and expanded in terms of thought level in clerkship, but reached the action that the conquest of a concrete problem did in internship." Professional responsibility"

    It began with general understanding called a careerist / the member of society in clerkship and they understood the responsibility of the occupational therapist in internship.


  • ConclusionsWe were able to confirm that learning to clinical practice of OT students about the practice of the occupational therapy of each clinical practice affected by the contents which met education target. However, estrangement is watched in assessment between a supervisor and the students. In addition, as for the change of the students who became clear, the problem that was not reflected stayed for the results of the clinical practice in this study.


    * * **2009.04*** *A1920/ *KJ1*179194 * *

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