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Provocări epistemologice ale totalitarismului O metodologie a

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  • FlorinLeontinABRAHAM

    PROVOCRIEPISTEMOLOGICEALETOTALITARISMULUIOMETODOLOGIEASTUDIULUIREGIMURILORCOMUNISTE

  • PROVOCRIEPISTEMOLOGICEALETOTALITARISMULUIOMETODOLOGIEASTUDIULUIREGIMURILORCOMUNISTE

    Autor:FlorinLeontinABRAHAMConductortiinific:Prof.dr.VasilePUCA

    Lucrare realizat n cadrulproiectului Valorificarea identitilor culturale nprocesele globale, cofinanat din Fondul Social European prin ProgramulOperaionalSectorialDezvoltareaResurselorUmane20072013,contractuldefinanarenr.POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59758.Titlurile i drepturile de proprietate intelectual i industrial asuprarezultatelor obinute n cadrul stagiuluide cercetarepostdoctoral aparinAcademieiRomne.

    PuncteledevedereexprimatenlucrareaparinautoruluiinuangajeazComisiaEuropeaniAcademiaRomn,beneficiaraproiectului.

    Exemplargratuit.Comercializareanaristrintateesteinterzis.

    Reproducerea,fieiparialipeoricesuport,esteposibilnumaicuacordulprealabilalAcademieiRomne.

    ISBN9789731671130 Depozitlegal:Trim.II2013

  • FlorinLeontinABRAHAM

    Provocriepistemologicealetotalitarismului

    Ometodologieastudiuluiregimurilorcomuniste

    EdituraMuzeuluiNaionalalLiteraturiiRomne

    ColeciaAULAMAGNA

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    Cuprins

    INTRODUCERE..................................................................................................... 9

    PARTEANTI.TOTALITARISMUL.............................................................. 21

    I.TOTALITARISMUL:CONCURENAVIZIUNILORPOLITICOEPISTEMICE ............................................................................... 23A.Istoricitateaconceptelor ...........................................................................27

    i)Apariianoiunii.PerioadainterbeliciAlDoileaRzboiMondial ..............................................................27

    ii)RzboiulReceitotalitarismul.Autoriiclasici ...............................34iii)ReconsiderrialeteorieitotalitarentimpulRzboiuluiRece ....45iv)Revigorareateorieitotalitaredup1989.........................................59

    B.Capacitateaexplicativateorieiclasiceatotalitarismului ..................67C.Responsabilitateivinovienregimurilecomuniste......................101

    II.COLAPSULCOMUNISMULUIEUROPEAN:DILEMEISTORIOGRAFICE....................................................................... 110A.Cdereacomunismului:ntreidealpoliticiproblem

    destudiu ..................................................................................................112B.Deceaureuitrevoluiileanului1989?................................................120

    i)Factoriendogeni .................................................................................122ii)Factoriexogeni...................................................................................125iii)Centru ................................................................................................128iv)Periferie..............................................................................................134

    C.Controverselecontinu ..........................................................................137

    III.STUDIULCOMUNISMULUINEUROPACENTRALIDEEST.CAZULROMNESC............................................................... 142A.Trsturidominantealeistoriografieipostcomuniste......................144

    i)Dimensiuneainstituional ...............................................................145ii)Trenduritematice,preferinemetodologice..................................153

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    iii)Istoriografieidecomunizare.........................................................157B.Cazulromnesc........................................................................................164

    i)Arhitecturainstituionaldup1989...............................................167ii)Temelepredilectealeistoriografiei.................................................186iii)Istoriografiaromn,ntrerevoluieirestauraiedecatifea?..........................................................................................191

    PARTEAADOUA.RENOVAREASTUDIULUICOMUNISMULUI........ 201

    IV.ATELIERULISTORICULUICOMUNISMULUI.................................... 203A.Istorierecentistudiulcomunismului ..............................................204B.Surselecercetriicomunismului:implicaiimetodologice................207

    i)Izvoareleistoriceprodusededictaturiletotalitare........................208ii)Istoriculisurselecomunismului ...................................................229

    C.Metodealeistoricului .............................................................................236i)Metodaistoric ...................................................................................238ii)Metodacomparativ .........................................................................241iii)Anchetaoral ....................................................................................256iv)Metodestatistice...............................................................................263v)Studiuldecaznistoriografie..........................................................266

    D.Istoriografieimemoriesocial ............................................................268

    V.CERCETTORULISTORIEIRECENTE:SPECTATORULANGAJAT.................................................................................................... 275A.Istoriculispectatoriisi....................................................................275

    i)Contactulistoriculuicupublicul......................................................275ii)Cecredceteniidesprecomunism? ..............................................277iii)ncutareaunorexplicaii ..............................................................283

    B.Condiiameserieideistoric....................................................................286i)Condiiiprofesionale..........................................................................286ii)Condiiimateriale..............................................................................289

    C.Rolulistoricului,ntretaumaturgieiobiectivism.....................290D.Elementealeuneieticiacercettoruluiistorieirecente ....................295

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    i)Justiiarismul .......................................................................................298ii)Moralafaptelorimoralaistoricului ..............................................300iii)Excesuldeistorie..............................................................................300iv)Drepturileactoriloristoriei .............................................................301

    E.NoidireciincercetareacomunismuluidinRomnia ......................302i)Maiareviitoristoriapolitic?...........................................................302ii)Istoriaeconomic,untabupentruistorici? ...................................305iii)Istoriasocialiateaptucenicii .................................................307iv)Istoriacultural:overitabilterraincognita ..................................309

    CONCLUZII ....................................................................................................... 312

    BIBLIOGRAFIE .................................................................................................. 319

    ADDENDA ......................................................................................................... 357

    ABSTRACT...........................................................................................357

    SUMMARY...........................................................................................363

    Listatabelelor

    Tabel3.1InstituiidestudierearegimuluicomunistnEuropaCentralideEst ............................................................................150

    Tabel3.2InstituiicreatenRomniadup1989pentrustudiulcomunismului/istorieisecoluluiXX.............................................175

    Tabel3.3Ariiletematicealeistoriografieiromnedinperioada19892010..........................................................................................188

    Tabel4.1Tipologieasurseloristorieiregimurilorcomuniste...................231Tabel4.2Diferenentreanchetaoraliistoriaoral .......................258Tabel5.1Rolulsocialalistoricului................................................................294Tabel5.2Noidireciidecercetareacomunismului....................................311

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    ADDENDA

    Abstract

    Epistemologicalchallengesoftotalitarianism.Amethodologyforstudyingcommunistregimes

    Theneed for this research isprovidedby theabundanceofstudies,

    memoriesor critical referencesabout communism inCentralandEasternEurope. During last decades, a huge quantity of historical informationcommunismwasaccumulated,but thequalityof its interpretation isverydifferent,fromstudieswhichresistthetestoftime,methodologicallywellfounded, to real historiography ballast, including those researchesgradually becoming unusable for academic international standards andrigours.Therefore,criticalreflectionconcerningresultsofovertwodecadesofresearchingcommunistregimeshasbecomeimperative.

    Researching a vast international literature dedicated tototalitarianism allows us to emphasize the historical contextualization ofthe main concepts and interpretative theories concerning communistregimes.Itisquiteeasytodistinguishadialecticsofconceptsandtheoriesregardingtotalitarianism,theinitialstageinwhichtotalitarianismhadbeenconsidered apositiveproject,within thebroader currentof interwar fascism,beingquicklycounterbalancedbycriticalapproachesofvariousdoctrinalshadesregardingthesamephenomenon.DuringtheColdWartime,totalitarianismwasoneoffundamentalideologicalconceptsusedbytheWest in order to categorize the communist regime, at the same timeindicatingthemoralandfunctionalconvergenceofStalinismandNazism.Even if theclassical totalitarian theorywassubject tosubstantialcriticismandreinterpr

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