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  • The effect of medium of learning and levels of processing on test performanceFlying Circus

  • Topic and RationaleTechnology is common place Computers and tablets commonly used to studyExams still done on paper

  • Topic and RationaleStudents are studying using on screen learning (OSL) but taking exams on paperExam scores are lower for OSL versus on paper learning (OPL)The difference is due to metacognitive learning regulation (MLR)

  • Previous ResearchAckerman and Lauterman (2012) OSL promotes shallow processingLower retention rates

  • Previous ResearchAckerman and Goldsmith (2011)screen use cues us to shallow processing

  • Previous ResearchCraik and Lockhart (1972) Levels Of Processing TheoryHow one processes information is what mattersRetention depends on depth of processing

  • Research QuestionAre the negative effects of OSL on test performance due to the nature of screen devices, or is it the learning behaviors that are commonly employed when using screen devices?

  • DesignIndependent VariablesLevel of ProcessingShallow or DeepMedium of Word ListComputer or PaperDependent VariablePerformance on a free recall task

  • PredictionsMain effect of level of processingdeep = higher retentionshallow = lower retentionNo main effect of medium of word listThere will be no interaction

    We hypothesize that there will be a main effect for the level of processing, such that deeper processing will result in greater performance than shallow processing. We do not predict a main effect of the type of physical device the participants study with. We also predict there will be no interaction between the type of physical device and the level of processing.

  • Method

  • Participants39 undergrad students at WWUObtained from universitys psychology research pool

  • Materials20 wordsNounsPriming questions20 2-digit math problemsLess words recalled equals shallow processing

    In what instance would this be most useful?How many vowels are in this word?Sound

  • ProcedureAssigned to one of four conditionsComputer & shallow processingComputer & deep processingPaper & shallow processingPaper & deep processing

  • ProcedureSigned consent formGiven 15 minutes to: study flash cardsSolve math problemsFree recall taskDemographic questionnaireDebriefed and dismissed

  • Results

  • Results2x2 ANOVABetween subjects designAlpha level of .05

  • ResultsMain effect of level of processingF(1, 35) = 30.095, p < .001, 2 = .43Main effect of medium of study F(1, 35) = 5.06, p = .03, 2 = .07No interaction F(1, 35) = .256, p = .616, 2 = .004

  • Results

  • Discussion

  • Research QuestionAre the negative effects of OSL on test performance due to the nature of screen devices, or is it the learning behaviors that are commonly employed when using screen devices?

  • Predictionsmain effects of level of processingResults DID support this hypothesisNo main effects of medium of studyResults DID NOT support this hypothesisNo interaction Results DID support this hypothesis

  • LimitationsSample population may have consisted of particularly tech-savvy studentsGenerationalCanvasEco-friendlyIf students were not equally tech-savvy, there may not have been a main effect of medium of study (consistent with our predictions)

  • LimitationsNature of paper conditionsMore materialGreater cognitive load, decreases working memoryLess room for learning and memorizing materialIf the tasks were equally difficult, there may not have been a main effect of medium of study (consistent with our predictions)

  • Future DirectionsAre there different effects of medium of study on test performance between individuals of different levels of technological skill?Low skill vs. High skillDo individuals of different populations have varying effects of medium of study on test performance?AgeSocio-economic statusCulture

    Any questions?Thank you!

    We hypothesize that there will be a main effect for the level of processing, such that deeper processing will result in greater performance than shallow processing. We do not predict a main effect of the type of physical device the participants study with. We also predict there will be no interaction between the type of physical device and the level of processing.