Raj Board Class 11 Book - Vishva Itihas Ke Kuch Vishay

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  • 8/12/2019 Raj Board Class 11 Book - Vishva Itihas Ke Kuch Vishay

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    d{kk 11 os Q fy, bfrgkl dh ikB~;iqLrd

    & lkHkkj && lkHkkj && lkHkkj && lkHkkj && lkHkkj & jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/kku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn] ubZ fnYyh jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/kku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn] ubZ fnYyh jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/kku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn] ubZ fnYyh jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/kku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn] ubZ fnYyh jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/kku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn] ubZ fnYyh

    20122012201220122012

    ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] jktLFkku] vtesj ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] jktLFkku] vtesj ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] jktLFkku] vtesj ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] jktLFkku] vtesj ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] jktLFkku] vtesj

    jktdh; fo|ky;ksa esa fu%'kqYd forj.k gsrq jktdh; fo|ky;ksa esa fu%'kqYd forj.k gsrq jktdh; fo|ky;ksa esa fu%'kqYd forj.k gsrq jktdh; fo|ky;ksa esa fu%'kqYd forj.k gsrq jktdh; fo|ky;ksa esa fu%'kqYd forj.k gsrq

    AglaSem School

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    fo"k; lwph vkeq [k iii

    iz Lrkouk v

    vuq Hkkx ,d iz kja fHkd lekt Hkw fedk 2

    dkye ,d (6 yk[k o"kZ iw oZ ls 1 bZ -iw -) 4 fo"k; 1% le; dh 'kq #vkr ls 8

    fo"k; 2% ys [ku dyk vkS j 'kgjh thou 29

    vuq Hkkx nks lkez kT;

    Hkw fedk 50 dkye nks (yXkHkx 100 bZ -iw - ls 1300 bZ loh) 54 fo"k; 3% rhu egk}hiks a esa iS Qyk gqvk lkez kT; 58 fo"k; 4% bLyke dk mn; vkS j foLrkjyxHkx 570&1200 bZ - 77 fo"k; 5% ;k;koj lkez kT; 1 04

    vuq Hkkx rhu cnyrh ija ijk, Hkw fedk 1 24

    dkye rhu (yXkHkx 1300&1700) 1 28 fo"k; 6% rhu oxZ 1 32 fo"k; 7% cnyrh gq bZ lka Lfrd ija ijk, 1 52 fo"k; 8% la Lfr;ks a dk Vdjko 1 68

    vuq Hkkx pkj vk/q fudhdj.k dh vks j Hkw fedk 1 86

    dkye pkj (yXkHkx 1700&2000) 1 89 fo"k; 9% vkS|ks fxd ka fr 196 fo"k; 10% ew y fuokfl;ksa dk foLFkkiu 213 fo"k; 11% vk/q fudhdj.k os Q jkLrs 231

    fu"d"kZ 255

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    1

    iz kja fHkd lekt le; dh 'kq#vkr ls

    ys[ku dyk vkSj 'kgjh thou

    AglaSem School

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    2 fo'o bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;

    l vuq Hkkx esa ] ge izkja fHkd lektks a ls la ca f/r nks fo"k;ks a os Q ckjs es a i

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    3

    fy, isM+&ikS/ksa dh mit bd _ h fd;k djrs FksA /hjs&/hjs mUgks aus fHkUu&fHkUu ikS/ks a os Q ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr dh_ tS ls& os dgk mxrs gS a ] os fdl ekSle esa iQyrs gS a ] vkfn&vkfnA bl tkudkjh os Q vk/kj ij mUgks a us ikS/s mxkuk lh[k fy;kA if'peh ,f'k;k es a] xsgw vkS j tkS] eVj vkS j dbZ rjg dh nkyks a dh iQlys a mxkbZ tkrh Fkha A iw ohZ rFkk nf{k.k&iw ohZ ,f'k;k es a Tokj&cktjk vkSj /ku dh iQlysa vklkuh ls mxkbZ tk ldrh Fkha A Tokj&cktjk vI+kzQhdk es a iSnk fd;k tkrk FkkA mUgha fnuksa ] yksxks a us Hks M+&cdjh]

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    4 fo'o bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;

    ;g dkye ekuo os Q mn;] ikS/ks a vkS j i'kq vks a osQ clus dh izf;k(domestication) osQ ckjs esa iz dk'k Mkyrk gSA ;gk ij oq QN iz eq [k iz kS|ks fxd fodklks a_ tS ls& vkx dk vkfo"dkj] /krq vksa os Q iz;ks x] gy }kjk [ks rh rFkk

    ifg, ;k pkd osQ iz ;ks x os Q ckjs esa tkudkjh feyrh gSA bl izf;k esa uxjks a dk vkfoHkkZ o vkS j ys [ku os Q iz ;ksx os Q ckjs es a Hkh crk;k x;k gSA vkidks ;gk ij oq QN iz kphure lkez kT;ksa dk Hkh mYys[k feys xk ftudh fo"k;&oLrq foLrkj ls dkye nks es a nh tk,xhA

    dkye dk v;;u oS Qls djs a vki bl izdkj dk dkye iqLrd os Q iz R;sd vuq Hkkx(section) esa ik, xsA

    iz R ;sd dkye vkidks fo'o bfrgkl dh iz eq [k iz f;kvks a vkS j ?kVukvks a os Q ckjs es a crk,xkA tc vki bu dkyeks a dk v;;u dj jgs gks a rks ;g ;ku j[ks a

    jktkvks a os Q chp yM+s x;s ;q ksa dh vis{kk mu izf;kvksa ;k ?kVukvks a] ftuos Q }kjk lkekU; fL=k;ks a vkSj iq#"kks a us bfrgkl dks izHkkfor fd;k] dh frfFk;ks a dks va fdr djuk vf/d dfBu gSA

    oq QN frfFk;k fdlh izf;k os Q vkjaHk ;k mldh ifjiDo voLFkk dks n'kkZ rh gS a A

    bfrgkldkj yxkrkj u,&u, lk{;ks a osQ vkkkj ij frfFk;ks a esa la 'kks/u dj jgs gS a

    ;k iq jkuh frfFk;ksa os Q fu/kZj.k os Q fy, u, rjhoQks a dk bLrseky dj jgs gS a A

    ;|fi geus dkye dks lq fo/k dh n` f"V ls HkkS xks fyd vk/kj ij ck Vk gS ij okLrfod

    ,s frgkfld fodkl izk;% bu lhekvks a osQ ikj tkrs gS a A ,s frgkfld izf;kvks a esa dky&vuqe

    izk;% ij&uhps ;k vfrO;kfir (overlapping) gks tkrk gSA

    ekuo bfrgkl dh oq QN ;q xka rjdkjh ?kVukvks a dks gh ;gk fn;k x;k gS& budh iz f;kvks a dk o.kZ u vkus okys v;k;ks a a es a fd;k x;k gS ftuos Q i`Fkd dkye Hkh gSa A

    tgk ij vki ,d * ns [ks a xs ogk ij vkidks ,d fp=k fn[kkbZ ns xk tks fd [kkus es a fy[kh frfFk ls la cafkr gSA

    dkyeksa esa fn, x, [kkyh [kkuks a dk ;g vFkZ ugha gS fd ml dky esa oq QN Hkh

    fo'ks "k ?kfVr ugha gq vk & dHkh&dHkh ;g ges a crkrk gS fd gesa vHkh rd ;g irk ugha gS fd ml dky esa D;k ?kfVr gq vkA

    vxys o"kZ ge nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ bfrgkl vkSj fo'ks"k :i ls Hkkjrh; bfrgkl dk v;;u djs a xsA nf{k.k ,f'k;k os Q ckjs es a nh

    xbZ frfFk;k ml miegk}hi es a gq , osQoy

    oq QN fodklks a dks gh n'kkZ rh gS aA

    dkye ,d (6 yk[k o"kZ iw oZ ls1 bZ-iw-)

    AglaSem School

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    5

    frfFk 6 yk[k o"kZ iwoZ -500,000 o"kZ orZ eku ls iwoZ

    500,000-150,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ

    150,000-50,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ

    50,000-30,00030,000-10,000

    8000-7000 bZ-iw-

    7000-60006000-50005000-40004000-3000

    3000-2000

    2000-1900

    1900-18001800-1700

    1700-16001600-1500

    1500-14001400-13001300-12001200-11001100-10001000-900

    900-800

    800-700700-600600-500

    500-400

    400-300

    300-200200-100

    100-1 bZ-iw-

    ;wjksi

    vfXu osQ iz ;ks x os Q lk{; (400]000 orZeku ls iw oZ)

    izkK ekuo (gkseks lSfi;al) osQ thok'e (40,00 0) xq IkQkvksa @xqiQk vkoklks a es a fp=kdkjh (fo'ks"kdj iz Qka l vkSj Lisu es a )

    xs gw vkS j tkS dh [ksrh (;w uku)

    rkcs dk iz ;ks x (hV)

    ?kks M+ s dks ikyrw cuk;k x;k (iw ohZ ;w jksi)

    uxjks a] egyksa ] dkls dk iz ;ksx] oqQEgkj osQ pkd] O;kikj dk fodkl (hV)

    fyfi dk fodkl (hV)*

    yks gs dk iz;ksx gq vk

    izFke vksyafid [ks y (;w uku 776 bZ -iw-)

    flDdks a dk iz ;ks x * (;w uku)_ jkse x.kjkT; dh LFkkiuk (510 bZ-iw-) ,FksUl es a ^iz tkra =k* dh LFkkiuk (;w uku)

    ednwfu;k(Macedonia) osQ floa Qnj us felz vkS j if'pe ,f'k;k os Q Hkkxks a dks thrk (336&323 bZ-iw-)

    dkye ,d

    vizQhdk vkLV s yks fifFkdl osQ thok'e (orZ eku ls 56 yk[k o"kZ iwoZ vfXu osQ iz;ksx osQ lk{; feys (orZeku ls 14 yk[k

    o"kZ iw oZ ) iz kK ekuo (gks eks lS fi;a l) os Q thok'e (195]000 orZ eku ls iw oZ )

    xq iQkvks [email protected] iQk vkoklks a es a fp=kdkjh (27,500)

    i'kq vksa vkSj oqQkks a dks ikyrw cuk;k x;k

    x/s dks ikyrw cuk;k x;k] Tokj&cktjk vkfn dh [ksrh] rk cs dk iz ;ks x gy }kjk o`Qf"k] izFke jktoa'kksa] uxjksa] fijkfeMksa] oS Qysa Mj] fp=kkRed fyfi *, iS ikbjl ij ys[ku (felz)

    dk p dh cksryks a dk iz ;ks x (felz)

    if'pe ,f'k;k os Q iQksfuf'k;uks a us mkjh viz + Qhdk es a dkFksZ t uxj dh LFkkiuk dh_ Hkwe;lkxjh; {ks =k es a O;kikj dk foLrkj

    yks gs dk iz;ksx (lw Mku) yksgs dk iz ;ksx (felz)

    I + kQkjfl;ksa dk felz ij vke.k

    felz es a floa Qnfj;k(Alexandria) dh LFkkiuk (332 bZ -iw -) tks Kku dk izeq [k osQUnz cuk

    AglaSem School

    http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/
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    6 fo'o bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;

    frfFk 6 yk[k -500,000

    orZ eku ls iw oZ 500 ,000-150,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ 150 ,000-50,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ

    50, 000-30,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ 30, 000-10,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ

    80 00-7000 bZ -iw -

    70 00-6000

    60 00-5000

    50 00-4000

    40 00-3000

    30 00-2000

    20 00-190019 00-180018 00-170017 00-160016 00-1500

    15 00-140014 00-130013 00-120012 00-1100

    11 00-100010 00-900

    90 0-80080 0-70070 0-60060 0-500

    500-400400-300

    300-200

    200-100100-1 bZ -iw -

    ,f'k;k vfXu dk iz ;ksx (700]000 orZ eku ls iwoZ ] phu)

    izkK ekuo (gks eks lS fi;a l) os Q thok'e (100]000 orZ eku ls iw oZ] if'pe ,f'k;k)

    oqQks dks ikyrw cuk;k x;k (14,000, if'pe ,f'k;k )

    Hks M+ vkS j cdfj;ksa dks ikyrw cuk;k x;k] xs gw vkS j tkS dh [ks rh (if'pe ,f'k;k) lw vj vkS j i'kq vksa dks ikyrw cuk;k (if'pe vkSj iw oZ ,f'k;k) oqQDoqQV&ikyu] Tokj&cktjk rFkk vjch(yam) dh [ks rh (iwohZ ,f'k;k) dikl dh [ks rh (nf{k.k ,f'k;k)_ rkcs dk iz ;ks x (if'pe ,f'k;k)

    oqQEgkj os Q pkd dk iz;ksx] ;krk;kr os Q fy, ifg, dk iz;ksx (3600 bZ -iw -)] ys [ku dk iz;ks x (3200 bZ-iw-] es lks iksVkfe;k)] dk ls dk iz ;ks x gy o` Qf"k] uxj (es lks iks Vkfe;k)_ flYd dk iz ;ks x (phu)_ ?kks M+ s dks ikyrw cuk;k x;k (e; ,f'k;k)_

    pkoy dh [ks rh (nf{k.k&iw oZ ,f'k;k)

    [kkl ikuh es a jgus okyh HkS a l dks ikyrw cuk;k x;k (iw ohZ ,f'k;k)

    uxjks a] ys [ku] jkT;ksa ('kka x jktoa 'k)] dk ls dk iz;ksx gqvk (phu)* yks gs dk iz ;ks x gq vk (if'pe ,f'k;k)

    ,d dks gku okys V dks ikyrw cuk;k (vjc)

    flDdks a dk iz ;ks x (rq dhZ )_ iQkjlh lkez kT; (546 bZ- iw-) ftldh jkt/kuh iliksfyl Fkh_ phuh nk'kZfud dU;w f'k;l (yxHkx 551 bZ -iw -)

    phu esa ,d lkezkT; dh LFkkiuk (221 bZ-iw -)] phu dh fo'kky nhokj os Q fuekZ .k&dk;Z dk iz kjaHk

    nf{k.k ,f'k;k fjokr es a ik"kk.kdkyhu LFky (1]900]000 orZ eku ls iwoZ ] ikfdLrku)

    HkhecS Vdk os Q xq iQk fp=k (e;&iz ns 'k)_ gks eks lSfi;al osQ thok'e (25]500 orZeku ls iw oZ ] Jhya dk)

    izkja fHkd o`Qf"k&cfLr;k (cyw fpLrku)

    rk cs dk iz;ksx

    gM+ Iikdkyhu la Lo` Qfr os Q uxj] fyfi * dk iz ;ks x (yxHkx 2700 bZ -iw -)

    Xos n dh jpuk

    yks gs dk iz ;ks x] egkik"kk.k(megaliths) (ndu vkS j nf{k.k Hkkjr)

    vus d {ks =kks a es a uxjks a vkS j jkT;ks a dh LFkkiuk] igyh ckj flDdks a dk iz;ksx] tS u vkS j ckS /eZ dk izlkj

    ekS ;Z lkezkT; dh LFkkiuk (yxHkx 321 bZ -iw -)

    AglaSem School

    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    9/259

    7

    frfFk 6 yk[k -500,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ 500,000-150,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ 150,000-50,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ 50,000-30,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ

    30,000-10,000 orZ eku ls iw oZ 8000-7000 bZ -iw -7000-6000

    6000-5000

    5000-4000

    4000-3000

    3000-2000

    2000-1900

    1900-1800

    1800-1700

    1700-1600

    1600-1500

    1500-1400

    1400-1300

    1300-1200

    1200-1100

    1100-1000

    1000-900900-800

    800-700

    700-600

    600-500

    500-400

    400-300

    300-200

    200-100

    100-1 bZ -iw -

    vejhdk

    gks eks lS fi;a l os Q thok'e (12]000 o"kZ orZ eku ls iw oZ )

    oq QEgM+k(Squash) dh [ksrh

    lse dh [ksrh dikl vkSj ykSdh dh [ksrh

    fxfu fix] VdhZ dks ikyrw cuk;k] eDos Q dh [ksrh

    vkyw ] fepZ *, oS Qlkok] ew xiQyh dh [skrh] ykek * vkS j ,s Yis dk dks ikyrw cuk;k

    eS fDldks [kkM+ h os Q pkjks a vkS j vksYes d yksxksa dh cfLr;k] iz kja fHkd ea fnj vkS j ew r&f'kYi

    fp=kkRed fyfi dk fodkl

    vkLV sfy;[email protected]'kkUr egklkxjh; }hi

    izkK ekuo (gkseks lS fi;a l) osQ thok'e] leqnz&;k=k k os Q izkphure la os Qr (45]000 o"kZ orZ eku ls iwoZ )

    fp=kdyk (20]000 o"kZ orZeku ls iw oZ)

    iks fyusf'k;k vkSj ekbks us f'k;k es a cfLr;k

    f;kdyki

    iz R;s d Ng [kkuks a ls ,d frfFk dks yhft, vkSj ml {ks=k es a jgus

    okys iq#"kks a vkSj fL=k;ks a osQ fy, ml frfFk dh iz f;[email protected]?kVuk dk D;k ego jgk gks xk] bl

    ij fopkj&foe'kZ dhft,A

    dkye ,d

    AglaSem School

    http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/http://schools.aglasem.com/
  • 8/12/2019 Raj Board Class 11 Book - Vishva Itihas Ke Kuch Vishay

    10/259

    8 fo'o bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;

    1 le; dh 'kq #vkr lsbl v;k; esa bl ckr dh ppkZ dh xbZ gS fd ekuo dc vkSj fdl :i es a loZizFke vfLrRo es a vk;kA ,s lk le>k tkrk gS fd dnkfpr~ 56 yk[k o"kZ igys i`Foh ij ,s ls izkf.k;ks a dk izknqHkkZo gq vk ftUgsa ge ekuo dg ldrs gS aA blos Q ckn vkfn ekuo os Q

    dbZ :i cnys vkS j dkykarj es a yq Ir gks x,A vkt ge ftl :i esa ekuo dks ns [krs gS a (ftUgsa geus vkxs vk/q fud ekuo* dgk)] oS ls yks x 1]60]000 lky igys iS nk gq , Fks A yXkHkx 8000 bZ - iw - rd ekuo bfrgkl os Q bl ya cs vjls os Q nkS jku yks x] nw ljks a }kjk ekjs x, ;k viuh ekSr [kqn ejs izkf.k;ks a osQ 'kjhj es a ls ekal fudkydj] tkuojksa dk f'kdkj djos Q vFkok is M+&ikS kks a ls da new y iQy vkS j cht vkfn cVks jdj viuk is V Hkjrs Fks A /hjs &/hjs mUgks as us iRFkjksa ls vkS T +kkj cukuk vkSj vkil esa ckrphr djuk lh[k fy;kA

    gkykfd vkxs pydj vkneh us Hkkstu tq Vkus osQ dbZ vkSj rjhosQ viuk fy,] ij f'kdkj vkS j laxzg djus ;kuh b/j&m/j ls [kkus dh phT +ksa ryk'kus vkS j cVks jus dk rjhdk Hkh pyrk jgkA vkt Hkh nq fu;k os Q oqQN Hkkxksa esa ,sls f'kdkjh&laxzkgd lekt (Hunter-Gatherer Societies) gS a tks f'kdkj vkS j la xzg.k ls vius Hkks tu dh O;oLFkk djrs gSa A blfy, ge ;g lks pus ij etcw j gks rs gSa fd vkt osQ bu f'kdkjh&la xzkgd yksxks a dh thou&'kS yh dk v;;u djus ls gesa vrhr os Q ckjs esa oq QN tkudkjh fey ldrh gS ;k ugha A vkt gesa vkfn ekuo osQ bfrgkl dh tkudkjh ekuo os Q thok'eksa (Fossils), iRFkj

    os Q vkS T + kkjksa vkS j xqiQkvksa dh fp=kdkfj;ksa dh [kkstksa ls feyrh gSA bues a ls izR;sd [kks t dk viuk ,d bfrgkl gSA vDlj gh] tc ,s lh [kksts a loZ izFke dh xb ] vf/dka 'k fo}kuks a us ;g ekuus ls budkj dj fn;k fd ;s thok'e iz kjafHkd ekuoks a osQ gS aA mUgs a vkfndkyhu ekuo }kjk iRFkj os Q vkST + kkj ;k jax&jks xu cuk, tkus dh ;ksX;rk osQ ckjs

    esa Hkh 'kd FkkA ,d vjls osQ ckn gh bu thok'eksa ] vkST + kkjks a vkS j fp=kdkfj;ks a osQ lPps ego dks Lohdkj fd;k x;kA

    ekuo dk fodkl fed :i ls gq vk] bl ckr dk lk{; ges a ekuo dh mu iztkfr;ksa (species) os Q thok'eks a ls feyrk gS tks vc yq Ir gks pq dh gSa A mudh oq QN fo'ks "krkvksa ;k 'kkjhfjd y{k.kks a os Q vk/kj ij ekuo dks fHkUu&fHkUu iz tkfr;ks a es a ck Vk x;k gSA thok'eksa dh frfFk dk fu/kZj.k iz R;{k jklk;fud fo'ys"k.k }kjk vFkok mu ijrks a ;k ryNVks a os Q dky dk ijks{k :i ls fu/kZj.k djos Q fd;k tkrk gS ftuesa os ncs gq , ik, tkrs gSa A tc ,d ckj thok'eksa s a dh frfFk ;kuh dky dk irk py tkrk gS rc ekuo fodkl dk e fukkZfjr djuk dfBu ugha jgrkA

    yxHkx 200 o"kZ igys] loZ izFke tc ,slh [kks ts a dh xbZ Fkha] rks vusd fo}ku ;g ekuus dks rS ;kj ugha Fks fd [kq nkbZ es a feys thok'e vkSj iRFkj osQ vkS T + kkj rFkk fp=kdkfj;ks a tS lh vU; phT + ks a okLro esa euq "; os Q vkfndkyhu :iks a ls laca/ j[krh Fkha A fo}kuks a dh ;g fgpfdpkgV vkerkS j ij ckbZcy osQ vks YM VsLVkes a V esa vfHkO;Dr bl kkj.kk ij vk/kfjr Fkh fd ijes'oj us l`f"V dh jpuk djrs le; vU; iz kf.k;ks a os Q

    lkFk&lkFk euq "; dks Hkh cuk;kA fo}kuks a dh ,slh fgpfdpkgV dk ,d mnkgj.k nsf[k, %vxLr 1856 es a]

    tc eT + knwj (teZ uh os Q MlsyMksiZ Q uxj os Q ikl) fuvaMj ?kkVh (ekufp=k 2 i` "B 18)

    esa pw us osQ iRFkjks a dh [kku dh [kqnkbZ dj jgs Fks rks mUgsa ,d [kks iM+ h vkS j vfLFkia tj osQ oqQN VqdM+s feysA ;s phT + ksa ,d LFkkuh; LowQyh&f'k{kd dkyZ iqQyjkSV

    thok'e*(Fossil) 'kCn ,d vR;ar iqjkus ikS/s] t kuoj ;k ekuo osQ mu v o'ks"kksa ;k Nkiks a os Q fy, iz ;qDr fd;k tkrk gS tks ,d iRFkj os Q :i es a cnydj vDlj fdlh

    p ^ ku es sa lek tkrs gS a vkSj fiQ j yk[kks a lkyksa rd mlh

    :i es a iM+ s jgrs gS aA

    ^iz tkfr* ;k Lih'khT+k (Species) thoksa dk ,d

    ,s lk lewg gks rk gS ftlosQ uj vkSj eknk feydj cPps

    iS nk dj ldrs gSa vkSj muos Q cPps Hkh vkxs iztuu djus ;kuh la rku mRiUu

    djus esa leFkZ gks rs gS aA ,d iz tkfr&fo'ks"k osQ lnL;

    nw ljh iz tkfr osQ lnL;ksa ls la Hkks x djosQ cPps iSnk ugha

    dj ldrs A

    fo"k;

    AglaSem School

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  • 8/12/2019 Raj Board Class 11 Book - Vishva Itihas Ke Kuch Vishay

    11/259

    9

    (Carl Fuhlrott) dks lkS a i nh xb tks ,d iz ko` Qfrd bfrgklK FksA tk p os Q ckn mUgks a us ik;k fd og [kks iM+ h vk/qfud ekuo dh ugha FkhA fiQj mUgksa us IykLVj ls ml [kksiM+h dk

  • 8/12/2019 Raj Board Class 11 Book - Vishva Itihas Ke Kuch Vishay

    12/259

    10 fo'o bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;

    ekuo os Q fed fodkl dh dgkuh (d) vk/q fud ekuo os Q iw oZ t

    bu pkj [kks ifM+ ;ksa dks ns f[k,A [kks iM+ h&d ,d okuj dh gSA [kks iM+ h&[k vkLV s yks fifFkdl uked iz tkfr dh gS (uhps ns f[k,) [kks iM+ h&x] gkseks ,js DVl (lhks [kM+ s gks dj pyus okys vkneh) dh gSA

    [kks iM+ h&?k gkseks lS fi;a l (fparu'[email protected] ekuo) uked iztkfr dh gS_ vkt os Q ekuo blh iztkfr osQ gS aA bu [kks ifM+ ;ks a es a vki vf/d ls vf/d ftruh lekurk, vkS j varj ns[krs gS a

    mudh lw ph cukb;s_ bl gsrq vki lcls igys bu [kks ifM+ ;ks a dk efLr"d [kksyksa ] tcM+ ksa vkS j nkrks a dks HkyhHkkfr ns f[k,A

    fp=k esa fn[kkbZ xbZ [kksifM+ ;ks a dh jpuk es a vki tks Hkh varj ik,a xs mudk dkj.k os ifjorZ u gS a tks ekuo osQ fed fodkl os Q iQyLo:i mRiUu gq , gSa A ekuo os Q fed fodkl dh dgkuh cgqr T + ;knk ya ch vkSj oqQN tfVy ;k my>h gqbZ Hkh gSA bl la ca/ es a vus d vuq kfjr iz 'u Hkh mBs gS a vkS j u,&u, iz kIr rF;ksa vkS j lkefxz;ksa ls vDlj iq jkuh le> rFkk tkudkjh es a ifjorZ u&la 'kks/u djus iM+ s gS a A vkb, oq QN ?kVukeks a rFkk ifjorZ uks a vkS j muos Q ifj.kkeks a ij oq QN vfkd xbjkbZ ls ppkZ djsa A

    ekuo os Q fodkl osQ e dks 360 ls 240 yk[k o"kZ igys rd [kks tk tk ldrk gSA

    dHkh&dHkh gekjs fy, brus ya cs le; os Q foLrkj dh dYiuk djuk cgq r dfBu gks tkrk gSA ;fn vki viuh iq Lrd osQ ,d i`"B dks 10]000 o"kks osQ cjkcj ekus a rks 10 i` "B ,d yk[k o"kks os Q cjkcj vkS j ,d lkS i`"B 10 yk[k o"kks os Q cjkcj gksa xsA bl iz dkj 360 yk[k o"kks os Q ckjs esa lkspus os Q fy, vkidks 3600 i`"Bks a dh iq Lrd dh dYiuk djuh gks xh! ;g og le; Fkk tc ,f'k;k rFkk vI+ kzQhdk esa Lruik;h iz kf.k;ks a dh iz kbesV(Primates) uked Js.kh dk

    mn~ Hko gq vk FkkA mlos Q ckn] yxHkx 240 yk[k lky igys ^iz kbes V* Js .kh es a ,d milew g mRiUu gq vk ftls gks feukW bM(Hominoids) dgrs gS a A bl milew g es a okuj* ;kuh ,i*(Ape) 'kkfey FksA vkS j fiQj cgq r le; ckn] yxHkx 56 yk[k o"kZ igys] ges a igys gksfefuM

    (Homimids) izkf.k;ks a os Q vfLrRo dk lk{; feyrk gSA^gks fefuM* oxZ gksfeukW bM milewg ls fodflr gq ,A mues a vus d lekurk, ikbZ tkrh gS a

    ys fdu oq QN cM+ s va rj Hkh gS aA gks feukW bMksa dk efLr"d gks fefuMksa dh rqyuk es a Nks Vk gks rk FkkA os pkS ik, Fks] ;kuh pkjks a iS jks a os Q cy pyrs Fks] ys fdu muos Q 'kjhj dk vxyk fgLlk vkS j vxys nksuks a iSj ypdnkj gks rs FksA blos Q foijhr] gks fefuM lh/s [kM+ s gks dj fiNys nks iS jksa os Q cy pyrs FksA muos Q gkFk fo'ks"k fdLe osQ gks rs Fks ftudh lgk;rk ls os vkS T + kkj cuk ldrs Fks vkS j mudk bLrs eky dj ldrs FksA ge vxys vuqHkkx es a ] muosQ }kjk cuk, x, vkS T + kkjks a vkS j mudh fo'ks"krkvksa os Q ckjs esa vfkd ckjhdh ls ppkZ djsa xsA

    nks iz dkj os Q lk{; ls ;g irk pyrk gS fd gks fefuMksa dk mn~Hko vI+ kz Qhdk esa gq vk FkkA igyk rks ;g fd vI+ kz Qhdh okujks a (,i) dk lew g gksfefuMksa ls cgqr xgjkbZ ls tqM+ k gSA nwljk] lcls izkphu gksfefuM thok'e] tks vkLV s yks fifFkdl oa 'k (Genus) osQ gS a] iw ohZ vI+kz Qhdk es a ik, x, gS a vkS j mudk le; yxHkx 56 yk[k o"kZ igys dk ekuk tkrk gSA blos Q foijhr] vI+kzQhdk ls ckgj ik, x, thok'e 18 yk[k o"kZ ls vf/d iq jkus ugha gSa A

    ^iz kbe s V* Lruik;h iz kf.k;ksa os Q ,d vf/d cM+s lew g os Q varx Z r ,d milew g gSA bl iz kb esV milewg esa okuj]

    yaxw j vkS j ekuo 'kkfey gSa A muos Q 'kjhj ij cky gksrs gSa A

    cP pk iS nk gksus ls igysvis{kko` Qr ya cs le; rd

    ekrk os Q xHkZ es a iyrk gSA ekrkvks a eas cPps dks nw /

    fiykus os Q fy, xz a fFk;k gksrh gS a a] iz kbesV iz kf.k;ks a os Q nkr

    fHkUu&fHkUu fdLeksa os Q gks rs gSa A

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    AglaSem School

    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  • 8/12/2019 Raj Board Class 11 Book - Vishva Itihas Ke Kuch Vishay

    13/259

    11

    ^gks fefuM* gks fefuMs b (Hominidae) uked ifjokj os Q lnL; gksrs gS a _ bl ifjokj esa lHkh :iks a osQ ekuo izk.kh 'kkfey gS aA gksfefuM lewg dh vus d fo'ks "krk, gS a_ tSls & efLr"d dk cM+k vkdkj] iS jksa os Q cy lh/s [kM+s gkss us dh {kerk] nks iSjks a osQ cy pyuk] gkFk dh fo'ks "k {kerk ftlls og vkS T + kkj cuk ldrk Fkk vkS j mudk bLrs eky dj ldrk FkkA

    gks fefuMks a dks vkxs dbZ 'kk[kkvks a es a foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bu 'kk[kkvks a dks thul *(Genus) dgrs gSa A bu 'kk[kkvksa esa vkLV s yks fifFkdl vkSj gks eks vf/d egRoiw.kZ gS aA bu

    'kk[kkvksa esa iz R;s d dh dbZ iztkfr;k gks rh gSa A vkLV syks fifFkdl vkSj gkseks os Q chp oq QN cM+ sva rj muos Q efLr"d os Q vkdkj] tcM+ s vkS j nk rks a osQ la ca / es a ik, tkrs gS aA vkLV syks fifFkdl

    osQ efLr"d dk vkdkj gks eks dh vis{kk cM+ k gks rk gS] tcM+s vf/d Hkkjh gks rs gS a vkS j nkr Hkh T + ;knk cM+ s gks rs gS aA

    njvly bu iz tkfr;ksa dks oS Kkfudksa }kjk tks uke fn, x, gSa os lHkh ykfruh(Latin)vkSj ;w ukuh Hkk"kkvksa os Q 'kCnks a ls gh cus gSa A mnkgj.k osQ fy,] vkLV s yks fifFkdl uke ykfruh Hkk"kk osQ 'kCn vkLVy* ;kuh nf{k.kh* vkSj ;w ukuh Hkk"kk os Q 'kCn fifFkdl* ;kuh okuj* ls

    feydj cuk gSA ;g uke blfy, fn;k x;k D;ks afd ekuo os Q vk| :i es a mldh ,i (okuj)voLFkk os Q vusd y{k.k cjdjkj jgs_ tS ls & gkseks dh rq yuk esa efLr"d dk vis{kko` Qr Nks Vk

    gks uk] fiNys nk r cM+ s gksuk vkS j gkFkksa dh n{krk dk lhfer gks ukA mles a lh/s [kM+ s gks dj pyus

    gksfeukW bM(Hominoi ds) ca njksa ls dbZ rjg ls fH kUu gks rs gS aA mudk 'kjhj ca njks a ls cM+k gks rk gS vkSj mu oQh iw N ugha gks rhA gksfefu Mks a

    os Q fodkl vkS j fuHkZjrk dh vof/ Hkh vf/d ya c h

    gks rh gSA

    ;g n`'; iw ohZ vI+ kz Qhd k dh vksYMqobZ xkstZ ] fjV ?kkVh

    dk gS tks mu bykdks a esa ls ,d gS tgk vkfndk yhu ekuo osQ bfrgkl osQ fp ik, x, gS a\ fp=k os Q chp es a i`Foh dh fHkUu&fHkUu

    lrgks a dks ns f[k,A bues a ls gj lrg ,d vyx HkwoSKkfud pj.k dks

    n'kkZrh gSA

    d [k

    x

    gkFk dk fed fodkl d- vko` Qfr piS a kh dh Bhd o lw{e idM+ n'kkZrh gSA [k- vko` Qfr gks fefuM dh nq#Lr o lw {e idM+ n'kkZrh gSA x- vko` Qfr euq"; osQ gkFk dh l'kDr(power) idM+ n'kkZ rh gSA gkFk dh l'kDr idM+ dk fodkl la Hkor% Bhd o lw {e idM+ ls igys gh gq vk gksxkA piSa kh dh Bhd idM+ dh rq yuk euq "; osQ gkFk dh Bhd o lw{e idM+ ls dhft,A mu dkeks a dh lw ph cukb;s ftUgs a djrs le; vki Bhd o idM+ lw {e dk bLrs eky djrs gS aA vki fdu&fdu dkeks a dks djus os Q fy, l'kDr idM+ dk iz ;ks x djrs gS a \

    le; dh 'kq#vkr ls

    * gnh es a thul* 'kCn osQ fy, oa'k* 'kCn dk iz ; ks x

    Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA

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  • 8/12/2019 Raj Board Class 11 Book - Vishva Itihas Ke Kuch Vishay

    14/259

    12 fo'o bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;

    dh {kerk Hkh vf/d ugha Fkh] D;ksa fd og vHkh Hkh viuk cgqr lk le; is M+ ks a ij xqkkjrk Fkk blfy, mles a is M+ksa ij thou thus os Q fy, vko';d vusd fo'ks "krk, vc Hkh ekS tw n Fkha A(tS ls] vkxs os Q vo;oks a dk ya ck gks uk] gkFk vkS j iS jks a dh gf a ;ks a dk eq M+ k gks uk] vkS j V[kus os Q tks M+ ks a

    dk ?kq ekonkj gks uk)A dkyka rj es a tc vkS T + kkj cukus vkS j ya ch nw jh rd iS ny pyus dh f;k es a cs flj es a nnZ vkS j gydk cq [kkj eglw l gks jgk FkkA bPNk rks ugha Fkh ij eq>s f'kfoj esa gh jguk iM+ kA pwa fd ge nks uks a es a ls eS a dke ij ugha tk jgk Fkk blfy, esjh osQ fy, dke ij tkuk k:jh gks x;kA ges a viuk dke iw jk djus os Q fy, fliZ Q lkr lIrkg dk gh le; feyk Fkk tks tYnh&tYnh chr jgk FkkA blfy, esjh vius nks uks a oqQkks a & lS yh vkS j VwV~l& os Q lkFk [kq nkbZ ij pyh xbZ vkSj eSa cs pS u gks dj ihNs f'kfoj es a jg x;kA

    oq QN le; ckn] 'kk;n es jh >idh VwVh rks eS aus yS a M&jks oj dh

    vkokT+ k lq uhA og cM+h rsT+kh ls f'kfoj dh vks j vk jgh FkhA eq>s iy Hkj osQ fy, ,d liuk&lk vk x;k] eq >s yxk fd es jh dks fdlh kgjhys fcPNw us dkV fy;k gS ogk lS dM+ ks a dh rknkn esa fcPNw Fks] vFkok fdlh lki us Ml fy;k gS tks oqQkks a dh uT+ kj ls cp

    fudyk gks xkA ySa M&jks oj xkM+h [kM+ [kM+ kgV osQ lkFk #dhA vkS j eSa us dbZ ckj es jh

    dh vkokk lq uh] og ckj&ckj iq dkj jgh Fkh% eSa us mls ik fy;k! eS a us mls ik fy;k! eSa us mls ik fy;k! eS a vc Hkh fljnnZ ls yM+ [kM+k jgk Fkk_ eS a mldk eryc ugha le> ik;kA eS a us iwNkvjs] D;k gq vk\ D;k ik fy;k\ D;k pks V [kk cS Bh\ esjh us dgk] ^^mlh dks cl ml vkneh dks! gekjs vkneh dks

    ik fy;k] mlh dks ftls ge (fiNys 23 o"kks Za ls) [kkst jgs FksA tYnh vkvks] eq >s mlos Q nk r fey x, gSa !** iQkba Mx fn oYMZ~ l vfyZ ,LV eS u*] ys [kd% ,y-,l-ch- yhdh]uS 'kuy T;ksxzkfI +kQd ] 118 (flracj 1960)

    AglaSem School

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    13

    ldkjkRed iz friq f"V O;oLFkk fdlh ckW Dl fo'ks "k dh vks j bafxr rhj os Q fu'kku mu izHkkoks a dks crkrs gSa ftudh

    otg ls dks bZ fo'ks"krk fodflr gqbZ A

    fdlh ckW Dl ls nw j bafxr djus okys rhj os Q fu'kku ;g crkrs gS a fd ckW Dl es a crk, x, fodkl&e us vU; iz f;kvks a dks oS Qls izHkkfor fd;kA

    mnkgj.k osQ fy,] nks iSjks a ij [kM+s gks dj pyus dh {kerk osQ dkj.k gkFk cPpks a ;k phT+ kks a dks mBkdj ys tkus osQ fy, eqDr gks x, vkS j T;ks a &T;ks a gkFkksa dk bLrs eky c

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    14 fo'o bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;

    ^gks eks* ykfruh Hkk"kk dk ,d 'kCn gS ftldk vFkZ gS vkneh* ;|fi blesa iq#"k vkS j L=kh nksuks a 'kkfey gS a A oS Kkfudks a us gks eks dks dbZ iz tkfr;ks a esa ckVk gS vkSj bu iz tkfr;ksa dks mudh fo'ks"krkvksa os Q vuq lkj vyx&vyx uke fn, gSa A bl iz dkj thok'eksa dks gks eks gS fcfyl (vkS T + kkj cukus okys)] gks eks ,js DVl (lh/s [kM+ s gksdj iS jksa osQ cy pyus okys) vkS j gks eks

    lSfi;a l (izkK ;k pru'khy euq";) os Q :i es a oxhZ o` Qr fd;k x;k gSA gks eks gS fcfyl os Q thok'e bfFk;ks fi;k esa vks eks (Omo) vkS j ra kkfu;k es a vks YMq obZ xkstZ

    (Olduvai Gorge) ls iz kIr fd, x, gS aA gks eks ,jsDVl os Q iz kphure thok'e vI+kz Qhdk vkS j ,f'k;k nksuksa egk}hiks a esa ik, x, ga S] ;Fkk& ow QchI + kQksjk(Koobi Fora) vkSj if'peh rq O + kQkZ uk] os QU;k] eks M+ tks drks Z(Mod Jokerto) vkSj la xhju (Sangiran), tkokA ,f'k;k esa ik, x, thok'e vI+ kz Qhdk es a ik, x, thok'eks a dh rq yuk esa ijorhZ dky osQ gSa ] blfy, ;g vfkd la Hko gS fd gks ehfuM iw ohZ vI+ kz Qhdk ls pydj nf{k.kh vkS j mkjh vI+ kz Qhdk_ nf{k.kh rFkk iw oks Z kj ,f'k;k_ vkS j 'kk;n ;w jks i es a Hkh] 20 ls 15 yk[k o"kZ igys x,A ;s iz tkfr;k yxHkx nl yk[k o"kZ igys rd thfor jgha A

    ekuf p=k 1( d ): vI+ kz QhdkA

    ekuf p=k 1 ([k) : iw ohZ vI+ kz Qh dk dh foHkz a'k(fj + V)

    ?kkVhA

    nj ,l lqYrku eks jDdks

    vVykafVd egklkxj

    pkM lwMku

    y k y l k x j

    bfFk;ks fi;k

    l k s e k

    f y ; k

    os QU;k foDVks fj;k

    >hy

    ra tkfu;k

    m x k a M k

    dkaxks dk yks drka f=kd

    x.kjkT; fga n egklkxj

    e k s T + k k f E c

    d

    Hkw e;lkxj

    ckWMZ j osQo

    nf{k.kh vI+ kz Qhdk nh os QYMlZ

    Dyklhk fjoj ekmFk

    y k y l k x j pkM

    cgj&vy&- xky lw Mku

    bfjfV ;k gknkj

    vnu dh [kkM+h

    e; vI+ kzQhdh x.kjkT;

    dka xks dk yks drka f=kd x.kjkT;

    ys d foDVksfj;k

    ys d b;klh

    bfFk;ks fi;k

    lks ekfy;k

    fga n egklkxj

    vks YMobZ xks tZ ysZ rksfy

    ra kkfu;k

    mxka Mk

    vks eks fdfc'k Ivkfy;k cs

    yksFkkxe ow Qch - iQks jk

    ukikssb

    if'pe rqjdkuk

    os QU;k LokrZkal

    AglaSem School

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    oq QN n`"Va krksa esa ] thok'eksa dk ukedj.k mu LFkkuks a osQ vk/kj ij fd;k x;k gS tgk ml fo'ks "k iz dkj osQ thok'e loZ izFke feys FksA tS ls fd teZ uh os Q 'kgj gkbMycxZ es a ik, x, thok'eksa dks gks eks gkbMy cxs fll (Homo heidel bergensis) dgk x;k tcfd fuva Mj ?kkVh es a ik, x, thok'eks a dks (i`-18 ns f[k,) gks eks fuva MjFkyS a fll (Homo neanderthalensis)Js .kh es a j[kk x;kA

    ;w jks i es a feys lcls iq jkus thok'e gkseks gkbMycxs fll vkS j gkseks fuvaMjFkySa fll osQ gS aA ;s nksuks a gh gks eks lSfi;a l (vk| iz kK ekuo) iztkfr os Q gS a A gkbMycxZ ekuo (8 yk[k o"kZ ls 1 yk[k o"kZ iw oZ ) nw j&nw j rd iS Qys gq , FksA muos Q thok'e vI+ kz Qhdk] ,f'k;k vkS j ;wjksi es a ik, x, gS a A fuva MjFky ekuo eks Vs rkS j ij 1]30]000 ls 35]000 o"kZ igys rd ;w jks i] if'peh vkSj e; ,f'k;k esa jgk djrs FksA os if'peh ;wjksi es a yxHkx 35]000 o"kZ igys vpkud

    foyq Ir gks x,A lkekU;r%] vkLVs yks fifFkdl dh rq yuk es a ] gks eks dk efLr"d cM+ k gks rk Fkk] tcM+ s ckgj dh

    vksj de fudys gq, Fks vkS j nkr Nks Vs gksrs Fks (i "B 10 ij fp=k nsf[k,)A mues a efLr"d osQ vkdkj es a o` f dks vfkd cq ferk vkS j csgrj ;knnk'r ls tks M+k tkrk gSA tcM+ksa rFkk nkrksa

    es a gq vk ifjorZ u la Hkor% muos Q [kku&iku esa gqbZ fHkUurk ls la ca fkr FkkA

    dc dgk dkSu

    50 ls 10 yk[k o"kZ iw oZ vI+ kz Qhdk es a lgkjk os Q vklikl vkLVs yks fifFkdl] iz kja fHkd os Q iz ns 'k gks eks] gks eks ,js DVl

    10 yk[k ls 40 gT + kkj o"kZ vI+ kz Qhdk] ,f'k;k vkS j ;w jks i os Q gkseks ,js DVl] vk| gks eks iw oZ e;&v{kak'k {ks=k lS fi;a l] fuvaMjFky ekuo]

    gkseks lSfi;al lSfi;[email protected] fud ekuo

    45]000 o"kZ iw oZ vkLVs fy;k vk/q fud ekuo

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    dks"Bdks a(time brackets) osQ fy, vyx&vyx ja xks a dk bLrs eky dhft,A egk}hiks a dh lw ph es a ;g crkb, fd vkius (d) dgk ,d jax] ([k) dgk nks ja xks a vkSj

    (x) dgk nks ls vf/d jaxksa dk bLrs eky fd;k gSA

    fo'o esa ekuo iztkfr;kas dk fuokl

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