INDEX INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT VENUE CENTURY RAYON, SHAHAD RAYON HISTORY & UTILITY METHOD OF RAYON PRODUCTION YARN VISCOSE PROCESS OF RAYON YARN PRODUCTION EFFLUENT TREATMENT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PRODUCTION POLLUTION ANALYSIS PHYSICAL PARAMETER CHEMICAL PARAMETER WATER ANALYSIS PREPARATION OF STANDARD SOLUTIONS (NaOH, H2SO4, Na2S2O3.5H2O) GENERAL SAFETY IN LABORATORY
CENTURY RAYON is a division of Century Textiles & Industries Limited, which belongs to B. K. Birla Group of Companies, one of the largest industrial houses in India. The division is situated at Shahad, about 60 Kms, North of Mumbai, on the bank of Ulhas River.
Rayon division at Shahad commenced its operations in 1956 with an industrial production capacity of 5.5 Tons of Viscose filament yarn per day. Today, it is the largest producer of viscose filament yarn in the country, having the capacity of 45 tons per day. Century Rayon commenced Caustic Soda production for its captive consumption way back in the year 1964 with 30 TDP mercury cell plant. In the year 1993, the company installed pollution free membrane cell plant and discontinued mercury cell plant. Today, it produces 55 TDP of Caustic Soda & allied chemicals. Century Rayon also produces Carbon-disulphide, Sulphuric Acid which are the basic raw materials for producing viscose filament yarn. Its now one of the largest manufacturer & exporter of Viscose Filament Pot Spun Yarn, Continuous Spun Yarn, & Tyre Yarn. All these plants are accredited with ISO 9001: 2000 Certification. Century Rayon commands 28% of the Indian Viscose Filament Yarn market. The financial annual turnover exceeds INR 400 crores (approx US $ 90 Million). PLANT Rayon (Estd.1056) Tyre Yarn/ Cord (Est. 1963) CSY (Est. 1998) PRODUCT CAPACITY Viscose Rayon Filament Yarn 16,000 MT/annum High Tenacity Tyre Yarn 6,500 MT/annum Continuous Spun Yarn 2.500 MT/annum
Inn 1963, the rayon Division diversified in to production of high tenacity viscose tyre yarn/cord. The plant was installed in collaboration with Algemene Kuntzidjeunu NV of Holland & Galansztoff AG of Germany. Today the plant is operating at 18 TPD production capacity. In the year 1998, the State of Art machines for production of Continuous Spinning Yarn were installed. Continuous Spun Yarn has many advantages over conventional pot spun viscose filament yarn. The plant was expanded to capacity of 7 TPD in year 2003. 2
RAYON Rayon is one of the most peculiar fabrics in commercial use today. Strictly speaking it is not an artificial fiber, because it is derived from naturally occurring cellulose. It is not, however, a natural fabric because cellulose requires extensive processing to become RAYON. Rayon is usually classified as manufactured fiber and considered to be Regenerated Cellulose.
Skeins of artificial silk produced by the viscose Spinning syndicate
above shows the first attempt to make colored Silks.
Rayon is the oldest manufactured fiber, having been in production since the 1880s in France, where it was originally developed as a cheap alternative to silk. DuPont Chemicals acquired the rights to the process in the 1920s and quickly turned rayon into a household world, churning out yards of the cheap, versatile fabric. Rayon drapes well, is easy to dye, and is highly absorbent, although it tends to age poorly. Many rayon products yellow with age and pill or form small balls and areas of roughness where the fabric is most heavily worn. Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulose fiber, because it is produced from naturally occurring polymers, it is neither a truly synthetic fiber nor a natural fiber; it is a semi-synthetic fiber. Rayon is known by the names Viscose Rayon and art silk in the textile industry. It usually has a high luster quality giving it a bright shine. Rayon contains the chemical element carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Cellulose is treated with alkali and carbon disulfide to yield viscose.
RAYON USES OF RAYON:Some major rayon fiber includes apparel (E.g. Blouses, Dresses, Jackets, Lingerie, Linings, Scarves, Suits, Ties, Hats, and Socks) furnishings (E.g. Bed spreads, Blankets, Window Treatments, Upholstery, Slipcovers) industrial uses (E.g. Medical surgery products, Non woven products, tire cord), and other uses (E.g. Yarn, Feminine hygiene products, Diapers)
A sample of rayon from skirt, blouse, shirt with different texture.
RAYON HISTORY:Nitrocellulose The fact that Nitrocellulose is soluble in organic solvents such as Ether & Acetone, made it possible for Georges Audemars to develop the first Artificial Silk about 1885, but his method was impractical for commercial use. The commercial production started in 1891, but it was flammable, and more expensive than acetate or cuprammonium rayon. Because of this, production was stopped before World War I, for example in Germany. Briefly, it became known as Mother-in-law silk. Nathan Rosenstein invented the spunize process by which he turned rayon from hard fiber to a fabric. His allowed Rayon to become a popular raw material in textiles. Acetate method: Paul Schutzenberger discovered that cellulose can be reacted with acetic anhydride to form cellulose acetate. The triacetate is only  soluble in chloroform making the method expensive. The discovery that hydrolyzed cellulose acetate is soluble in less polar solvents, like acetone, made production of cellulose acetate fibers cheap and efficient. Cuprammonium Method: The German chemist Eduard Scheweizer discovered that tetraaminecopper dihydroxide could dissolve cellulose. Max Fremery & Johann Urban developed a method to produce carbon fibers for use in light bulbs in 1897. Production of Rayon for textiles started in 1899 in the Vereinigte Galanzstofffariken AG in Oberbrunch. Improvement by J. P. Bamberg AG in 2004 made the artificial silk a product comparable to real silk. VISCOSE METHOD Finally, in 1894, English chemist Charles Frederic Cross, and his collaborators Edward John Bevan, & Clayton Beadle patented their artificial silk, which they named VISCOSE, because the reaction product of carbon disulphide and cellulose in basic conditions gave a highly viscous solution of Xanthate. The first commercial viscose rayon was produced by the UK Company Courtaulds Fibers in 1905. Avtex Fibers Incorporated began selling their formulation in the United States in 1910. The name RAYON was adopted in 1924, with VISCOSE being used for the viscous organic liquid used to make both rayon and cellophane. In Europe, though, the fabric itself became known as Viscose, which has been ruled an acceptable alternative term for rayon by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. The method is able to use wood (Cellulose & Lignin) as a source of cellulose while the other methods need lignin-free cellulose as starting material. This makes it cheaper and therefore it was used on a larger scale than the other methods. Contamination of the waste water by carbon disulfide, lignin and the xanthates made this process detrimental to the environment. Rayon was only produced as a filament fiber until the 1930s when it was discovered that broken waste rayon could be used in staple fiber. The physical properties of rayon were unchanged until the development of high-tenacity rayon in the 1940s. Further research & development led to the creation of high-wet-modulus rayon (HWM Rayon) in the 1950
RAYON MAJOR FIBER PROPERTIES:Rayon is a very versatile fiber and has the same comfort properties as natural fibers. It can imitate the feel and texture of silk, wool, cotton and linen. The fibers are easily dyed in a wide range of colors. Rayon fabrics are soft, smooth, cool, comfortable, and highly absorbent, but they do not insulate body heat, making them ideal for use in hot and humid climates. The durability and appearance retention of regular rayon are low, especially when wet; also, rayon has the lowest elastic recovery of any fiber. However, HWM rayon is much stronger and exhibits higher durability and appearance retention. Recommended care for regular is dry-cleaning only. HWM rayon can be machine washed. BASIC PRINCIPLESOF RAYON FIBER PRODUCTION:In the production of Rayon, purified cellulose is chemically converted in to a soluble compound. A solution of this compound is passed through the spinneret to form soft filaments that are then converted or Regenerated into almost pure cellulose. Because of the reconversions of the soluble compound to cellulose, Rayon is referred to as a regenerated cellulose fiber. There are several types of Rayon fibers in commercial use today, named according to the process by which the cellulose is converted to the soluble form and then regenerated. Rayon fibers are wet spun, which means that the filaments emerging from the spinneret pass directly into chemical baths for sodifying of regeneration. Viscose rayon is made by converting purified cellulose to Xanthate, dissolving the Xanthate in dilute caustic soda and then regenerating the cellulose from the product as it emerges from the spinneret. Most rayon is made by the viscose process. PRODUCTION OF VISCOSE Viscose Process: Most commercial rayon manufacturing today utilizes the viscose process. This process dated to the early 1900s, with most of the growth in production occurring between 1925 & 1955. In the early period, production was mainly textile filament, although the first staple was produced in 1916. High performance rayons, such as tire cord, did not appear until the late 1930s with the advent of hotstretching and addition of larger amounts of zinc to the spin bath. Invention of modifiers in 1947 brought on super tire cords and marked the beginning of the high-performance rayon fibers. All of the early viscose production involved batch processing. In more recent times, processes have been modified to