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REQUERIMIENTO 4: EQUINOS - eliasnutri · PDF fileREQUERIMIENTO 4: EQUINOS. ... REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOS Dieta balanceada -Agua ... roping, cutting, barrel racing, jumping REQUERIMIENTO

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  • REQUERIMIENTO 4: EQUINOS

  • Human Ruminant Equine

    Stomach 30% 70% 9-10%

    Sm. 33% 19% 30%

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSComparacin digestiva

    Sm. Intestine

    33% 19% 30%

    Cecum 7% 3% 16%

    Lg. Intestine

    30% 7% 45%

  • Digestible Carbohydrate

    Fermentable Fiber Large Intestine

    Fat

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSDigestin

    Volatile Fatty AcidsGlucose

    Fatty Acids

    Fat

    Glycogen

    Stomach Small Intestine

  • Maintenance - basic requirements of life

    Growth - youngest has highest requirements

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSCategoras digestivas

    requirements

    Gestation - last three months Lactation - first three months Work - depends on activity

    light, moderate, intense Geriatric

  • Essential for all body functions

    Temperature regulation Feed digestion Amount of water intake

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSDieta balanceada - Agua

    Forage Concentrate Grain Supplements

    Amount of water intake Level of exercise Ambient temperature Quality of feeds in ration Proportion of diet that is

    forage Minimum 1 gallon/100 lbs

    BW/day

  • Size: body weight Environment Individual digestive &

    metabolic efficiency

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSMantenimiento

    metabolic efficiency

    Dry matter intake: 1.5% of the BW

    Most - energy requirements are met

    with forage alone

  • Muscle GlycogenBlood Glucose

    Anaerobic Glycolysis

    Pyruvate Lactate

    ATPCreatinePhosphate

    Myokinaseand CPKReactions

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSFuente de energa para el desempeo

    OxidativeMetabolism

    Free-Fatty Acids

    Reactions

    CO2and Water

    Lipolysis

    Oxygen

  • Light - western and English pleasure, trail riding, equitation, hacking

    Moderate - dressage, ranch work, roping, cutting, barrel racing, jumping

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSNiveles de desempeo

    barrel racing, jumping

    Intense - race training, polo, cutting,

  • Activity Examples DE (Mcal/d)

    Maintenance Pasture 16

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSEnerga requerida

    Light work Pleasure riding 20

    Moderate work Reining, jumping 24

    Intense work Racing, endurance 32

  • REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSTabla de recomendacin

  • First figure roughage requirement (1-2% of body weight) ex. 0.0175 x 1100 lbs. = 19.25 lbs.

    Then figure D.E., C.P., Ca. and P provided by this amount of hay

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSCalculo de una racin

    provided by this amount of hay

    Next figure how much concentrate to feed based on D.E. deficit remaining

    Double check- does it make sense?

  • REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSCalculo de una racin

  • http://nrc88.nas.edu/nrh/

  • CABALLOS ADULTOS:

    P.V. (kg) = 4.3*P.T. (cm) + 3*A.C. (cm) 785

    CABALLOS DE MENOS DE CUATRO AOS:

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSCalculo del peso corporal

    P.V. (kg) = 4.5*P.T. (cm) 370

    P.V. = peso vivo

    P.T. = permetro torcico

    A.C. = alzada de la cruzFuente = I.N.R.A. (Francia)

  • Hydrolysable CHO Sugars & starches Create intes.nal pH & risk of

    colic

    Fermentable CHO

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSFuentes de Energa

    Fermentable CHO Beet pulp or soy hulls glycogen usage

    Fat 3X the energy concentration of CHO Creates higher energy feed

    Protein (minimal usage)

  • l Why Use It For Performance Horses?

    l Energy from fat is 90% utilizable

    l Fat heat of fermentation

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSSuplementacion de grasa

    l Natural horse diets contain < 3-4% fat

    l High Fat sweet feeds contain 6-10% fat

    l Fat Supplementsl Fat heat of fermentationl Fat glycogen storage

    prior to race

    l Fat buildup of lactic acid during intense exercise

    l Fat fatigue

    l Fat Supplementsl Vegetable Oil (most common

    99% fat)

    l Rice Bran (very palatable 20% fat)

    l Animal tallow (not palatable)

  • No gall bladder Max ~20% in total diet 1100 lb horse can digest

    17.5 oz of fat (Just over 2 cups)

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSSuplementacin de grasa

    Hay requirement Feed at least 50% of total ration as

    forage (pasture &/or hay)

    Preferably high quality grass hay or alfalfa/grass mix

    Exercising horses do not need high levels of protein

    If adding fat to existing diet, need to rebalance other nutrients

    (i.e. vitamin E (200 IU/cup of added oil)

    Add 6-10 weeks before performance.

    protein

    More important quality of protein Horses should be fed to meet their immediate

    needs

    I.e. cut grain on rest days If stalled, overfeeding can

    stocking up or colic

  • Goals Maximize genetic

    potential for growth

    Sound musculos keletal system

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSCrecimiento

    Nutrient balance is importantNutrient balance is importantRequires higher quality feedsRequires higher quality feedsGrowth rate & age determines requirementsGrowth rate & age determines requirementsGrowing till reach 30 monthsGrowing till reach 30 months

  • Provision of nutrients for: Fetal growth & development

    Other products of conception

    Foal10%

    Other

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSGestacin: potro

    Other5%

    85%

    Last 3 month of gestation: 60 % foals weightLast 3 month of gestation: 60 % foals weightMare needs to gain 0.3 Mare needs to gain 0.3 0.8 lb/d0.8 lb/d

  • 26

    27

    28

    Dai

    ly M

    ilk P

    rod

    uct

    ion

    (lb

    s)

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSProduccin de leche

    21

    22

    23

    24

    25

    26

    15 30 45 60 90 120 150Time (days)

    Dai

    ly M

    ilk P

    rod

    uct

    ion

    (lb

    s)

  • Mare status Forage Concentrate Total

    Early pregnancy 1.5-2.0 0-0.5 1.5-2.0

    Late pregnancy 1.0-1.5 0.5-1.0 1.5-2.0

    Early lactation 1.0-2.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-3.0

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSYegua: Consumo de alimento (como % del peso vivo)

    Early lactation 1.0-2.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-3.0

    Late lactation 1.0-2.0 0.5-1.5 2.0-2.5

    Adding concentrate to late pregnancy mares accounts for limited energy & acclimates microbes

    Allow 1 wk to 10 d for mares to adjust to intake changesAllow 1 wk to 10 d for mares to adjust to intake changes

    Heavy milkers may require as much as 1.75-2.0% of BW in concentrate feed/day

  • Fiber digestion decreases

    Ability to manufacture or absorb certain vitamins decrease

    B vitamins

    Vitamin C

    Decreased kidney function

    REQUERIMIENTO de EQUINOSGeritricos

    Decreased kidney function

    Calcium stones may build up

    Decreased liver function

    Jaundice, weight loss, lethargy, loss of appetite, intolerance for fat and protein in diet

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