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  • AERODYNAMIC DESIGN EVALUATION OF BLENDED WING

    BODY DESIGN IN AIRCRAFTS AND ITS SCOPE IN

    COMMERCIAL USE

    A Seminar Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of

    BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

    IN

    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    Under University of Calicut

    By

    ANOOP M R

    APAMEME008

    DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    Aryanet Institute of Technology

    Velikkad, Mundur, Palakkad- 678592

    MARCH 2016

  • DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ARYANET INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

    VELIKKAD, PALAKKAD, PIN 678 592

    CERTIFICATE

    Certified that the seminar titled AERODYNAMIC DESIGN

    EVALUATION OF BLENDED WING BODY DESIGN IN

    AIRCRAFTS AND ITS SCOPE IN COMMERCIAL USE is a bonafide

    record of the work done by ANOOP M R (APAMEME008) under my

    supervision and guidance, and is submitted in March 2016 in partial

    fulfillment of the requirements for award of the Degree of Bachelor of

    Technology in Mechanical Engineering under University of Calicut.

    Seminar Guide Head of the Department

    SREEJITH M Prof. V Gopinathan

    Assistant professor Department of Mechanical

    Department of Mechanical Engineering.

    Engineering.

    Place : PALAKKAD

    Date :

  • Seminar report BWB Analysis

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    Department of Mechanical Engineering, AIT (2012-2016)

    ii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    While bringing out this seminar to its final form, I came across a number of

    people whose contributions in various ways helped my field of research and they

    deserve special thanks. It is a pleasure to convey my gratitude to all of them.

    I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. M.R. VIKRAMAN,

    Principal, Aryanet Institute of Technology, Palakkad for fostering an excellent

    academic climate in the college and for his support and encouragement throughout the

    course period.

    I wish to thank Prof. V GOPINATHAN, Head of the Department,

    Mechanical Engineering, Aryanet Institute of Technology, Palakkad, for providing all

    the facilities and support for execution of the work.

    I am thankful to Mr. SREEJITH M (Seminar Coordinator and Seminar

    Guide), Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aryanet Institute

    of Technology, Palakkad for his advice, encouragement, suggestions, invaluable

    supervision and support throughout this seminar work.

    I would like to take this opportunity to thank my friends who spent their

    valuable time and shared their knowledge for helping me to complete the seminar

    with the best possible result.

    ANOOP M R

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    Department of Mechanical Engineering, AIT (2012-2016)

    iii

    ABSTRACT

    The desire to produce environment friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically

    efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long range at

    reduced operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body

    (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design

    of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamic and environmental benefits and is

    suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow

    technology, jet flap and distributed propulsion. However despite these benefits BWB

    aircraft design is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several

    challenges. The emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design

    challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft

    is reviewed. In order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly

    coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis

    optimization should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective

    functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

    Keywords: Blended Wing Body, Aerodynamics, Laminar flow, Jet flap, Distributed

    propulsion

  • Seminar report BWB Analysis

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    Department of Mechanical Engineering, AIT (2012-2016)

    iv

    CONTENTS

    SL No. TITLE Page No.

    LIST OF TABLES vii

    LIST OF FIGURES vii

    LIST OF ABBREVATIONS x

    1 INTRODUCTION 1

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2

    2.1 Historical Background 2

    2.2 Research projects in BWB by European Union 7

    3 AERODYNAMICS 9

    3.1 What is Aerodynamics 9

    3.2 Aerodynamic Drag 9

    3.2.1 Drag Coefficient 9

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    Department of Mechanical Engineering, AIT (2012-2016)

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    3.3 Aerodynamic Lift 10

    3.3.1 Lift Coefficient 10

    3.4 Lift to Drag Ratio 11

    3.5 Pitching Moment 11

    3.5.1 Pitching Moment Coefficient 12

    4 AERODYNAMIC DESIGN EVALUATION OF BWB 13

    4.1 Design methodology 13

    4.2 The First Airframe 13

    4.2.1 The Design Approach 13

    4.2.2 Baseline Geometry 15

    4.3 Aerodynamic Performance 15

    4.3.1 Lift Coefficient 16

    4.3.2 Drag Coefficient 16

    4.3.3 Pitching Moment Coefficient 17

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    Department of Mechanical Engineering, AIT (2012-2016)

    vi

    4.3.4 Lift to Drag Ratio 18

    4.3.5 Pressure Distribution 19

    4.4 Usable Area 20

    4.5 Second Airframe 22

    4.5.1 Conceptual Design Approach 22

    4.5.2 Baseline Geometry 23

    4.5.3 Interior Arrangement 24

    4.5.4 Airframe Sections and Control Surfaces 25

    5 COMPARISION OF BWB WITH THE

    CONVENTIONAL TYPE

    26

    5.1 Wetted Surface Area Comparison 26

    5.2 Moment Arms and Pitch Control Effectiveness Comparison 27

    5.3 Aero Structure Comparison 27

    6 CONCLUSIONS 29

    7 REFERENCES 30

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    Department of Mechanical Engineering, AIT (2012-2016)

    vii

    LIST OF TABLES

    SL No. TITLE Page No.

    4.1 Cruise flight conditions of the first AEROP

    frame

    14

    4.2 Weight estimation of the first AEROPP

    airframe

    14

    4.3 Design constrains of the second AEROPP

    airframe

    22

    LIST OF FIGURES

    SL No. TITLE Page No.

    2.1.1 The D-8 tailless aircraft at the 1914 Farnborough air

    show

    3

    2.1.2 Westland-Hill Pterodactyl V aircraft with fully

    moving wingtips

    3

    2.1.3 The Northrop semi-flying wing aircraft 3

    2.1.4 The Northrop N-1M Aircraft 3

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    Department of Mechanical Engineering, AIT (2012-2016)

    viii

    2.1.5 The Northrop N-9 M aircraft 4

    2.1.6 Northrop XB-35 piston-engine long-range bomber 4

    2.1.7 B2-Spirit Stealth Bomber 5

    2.1.8 Turbojet powered Ho-229 flying wing aircraft 6

    2.1.9 BW-17 radio controlled model aircraft 6

    2.1.10 BWB-450 commercial passenger transport aircraft 6

    2.2 European Union sponsored BWB-related research

    programs

    8

    3.3 Lift and Drag 10

    3.4 Lift to drag ratio 11

    4.2.1 Mission profile of the first airframe. 14

    4.2.2 The first baseline airframe. 15

    4.3.1 Lift coefficient variation with Angle of Attack. 16

    4.3.2 Drag coefficient variation with Angle of Attack. 17

    4.3.3 Pitching moment coefficient with Angle of Attack 18

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    4.3.4(a) Lift-to-drag ratio variation with lift coefficient 19

    4.3.4(b) Lift-to-drag ratio variation with Angle of attack. 19

    4.3.5(a) Total pressure line 20

    4.3.5(b) Total pressure distribution 20

    4.4 Schematic view of usable space for the first AEROPP

    airframe

    21

    4.5.2 Technical drawing of the