Smart Grid CD

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  • Smart Grid

    .

    : . ..

    , 2012

  • Smart Grid

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    Smart Grid

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    : . ..

    19 2012.

    ................................ ........................... ........................... . ... ... ...

    , 2012

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    Copyright , 2012. . All rights reserved.

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    . . . . , ..., . . , ..., , . .

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    , 18 2012

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    . , , . , . , , , . , , , , . , . , , . , ElecPrivacy. , , . , , , . , OMNET++. , (DoS) , (Http, VideoStream) (VideoStream).

    , , , , , , , .

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    ABSTRACT

    The smart grid is attempting to modernize the existing antiquated electricity grid

    system. The beneficial features of the smart grid, whose main representative is the

    smart meter, contribute to the optimal use of electricity in both the production side

    and consumption side. Introducing the new communications and information

    technologies at key points in the network achieved the integration of renewable

    energy and the energy consumer in the scenario of operation of the smart grid.

    However, integration of new technologies, especially those related to the Internet,

    may introduce new security threats to the smart grid. Some malicious attackers can

    exploit the vulnerabilities of network communications and seize electronic devices,

    steal confidential personal information or to prohibit the availability of essential

    services, causing a widespread power outage, resulting in adverse economic costs.

    For this reason, addressing safety issues in smart grid plays a key role. The

    confidentiality, integrity and availability of mobile information need to be protected

    so as to increase system reliability. Data encryption is an effective measurement

    solution, and the protection of personal consumer information with the innovative

    load management system "ElecPrivacy".

    In addition, cooperative wireless communications in smart grid has the potential to

    contribute to more efficient utilization of the available energy of cooperating nodes,

    increasing thereby the quality of transmission services. By leveraging the advantages

    of cooperation, the smart metering network, which consists of spatially dispersed

    smart meters, encrypts personal data measurement and effectively transmit them to

    the control center to avoid conflicts and routing problems.

    Finally, the operation of the smart grid is simulated using the simulation

    environment OMNET++. The baseline operation involves the use of a common

    communications network for exchanging information between smart meters and

    responsive control center, launching denial of service attack (DoS) from attackers to

    unsuspecting smart meters, serving mobile users by remote Internet servers (Http,

    VideoStream) and other collaborative users (VideoStream).

    Key Words

    Smart grid, smart meters, risks, attacks, security, privacy, cryptography, wireless

    cooperative communications.

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    1. (smart grid) (services).........................23

    1.1. (electric power grid) .........................................................................................23

    1.2. ..................23

    1.3. SCAD .........................................................................................24

    1.4. (smart grid).....................................25

    1.4.1. (self-healing)............................................26

    1.4.2. (distributed power generation)..................................................................................27

    1.4.3. (centralized to distributed communications)...........................................28

    1.4.4. Plug-in .......................................................28

    1.4.5. (smart meters).............................................................28

    1.5. ............................................29

    1.5.1. (wireless technology standards).........29

    1.5.2. (network architecture)........................................29

    1.5.3. (standards) ...............30

    1.6. 2.......................................................................31

    1.7. WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks)..................31

    2. .............................................................35

    2.1. ...........................................................................35

    2.2. (attacks)...........................................................36

    2.2.1. ..........................................................................36

    2.2.1.1. Replay attack: Eavesdropping DoS...................................37

    2.2.2. , ........................38

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    2.2.3. ..............................39

    2.2.4. ....................................................................................39

    2.2.5. ..............................................................................................40

    2.2.6. .........................................40

    2.3. ..............................................................................41

    2.4. (state estimation), (load redistribution attack) ..........................................42

    2.4.1. ........................................42

    2.5. (cyber-attacks) ..........................................................................44

    2.6. ............................................................................45

    2.7. ..................................................46

    2.8. MAC (medium access control) WSN....................47

    2.9. (vulnerabilities)....................................54

    3. (security).....................................................................55

    3.1. ...........................................................................................55

    3.2. .....................................................................................55

    3.3. .................................................................56

    3.4. ..........................................................................................57

    3.4.1. ............................................................58

    3.5. ....................................................................58

    3.6. (emergency demand response program)..............................................................................59

    3.7. (intrusion detection system).........................59

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    3.8. (anomaly detection mechanism)............60

    3.9. (identity), (key management) (encryption)...........................................................................61

    3.10. (privacy protection)........................................................................................62

    3.11. (traffic analysis)..................62

    4. (privacy) ..........65

    4.1. ........................................................................65

    4.2. ........................................65

    4.3. ...................66

    4.4. ElecPrivacy.........................67

    4.5. ............................................68

    5. (Cryptography)............................................................................71

    5.1. ...................................................................71

    5.1.1. (identification)....................................................................71

    5.1.2. (authentication)...........................................................7