a powerpoint for sociology 101 in college. class was a joke. but i didnt mind it helping out my gpa.
10 Sociological ConceptsBy: Joel Hunter
Sociological Theory (stereotyping)
Race-Status is a position that a person occupies in a social structure. Ascribed is something youre born with such as age, race, gender, etc. Achieved is something you pick up, earn, and receive over time such as skills, education, talent, etc There are many positions such as family status (father), occupational status (president, lawyer, cop), social status (upper, middle, and lower class). Symbols are sometimes used to help show their status such as wedding rings for marriage, uniforms for cops, and others. This helps us determine peoples status.
For example, in this picture I, Joel Hunter, am known by the red bandana I wear which is a symbol that shows my status, or the gang I am in. My friend Kevin is wearing the blue bandana showing his status in the opposing gang. These small pieces of cloth can show people a lot about who we are, what we do, and help them make other assumptions about us.We occupy a status, but we play Are the sum total of expectations about behavior attached to a particular social status. Roles give one a particular duty such as taking on the role of a family position (mother, father), occupational (cop, firefighter), and others such as a student. They exist independently of their occupants. Regardless, each role has certain minimum expectations. Not every role we obtain is easy as we encounter 3 problems..
RolesRole strain- the stress or strain experienced by an individual when incompatible behavior, expectations, or obligations are associated with a single social role
Status inconsistency- a situation in which a person with a particular ascribed status achieves an inconsistent status.
Role conflict- When a person occupies two or more roles and the values or beliefs of each one conflicts with the other
The roles we take on everyday may from time to time stress us out. As shown, I am taking on the role of a student. In college, we get stresses out really easy with all the homework, studying, tests, jobs, and other activities we do. I dont stay in my student role all day because I would get to stressed out. Everyone takes on many roles a day such as I take on being a son when I talk to my parents, a employee when I work for a company, or even a teacher when I volunteered to teach 2nd graders this past quarter.a group is one or more individuals with whom we share some sense of identity or common goals and whom we interact within a specific social structure. Cooley believed that there are two groups, primary and secondary. Primary groups would be like family and friends in which intimate interactions take place. Secondary would be a group such as a classroom where the roles are students and teacher. Most are there for the same reason, to obtain a higher level of education, but without intimate interactions. People view you first as a member of that group and only as a person with individual needs. Cooley states in primary groups that is where competition can take place between 2 members. By competition he means self-assertion and various passions occur, but tend to be socialized by sympathy. There are also in groups and out groups. In-groups are groups to which people belong and toward which they feel pride and loyalty. Out-groups are groups to which people do not belong toward which they feel disdain and perhaps hostility.Groups
It doesnt take much to be considered in a group. Everyone belongs to one group or another whether we know it or not. In this case, Kevin and I both share the common interest in video games and are here for the same reason. This is an example of a primary group as Kevin is a good friend of mine. Competition does take place within this group but it doesnt affect us in any way. We are simply here for the same reason, to play video games.-Bureaucracy is a type of secondary group known as a formal organization in which a group of people band together to achieve a certain goal. Max Weber claimed modern life would come to be increasingly played out in bureaucracies. He also studied and created the ideal type of bureaucracy, or what is left when you strip away things not necessary in one. Some strengths is that there are special divisions of labor, people keep track of whats going on, whos hired, fired, promotions, etc. . . Some weaknesses to this is sometimes real life bureaucracies arent so pure, as in people bend the rules. They sometimes also lose sight of why and what they are working so hard for because of the procedures and rules they need to abide by.
BureaucraciesSeattle is huge city filled with bureaucracies (corporations and companies.) It has companies that groups or individuals ban together to achieve a goal such as make money. Within Seattle, people have raking systems to show who does what work, what pay they get, whos fired, and so on. Max Weber was right when he said in modern times bureaucracies would come to be and expand over the course of time. -Each society has needs and its up to the people within it to meet those needs using the resources given. A social Institution is made up statuses, roles, values, and norms that respond to society needs. One social institution can affect the other as they depend on each other. For example, an economic institution relies on people using their statuses, roles, values, and beliefs to create jobs for individuals to work together and meet societys needs, but if it fails it could mean the loss of jobs affects the family institutions as they have no money because they lost their job in the economic institution. The 4 natures of social institutions are . . . .
Social Institutions-Generally unplanned: (Develop Gradually)When faced with a particular problem people try a variety of things to solve them. The best way is a pattern learned over generations to follow. How a society fixes them must fit with their values and norms. For example, social control is a big problem in societies. People act a certain way and we use methods to keep them under control before they get out of hand.
-Inherently conservative (they change slowly)Institutions are legitimized by both logic and appeals to nature making them hard to change. Any attempt to change them seems like an attack on the nature of the institutions. For example, family institutions have faced the problem same sex marriage. Those who try to get married may be faced with the adversaries through nature and reason to justify their conflict.
-interdependence (one changes another) A change in one institution will affect the other. Example such as women coming from family institutions and take the jobs helping out the military institution in WWII when men went off to war.
- Statuses, roles, values and norms associated with an institution vary from one society to another. Every society has needs but they differ from other societies. For example, in a government institution, different societies have monarchy, anarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, and others.
Seattle Pacific University is a great example for a social institution. It is a place where students can come and learn to take on statuses, roles, values, and norms. Its a place where I can contribute to societies needs especially the economic institution because I am majoring in business. The economic institution relies on the education institutions to provide students with the knowledge to help our economy . They are interdependent on each other.-Deviant behavior is a way people act and break the rules set in a society. Every society has different standards of deviant behavior. Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms of the group in question. Over time, some society norms change. The functions of deviant behavior are it provides groups attachments and loyalties, teaches normal behavior, and acts as a safety valve. The dysfunctions of it is its a threat to social order, can divert valuable resources, confuses norms and values, and undermines the trust of one another. We have all acted in some sort of deviant behavior in our lives whether or not we realize it. Usually when deviant behavior takes place, one acts in a way to break rules we have called norms.
There is no age limit on deviant behavior. It takes place everywhere at all ages. At the playground is a place where some deviant behavior takes place. Greed takes control when children play on toys because they think its theirs and they will protect it which leads to deviant behavior. This leads to norms being broken such as a folkway norm or a more norm depending on how violent the children act.Rules about behavior are called norms. Every culture that we know of has some sort of norms to keep things under social control. Some are more important than others. The way to judge the importance of a norm is to see the reaction of one to the situation or act. Punishment can vary from a glance of disapproval all the way to death. The three types of norms are . . . NormsFolkways- These represent casual norms; or violations that arent taken very seriously. An example would be not brushing your teeth at night or eating pizza for breakfast and cereal for dinner. No punishment usually unless its a small look of disappointment.
Mores- These are more important norms we should all know about. These norms consist of violent acts in ways we can injure other individuals. For example, assault with a deadly weapon usually ends up as the punishment of jail.
Taboos- The last kind of norms that were added later are taboo norms. They consist of things so deeply held that the thought of one committing them makes people upset. For