STAIN REMOVAL TECHNIQUE
is a mark of discoloration on fabric left by contact or absorption of some foreign material. Stain removal is both an art and a science. Entirely depends on the nature of the stain. They are usually classified acvcording to the substance that causes them. Identity of stain is its color, smell, feel and appearance.
CLASSIFICATION OF STAIN
Protein stains caused by egg, milk, blood, meat juice etc. Heat must be avoided in their removal otherwise protein will get fixed in the stain. Vegetable stains caused by grass , tea , tomato ketchup, coffee and cocoa. These are acidic in nature and require alkaline medium to remove them. Grease stain may be just grease spots or some coloring matter with grease. Include oil, Butter ,paints, varnish etc. Grease solvents or absorbents are used to dissolve or absorb grease before removal of coloring matter.
and Mineral stains rust, dye , ink, medicine stains etc. These may be acidic or alkaline. These are first treated with acidic reagents. Miscellaneous stains include stains like scorch , chewing gum , grass .Though grass comes under the vegetable stains , a but different method is used for removing chlorophyll.
IDENTIFICATION OF STAIN BY
COLOUR BY SMELL BY TEXTURE BY SPREAD AREA OF THE STAIN BY OCCUPATION BY LOCATION
METHODS OF STAIN REMOVAL
FRICTION stubborn stains are removed by frictional force. Sometimes combined with the sponging and steeping method. Stains of paint , nail polish , curry etc requires such a process of removal. DIPPING AND STEEPING stained sample is dipped into an appropriate reagent and left in it for sometime. Then it is taken out, scrubbed and washed well. Used for stains that are old & stubborn. GREASE ABSORBENT METHOD a dry cleaning method. Work the absorbent powder onto the stain from right side of the fabric, rubbing gently with a blunt knife. When paste discolors, shake it or brush it off & repeat. Remove all traces of powder with a fresh cloth or soft brush.
usually used when the cleaning liquid must penetrate the fabric. Place a pad or blotting paper under the stain & saturate with cleaning fluid. Soak the fluid into the stain by padding on the wrong side of the fabric change the under-swabs & pads frequently whenever they appear dirty. Remove excess liquid with linen cloth & dry the cloth by blowing or waving the fabric.
REAGENTS USED ACIDIC
REAGENTS acetic acid, used for steeping stains and to brighten the colour. Oleic acid, used for spotting of grease and oil stains. Oxalic acid, used to remove rust and food stains.
REAGENTS Sodium carbonate, used to remove stains of scorch. Borax, used to remove stains of tea and coffee also used as a bleaching agent. Ammonia , used to remove stains of blood and grease. GREASE SOLVENTS, petrol, carbon tetrachloride , acetone, turpentine oil, methylated spirit.
VARIOUS STAINS AND THEIR METHODS OF REMOVAL VEGETABLE
STAINS Tea ,coffee ,cocoa aerated drink Spread borax over the stain and pour boiling water. Steep in a glycerin solution over night Bleach with javelle water. Wash, rinse and dry in sun. Dont iron.
juice Treat the stain with oxalic acid and neutralize it with borax or an alkali. Wash rinse and dry in sun. Avoid javelle water as it fixes the iron containing stain. Tomato ketchup Soak the stain in glycerin. Wash with warm water. Bleach with javelle water. Wash & dry in sun.
Wash with detergent solution & bleach in the sun & stain disappears. Bleach with javelle water or water. Wash rinse well & dry in sun. PROTEIN STAINS Egg , blood & milk Soak in cold water or dilute sodium hydroxide solution with gentle rubbing. Bleach with hydrogen peroxide. Wash & rinse well. Dry in sun.
GREASE STAINS Curry Wash with hot detergent & bleach in sun. Sponge with grease solvent over blotting paper. Bleach with hydrogen peroxide. Rinse well & dry in sun. Lipstick , nailpolish Sponge with grease solvent (acetone) over a blotting paper with face down. Bleach if necessary. Wash & rinse in warm water & dry in sun.
Pen Sponge with grease solvent. Bleach if necessary. Wash with hot detergent solution. Rinse & dry in sun. Motor Grease Sponge with grease solvent. Bleach if necessary. Wash with hot detergent solution. Wash rinse well & dry in sun.
Enamel Scrap off as much as possible. Soak in mineral turpentine or enamel solvent with gentle rubbing. Bleach with reducing bleach if necessary. Wash rinse well & dry in sun. Shoe polish Scrap off as much as possible Sponge with grease solvent. Bleach if necessary. Wash & rinse well and dry in sun.
Sponge with grease solvent with face down. Wash and rinse well. Dry in sun. Pickle Wash in hot detergent solution & dry in sun after rinsing. Sponge with grease solvent petrol or CCl4 repeat step 1. Bleach if necessary.wash , rinse & dry in sun.
paper Sponge with dry cleaning solvent. Bleach if necessary. DYE AND MINERAL STAINS Blue ink Rub lime with salt or apply citric acid followed by borax. Steep in warm solution of KMnO4 followed by dilute oxalic acid alternately. Wash in soap solution. Rinse & dry in sun.
ink Rub in glycerin gently & rinse. Wash in dilute ammonia solution. Steep in solution of KMnO4 & dilute oxalic
acid alternately. Wash and rinse well. Dry in sun.
Steep in dilute ammonia solution or soap solution. Remove with oxidizing or reducing bleach. Wash ,rinse well & dry in sun.
Rub in dilute oxalic acid (40%) & then neutralize in borax solution. Bleach with javelle water. Wash , rinse wejj & dry in sun. Iodine Apply starch pasted to the stains. If dry stains steep in dilute solution of sodium thiosulphate. Wash ,rinse well & dry in sun.
Wash immediately when fresh. Soak & rub in glycerin & rinse well. Bleach if necessary. Wash , rinse well & dry in sun. MISCELLANEOUS STAINS Felt pen Sponge with methylated spirit face doen. Steep in warm solution of KMnO4 & oxalic acid alternately. Wash, rinse & dry in sun.
Bleach with warm solution of KMnO4 & 10% oxalic acid alternately. Wash rinse & dry in sun. Chewing gum Sponge with grease solvent face down. Sponge with ice. Bleach if necessary. Wash rinse & dry in sun
Coal tar Sponge with solvent face down. Rub in kerosene oil. Wash & rinse in hot soapy solution. Bleach if necessary. Wash rinse & dry in sun. Mud Scrap off dry deposits. Wash off with soapy solution. Bleach in hot solution of KMnO4 & oxalic acid alternately. Wash rinse & dry in sun.
pencil Wash with dilute ammonia solution after a hot soapy solution. Wash rinse & dry in sun. use bleach if necessary. Scorch Bleach with H2O2 . Keep it steeped for few minutes. Soak in sodium carbonate with some detergent (2-3 hrs). Rinse well & dry in sun.
Steep in kerosene. Rub firmly. Rinse well & dry in sun.
STAIN REMOVING MACHINES Stain
removing machine works on the cold spotting principle. Can be operated even by unskilled worker. Easy availability of spare & comprehensive service. Stainless steel body prevents rust & distortion of fabric. Indigenous machine with imported spares.