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engleza incepatori

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LIMBA ENGLEZATraim intr-un secol al comunicarii. Indiferent de locul in care ne aflam, suntem permanent conectati cu lumea. La scoala, la serviciu sau in calatorii avem nevoie de cunoasterea limbii engleze pentru a putea comunica oriunde, cu oricine, in cele mai diverse scopuri. Tocmai de aceea, cursul de comunicare in limba engleza este propus pentru toti aceia care vor sa se bucure de cunoasterea celei mai utilizare limbi din lume si sa o foloseasca in mod curent.Structura cursului permite asimilarea rapida a cuvintelor noi si a elementelor gramaticale, astfel incat participantii la ore, intr-o perioada de timp relativ scurta, sa poata sustine o conversatie uzuala pe teme de interes general.Modul 1Formule de salut-GreetingsHello; Good morning; Good afternoon; Good evening; Good night; Good bye;Introduction:Hello! How are you?My name is..../Whats your name?/How old are you?/Where are you from?Numeralul cardinal :

zero = zero = 0one = unu = 1two = doi = 2three = trei = 3four = patru = 4five = cinci = 5six = sase = 6seven = sapte = 7eight = opt = 8nine = noua = 9ten = zece = 10

Atentie la o deosebire de limba romana. In limba engleza se foloseste virgula in locul punctului din romana.

hundred = suta = 100thousand = mie = 1,000million = milion = 1,000,000

Astfel ceea ce scriem in romana 1,7 - in engleza vom scrie 1.7 = one point seven.

Numeralul ordinal :

first = prim; second = al doilea third = al treilea; a treia

De la patru in sus , numealul ordinal se formeaza din numeralul cardinal + th (dar atentie ca -y se inlocuieste ci - ieth ).

fourth = al patrulea fifth = al cincilea sixth = al saselea seventh = al saptelea eighth = al optulea ninth = al noualea tenth = al zecelea eleventh = al unsprezecelea twelfth = al doisprezecelea thirteenth = al treisprezeceleatwentieth = al douazecilea thirtieth = al treizecileafiftieth = al cincecilea

Datele se exprima in limba engleza cu numeralul ordinal :The first of May sau May the first

Numeralul multiplicativ :

once = o data;twice = de doua ori;

De la trei in sus , numeralele multiplicative se formeaza din cel cardinal + times

three times = de trei orifour times = de patru ori

Numeralele fractionale :

one whole = un intreg (o unitate)one half = o jumatate = 1/2one third = o treime = 1/3one quarter = un sfert, o patrime = 1/4one tenth = o zecime = 1/10

The Family -Familia

grandmotherbunicagrandfatherbunic

uncleunchimothermama

fathertataauntmatusa

cousinvarsister-in-lawcumnata

brotherfratesistersora

brother-in-lawcumnathusbandsot

nephewnepot (de unchi)niecenepoata (de unchi )

daughterfiica sonfiu

People and relationships

womanfemeie manbarbat

husbandsotwifesotie

babybebelusparentsparinti

childrencopiiboybaiat

girlfatagrandparentsbunici

granddaughternepoatagrandsonnepot

JOBS-Locuri de Muncaaccountant

actor

air steward

architect

personal assistant

shop assistant

author

baker

barman / barmaid / bar person

builder

businessman / businesswoman / executive

butcher

caretaker

chef

civil servant

clerk

computer operator / programmer

cook

dentist

designer

company director

film director

doctor

driver bus / taxi / train driver

garbageman (refuse collector)

economist

editor

electrician

engineer

farmer

fisherman

flight attendant

hairdresser

head teacher

jeweler

journalist

judge

lawyer

manager

miner

musician

news reader / news presenter

nurse

optician

painter

photographer

pilot

plumber

police officer

politician

printer

prison officer / warder

receptionist

sailor

salesman / saleswoman /salesperson

scientist

secretary

soldier

surgeon

tailor

teacher

travel agent

TV cameraman

TV presenter

vet

waiter

writer

Travel Airairport

check-in

fly

land

landing

plane

take off

Travel - General Related Wordsdestination

journey

passenger

route

travel

travel agent

trip

Travel - Holidayscamp

go camping

charger flight

cruise

excursion

(youth) hostel

hotel

luggage

motel

package holiday

self-catering holiday

sightseeing

go sightseeing

suitcase

tour

tourism

tourist

vacation

Travel - Landbicycle

bike

bus

bus station

car

coach

coach station

lane

motorbike

motorway

rail

go by rail

railway

railway station

road

main road

minor road

taxi

traffic

train

tube

underground

subway

Travel - Seaboat

crossing

ferry

port

sail

sea

set sail

ship

voyage

Travel - Verbsboard (boat / plane)

go by

go on board

get on board

hitch-hike

set off

GRAMATICA-GRAMMARConjugarea verbului To Be (a fi) la afirmativSINGULARI am- eu suntYou are- tu estiHe is- el esteShe is- ea esteIt is- el/ea estePLURALWe are- noi suntemYou are- voi suntetiThey are- ei sunt/ele sunt FORMELE DE AFIRMATIV, INTEROGATIV SI NEGATIVForma de interogativ:Se obtine fcnd inversiunea ntre subiect/pronume personal si verbul Be, la singular sau plural.Exemple:You are - Are you?He is- Is he?Mary is - Is Mary/is she?It is - Is it ?They are - Are they?Substantivul

Substantivul, in limba engleza, are patru genuri:

- genul masculin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen masculin (boy, man, son , brother, king)- genul feminin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen feminin (woman, mother, girl, wife, sister)- gen neutru = substantivele care denumesc obiecte si animale (dog, , purse, window, cat)- genul comun = substantivele care au aceeasi forma atat la masculin cat si la feminin (teacher, doctor, friend, author)

Deosebirea dintre substantivele feminine si masculine se face astfel:

- se folosesc forme diferite pentru feminin si masculin :

FemininMasculinaunt = matusauncle = unchidaughter = fiicason = fiugirl = fataboy = baiathen = gainacock = cocosnice = nepoatanephew = nepotsister = sorabrother = fratemother = mamafather = tatawife = sotie husband = sotwoman = femeieman = barbat

- se adauga un sufix: prince - princessactor - actresswaiter - waitress

- pentru locuitorii unei tari, terminate in sh si ch, genul persoanei se indica folosind cuvintele: man si woman. an Englishman - an Englishwoman a Romanianmam - a Romanianwoman

Pluralul substantivelor :

1)- In general se realizeaza adaugand "-s" la substantivul la singular:cat + "s" = cats dog + "s" = dogs

2)- pentru substantivele terminate in "s", "x", "sh", "ch","zh", "z" sau "j" pluralul se

formeaza adugand "-es" sau "-s", daca substantivul se termina in "e" mut.bus + "es" = buses box + "es" = boxes dish + "es" = dishes church + "es" = churches mirage + "s" = mirages prize + "s" = prizes bridge + "s" = bridges

3)- a) - pentru substantive terminate in "y" pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand

"-s", daca "y" final este precedat de o vocala(a, e, i, o, u). boy + "s" = boys

- b) - pentru substantivele terminate in "y", unde "y" final este precedat de o consoana,

pluralul substantivelor se formeaza astfe: se transforma "y" in "i" si apoi se

adauga "-es"baby - y + "s" = babies

4)- a) - pentru substantivele terminate in "o", pluralul substantivelor se formeaza

adaugand "-s", daca "o" este precedat de o vocala (a, e, i, o, u).radio + "s" = radios

- b) - pentru substantivele terminate in "o", unde "o" este precedat de o consoana,

pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-es". tomato + "es" = tomatoes

Atentie : - pentru substantivele legate (referitoare) de muzica - pot forma

pluralul adaugand "-s", chiar daca "o" este precedat de o consoanapiano + "s" = pianos

5)-pentru substantivele terminate in "f" sau "fe", pluralul substantivelor se face

adaugand "-s".roof + "s" = roofs giraffe + "s" = giraffes

- Exista exceptii la aceasta regula.Unele substantive terminate in "f" sau "fe" fac

pluralul schimband pe "f" in "-ves". Iara aceste exceptii :calf - calves = vitel/ viteielf- elves = spiridusi/ihalf - halves = jumatate/jumatatiknife - knives = cutit/cutiteleaf - leaves = frunza/frunzeloaf - loaves = franzela,paine/franzelelife - lives = viata/vietipenknife - penknife = briceag/bricegesheaf - sheaves = snop/snopistaff - staves = portativscarf - scarves = esarfa, fular/esarfe,fulare - dar si scarfsself - selves = ins, fiintashelf - shelves = raft/rafturithief - thieves = hot/hotiwolf - wolves = lup/lupiwife - wives = sotie/sotii

6)- urmatoarele substantive nu respecta nici o regula in formarea pluralelor :SingularPlural

algaalgae

alumnaalumnae

alumnusalumni

antenna (on a bug's head)antennae

antenna (on a television)anten