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Poster explaining hydrotreated biodiesel process.
Rizki E.1,2, Evita Emaniatin P. R.1, Zarrah Duniani1 & R. Sutontro1
1PT Pertamina (Persero), Research & Development - Refining DirectorateJl. Raya Bekasi KM20, Pulogadung, East Jakarta13920 - [email protected]
IntroductionThe use of alternative, sustainable resources of energy for the transportation sector has been increasing as a consequence of the concern over limited fossil fuel resources and global warming from CO2 emissions. Nowadays the main biodiesel fuel product are FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) derived from palm oil. This type of fuel have some disadvantages which limit its use in an unmodified diesel engine. Indonesia is one of the biggest palm oil producer and exporter. Realizing this fact, Pertamina has started to develop a process to convert vegetable oil into biodiesel. The process function is to remove oxygen to transform renewable organic material into pure hydrocarbon (n-parafin), which is basically the same component as those present in fossil derived diesel fuel, eliminating all limitation related to FAME. Isomerization step is required to further enhance the cold properties of the fuel produced, which is critical in an engine cold start up in cold climate countries, by transforming some of the n-parafin into iso-parafin. This process has a promising future to be easily integrated into an existing refinery infrastructure.
MethodsUsing two hydroprocessing pilot plant which incorporate hydroteating and hydroisomerization catalyst, we were able to produce biodiesel from crude palm oil. Liquid product are checked with capilary column gas chromatography with FID detector and confirmed that it consist of parafin molecules. Gas product are checked with packed column GC Refinery Gas Analyzer.
Hydrotreating catalyst are Ni-Mo based with gamma alumina support which composition are checked using X-Ray Fluorescence. Surface area tested to be 207 m2/g, pore volume 0.38 cc/g, and Average pore diameter 73 . All testing are done according to ASTM D3663, D4222 and D4641 respectively. Hydroisomerization catalyst are Pt based catalyst. Hydrotreating is run at 330C, 30 Kg/cm2 pressure, and LHSV of 1 H-1 and H2/HC 1000 nm3/m3, while hydroisomerization is run at 360C, 5 Kg/cm2, LHSV 2.6 H-1, and H2/HC 11.54 nm3/m3.
Biodiesel Production by Hydrotreating & Hydroisomerization
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Product & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed Characterization
Crude Palm Oil
Fossil Diesel Specification
Lauric acid %wt 0.247
Miristic acid %wt 1.316
Palmitic acid %wt 23.115
Stearic acid %wt 1.56
Oleic acid %wt 65.335
Linoleic acid %wt 4.117
Sulfur content %wt 0.05 (max)
Distillation T90 C 301.27* 297.67* 340 (max)
Distillation T95 C 299.64* 295.74* 360 (max)
Final Boiling Point C 324.68* 323.1* 370 (max)
Pour Point C 18 -9 18 (max)
Density kg/m3 904 778 758 820-860
*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887
triglyceride hydrogenated triglyceride
Flow control N2
Operating ConditionOperating ConditionOperating ConditionOperating Condition
Temperature C 330 360
Pressure kg/cm2 30 5
LHSV H-1 1 2.6
H2/HC nm3/m3 1000 11.54
Loading Density g/L 750 680
Hydroprocessing Pilot Plant
Catalyst CharacterizationCatalyst CharacterizationCatalyst CharacterizationCatalyst Characterization
Surface Area mm2/g 260.2 207
Pore Volume cc/g 0.56 0.38
Avg. Pore Diameter 85.68 73
Crushing Strength Kg Conf.
Diameter mm 2.03 - 2.07 2.03 - 2.07
Attrition Loss %wt 0.0408 - 0.0422
Ni content %wt Conf.
Mo content %wt Conf.
Si content %wt Conf.
P content %wt Conf.
Hydrocarbon %wt 75.26 85.34
Water %wt 9.47
C6+ %wt 0.08
Methane %wt 0.03
Ethane %wt 0.14 0.07
Propane %wt 2.52 7.73
n-Butane %wt 4.05
n-Pentane %wt 1.15
CO2 %wt 2.27