T E N S E S 7-Detaljno

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TENSES _________________________________________________________ PRESENT PAST FUTURE _________________________________________________________ present past future simple simple simple simple _________________________________________________________ present past continuous continuous continuous ..... _________________________________________________________ present past perfect perfect perfect ..... _________________________________________________________ perfect continuous ..... ...... ...... _________________________________________________________ Ukrtanjem kolona i redova dobijaju se nazivi 12 osnovnih vremena

CITAJ DALJE, DOLE!

TENSESkao glagol punog znaenja (kao i svi ostali): initi, raditi glagol DO ima dva znaenja kao pomoni glagol: DO, DOES, DID (zavisi za koje vreme) PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE (sadanje prosto vreme) podsetnik: -(e)s -do, does

gradjenje: INFINITIV (=glagol) za sva lica jednine i mnoine, osim za 3. lice jednine za 3. lice jednine (he, she, it): INFINITIV + (E)S potvrdna reenica jednina I make a cake You make a cake He (she, it) makes a cake mnoina We make a cake You make a cake They make a cake odrina reenica I do not (dont) make a cake You do not (dont) make a cake He does not (doesnt) make a cake (make nema s, to s je dodato na -do) We do not (dont) make a cake You do not (dont) make a cake They do not (dont) make a cake

Pomoni glagol DO se ne prevodi, ali! ODREDJUJE VREME U KOME GOVORIMO. Da nema DO (ili DOES), mi ne bi smo znali vreme u kome govorimo! upitna reenica Do I make a cake? Do you make a cake? Does he make a cake? Do we make a cake? Do you make a cake? Do they make a cake?

U upitnim reenicama DO i DOES se prevodi: DA LI. Ako ispred ima upitna re: what, where, why onda se DO i DOES ne prevodi nikako: WHAT DO we make? (ta mi pravimo?). Tada opet samo odredjuje vreme u kome govorimo.

VANO! ISPRED: NOT UVEK IDE POMONI GLAGOL (do ili does). On se ne prevodi, aliODREDJUJE VREME U KOME GOVORIMO!

UPOTREBA: 1. Za uobiajenu (ponekad svakodnevnu) radnju u sadanjosti He works in a bank I learn every day We go to the Belgrade every year 2. Za radnju koja se ponavlja (navike) I always get up at 8 oclock 3. Za injenice i optepoznate istine The Earth is around Fish lives in the water 4. Za radnju koja e se desiti u budunosti po utvrdjenom rasporedu PRILOKE ODREDBE koje se esto koriste u ovom vremenu: sometimes, usually, often, always, never PRILOZI: EVERY day, month, week, year KAKO DODAVATI nastavak S ili ES za 3. lice jednine? Na glagol se doda samo nastavak s, osim u sledeim sluajevima: 1. Glagoli koji se zavravaju na: S, SS, Z, X, CH, SH , dobijaju nastavak ES (tada se on ita: iz). Primer: WASHES, KISSES 2. Ako se glagol zavrava na Y ispred koga je suglasnik, Y se menja u I pa se dodaje ES: carry carries cry cries 3. Ako se glagol zavrava na Y ispred koga je samoglasnik, tada se samo dodaje S. play plays say says 4. na glagole DO i GO dodaje se ES. : does, goes (znai, to je mimo pravila!) 5. Nastavak s uopte nemaju modalni glagoli: can, must, may (oni su isti za sva lica jednine i mnoine!) 6. Na glagol HAVE (imati) se ne dodaje S! Za njega ne vai pravilo dodavanja S! ALI! za 3. lice jednine ima oblik HAS! (tokom vremena have+s formiralo je drugaiji izgovor i pisanje. ZNAI: He haves a book NE VALJA!!! Treba: He HAS a book.

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VEBE: Napravi odrini i upitni oblik datih reenica: 1. I speak English very well. 2. Ana meets her friend every morning. 3. We like to watch TV. Napravi Present Simple: 1. He ____________ his job every day. (finish) 2. They __________ to England every year. (not, go) 3. John ___________ a new car. (have) 4. John ___________ a new car. (not, have) 5. She ______________ swimm. (can) 6. He often __________ to London. (go) 7. Mary _____________ that. (do) ta je pogreno: 1. I not go home every day. 2. He does not works today. 3. Peter and Tom does not work. 4. John love Ana but Ana not love John. 5. He does not learns English.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (trajno sadanje vreme) podsetnik: gradjenje: BE + INFINITIV + ING sadanje vreme od glagola BE - biti (sam,si,je,smo,ste,su) pomoni glagoli AM/IS/ARE + INFINITIV + ING 1.lice jednine 3.lice jednine sva lica mnoine odrina reenica I am not making a cake You are not making a cake He is not making a cake We You They are not making a cake am/is/are + ING

potvrdna reenica jednina I am (Im) making a cake You are (youre) making a cake He is (hes) making a cake mnoina We are (were) making a cake You are making a cake They are (theyre) making a cake

upitna reenica Am I making a cake? Are you making a cake? Is he making a cake? we Are you making a cake? they U upitnim reenicama AM, IS i ARE se prevodi: DA LI. Ako ispred ima upitna re: what, where, why onda se ne prevode: WHAT are you making? (ta vi pravite?).

VANO! nastavak ING dodaje se na glagol u svim continuous vremenima! Ne gubi se ni uodrinim ni u upitnim reenicama! Pomoni glagoli AM, IS i ARE takodje ostaju u svim reenicama. To je, u stvari, SADANJE VREME od glagola -BE (biti): sam, si je, smo, ste, su Zbog toga, na primer, reenice: We are pupils. You are a god boy. I am happy. NISU U PRESENT CONTINUOUSU! ve u PRESENT SIMPLE tensu, poto nema nigde nastavka -ING jer je BE glavni glagol (a AM/IS/ARE je sadanje vreme od BE). -3-

UPOTREBA 1. Radnja je u toku dok se o njoj govori, ili se deava u ogranienom periodu u sadanjosti. I am studying English (sad, ovog momenta, ali i izvesno vreme, kontinuirano) I am writing the letters. esti prilozi: NOW, AT THE MOMENT, mada ne mora da bude ni jedan prilog, jer sama upotreba ovog vremena govori kada se radnja deava (sad!) 2. Za radnju koja se ponavlja (nervira, dosadna je). esto uz ALWAYS I am always working. You are always asking questions! 3. Za dogovorenu radnju u bliskoj budunosti He is coming tomorrow. I am playing tennis on Saturday. Kako se dodaje nastavak ING? Dodaje se na glagol bez ikakvih promena, osim u sluajevima: 1. Ako se glagol zavrava na E koje se ne izgovara u itanju (make, write), to E se gubi i dodaje se ING. WRITE WRITING MAKE MAKING 2. Ako se glagol zavrava suglasnikom ispred koga je kratak samoglasnik, suglasnik se udvostruava. RUN RUNNING GET GETTING *** Glagoli koji ne predstavljaju radnju kao proces, tj. nisu pod ljudskom kontrolom i odvijaju se hteli mi to ili ne, ne upotrebljavaju se u continuous vremenima. To su, na pr. sledei glagoli: understand, know, want, wish, hear, see, remember, forget, believe, hate, love, think, have, look, hope MEDJUTIM! Ako neke od tih glagola upotrebljavamo u izmenjenom znaenju, tada mogu da se upotrebljavaju u continuous vremenima. Pr. I am having dinner. (Ja veeram) Ovde HAVE ne znai IMATI, nije posesiv! (prisvajanje)

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VEBE: Napii odrini i upitni oblik datih reenica: 1. I am working. 2. Tom and Jane are going to school. 3. He is learning now. Napravi Present Continuous: 1. What ______ you _________ now? (do) 2. They _______________ football. (not, play) 3. While they ____________ , Ann __________ . (write, talk) ta je pogreno? 1. I not go home now. 2. They are speak English. 3. What are you do, Tom? 4. He writes now.

PAST SIMPLE (prolo prosto vreme) podsetnik: gradjenje: INFINITIV + (e)d za PRAVILNE glagole + II kolona za NEPRAVILNE glagole Svi nepravilni glagoli se nalaze u tabeli nepravilnih glagola. Zato su nepravilni? Zato to im ne moemo dodati nastavak ed da bi smo izgradili prolo vreme, ve koristimo njihovu 2. kolonu (past simple). Imaju i 3. kolonu past participle, koja gradi perfect vremena (ako ne gradi vreme, onda je obini pridev). Drugu kolonu koristimo SAMO U POTVRDNOJ reenici u Past Simple i NIGDE VIE!!! Ako ne prepoznamo nepravilne glagole, ne moemo izgraditi past simple! I -DO je nepravilan glagol: do-did-done (a -did je pomoni glagol u ovom vremenu) potvrdna reenica (za PRAVILAN glagol: play) I You He played a game We You They odrina reenica I You He did not (didnt) play a game We You glagol se vraa u infinitiv They potvrdna reenica (za NEPRAVILAN glagol: make) I you He made a cake we 2. kolona you they odrina reenica I You He did not make a cake We You glagol se vraa u infinitiv they - /e/d (II kolona) - did

Pomocni glagol DID se ne prevodi, ali ODREDJUJE VREME U KOME GOVORIMO! Zato i ispred NOT uvek stoji pomoni glagol (did)! upitna reenica upitna reenica I I you you he he DID play a game? DID make a cake? we we you you U upitnoj reenici se DID prevodi: da li. Ako ima upitna re, tad se ne prevodi ve odredjuje vreme u kom govorimo. (What did you make? ta ste pravili?) -5-

UPOTREBA 1. Radnja se dogodila i zavrila u odredjenom vremenskom periodu u prolosti (znamo KAD! i bitno je KAD) i nema veze sa sadanjou. este priloke odredbe: yesterday, last week (year), ago, in 1990 I met him yesterday (met je 2.kol od meet) He saw me two days ago (saw je 2.kol. od see) It happened in 1990 Kako se dodaje NASTAVAK (E)D? 1. Ako se glagol zavrava na E koje se ne izgovara, samo se dodaje D. LIVE LIVED LIKE - LIKED 2. Ako se jednosloni glagol glagol zavrava na suglasnik ispred koga je samoglasnik, poslednji suglasnik se udvaja pre dodavanja ed. STOP - STOPPED PLAN - PLANNED 3. Ako se glagol zavrava na Y ispred koga je suglasnik, Y se menja u I pa se dodaje ed. TRY - TRIED CRY - CRIED STUDY - STUDIED 4. Ako se glagol zavrava na Y ispred koga je samoglasnik, samo se dodaje - ED STAY STAYED PLAY PLAYED ** Nastavak ED ita se T ili D. ID se ita samo ako je dodat na glagol koji se zavrava na T ili D a to je u malom broju sluajeva (want-wanted: ita se wontid drugaije ni ne moe!! VANO! Ispred NOT UVEK IDE POMONI GLAGOL (DID). On se ne prevodi, ali ODREDJUJE VREME U KOME GOVORIMO! II kolona nepravilnih glagola koristi se SAMO u POTVRDNOJ reenici, samo u ovom vremenu, i NIGDE VIE!!

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VEBE: Napravi odrini i upitni oblik datih reenica: 1. They went to the cinema. 2. I played the football game yesterday. 3. He did it! Na