Terrestrial Biodiversity t Thukral

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    PRESENTATION ONTERRESTRIAL

    BIODIVERSITY

    Presented By

    Twinkle Thukral

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    PREVIEW

    INTRODUCTION TO TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.

    TYPES OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.

    FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE OF DIVERSITY.

    IMPORTANCE OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.

    CAUSES OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY LOSSES.

    TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA.

    IMPACT OF LOSS OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.

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    INTRODUCTION TO

    TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY

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    WHAT IS

    BIODIVERSITY ?Refers to the numbers, variety and variabilityof living organisms and ecosystem.

    Includes all terrestrial, marine and otheraquatic organisms.

    Covers diversity within species, betweenspecies as well as variations amongecosystems.

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    WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?

    v It is virtually synonymous with Life onearth.

    v Biologists most often define "biological

    diversity" or "biodiversity" as the "totality ofgenes, species, and ecosystems of a region".

    v The biodiversity found on Earth today consistsof many millions of distinct biological species,

    which is the product of nearly 3.5 billion yearsof evolution.

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    TYPES OF

    TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY

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    TYPES OF TERRESTRIAL

    BIODIVERSITY

    Genetic diversity

    Species diversity

    Ecos stem diversit

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    GENETIC DIVERSITY

    v It is a level of biodiversity that refers to the totalnumber of genetic characteristics in the geneticmakeup of a species.

    v It is distinguished from genetic variability, which

    describes the tendency of genetic characteristics tovary.

    SPECIES DIVERSITYv It refers to the variety of species within a region.

    v Species diversity is an index that incorporates thenumber of species in an area and also their relative

    abundance.

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    ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY

    vEcosystem diversity refers to the diversity of a placeat the level of ecosystems. This has 3 perspective:

    vAlpha Diversity: Within community diversity. Alphadiversity refers to the diversity of organisms sharingthe same Community/Habitat.

    vBeta Diversity: Between community diversity. Itrefers to the diversity of organisms sharing two

    habitat.

    vGamma Diversity : Diversity of the habitat over thetotal landscape or geographical area is called gammadiversity

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    FACTORS DETERMININGDEGREE OFTERRESTRIAL

    BIODIVERSITY

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    FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREEOF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

    Habitat stress

    Geographical isolation

    Dominance by one species

    Availability of ecological niches

    Edge effectGeological history

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    DESERTS

    - Is an area where evaporation exceeds precipitation.- Cover about 30% of the earths surface.- Found about 30 north and 30 south of the equator .

    1. Tropical deserta) Temperatures are high year round

    b) Little precipitation concentrated on 1-2 months.

    Sahara desert

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    2. Temperate deserts

    a) Daytime temperatures high in summer and low in winter.b) More rain than tropical desert.

    Mojave desert, CA

    Grand canyonNevada and Utah deserts.

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    3. Cold desert

    a) Summers are hot, winters are cold

    b) Precipitation is low

    Gobi desert, China

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    GRASSLANDS- Regions with enough precipitation to allow grasses to prosper, but

    precipitation is erratic and periods of drought and fires prevent large

    stands of trees to grow.

    1. Tropical grasslands and savannaa) High average temperatures.b) Low to moderate precipitationc) Prolonged dry season.

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    2. Temperate grasslands

    a) Winters are extremely cold.

    b) Summers are hot and dry.

    c) Annual precipitation is sparse and falls unevenly through outthe year.

    - Found in: a) plain and rolling hills of interior North and SouthAmerica( pampas),b) Steppes of central Europe and Asia.

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    3. Polar grasslands or arctic tundra

    a) Treeless plains.

    b) Extremely cold.c) Swept by frigid winds.d) Covered with ice and snow.

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    FORESTS- Areas with moderate to high precipitation with no disturbances.- A large area of land covered in trees and plants growing close together.

    1. Tropical rain foresta) Warm annual mean annual temperature.b) High humidity.c) Heavy rainfall almost daily.

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    2. Tropical deciduous forests

    a) Warm year round.

    b) Clear dry and rainy seasons.c) Trees loose their leaves during the dry season.d) Trees are shorter than the Tropical rain forest.

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    3. Temperate deciduous forests.a) Long warm summers.b) Cold winters.c) Abundant precipitation spread evenly throughout the year.

    - Broadleaf deciduous trees such as oak, hickory, maple, poplar andSycamore.

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    4. Evergreen coniferous forests or boreal forests or taigasa) Found just south of the arctic tundra in America, Europe and

    Asia.

    5. Temperate rain forest (coastal coniferous forests).a) Found in scattered coastal temperate areas with ample rainfall and

    dense ocean fogs. Mostly coast of USA and Canada.b) Typical species include: Douglas fir,

    redwoods.

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    MOUNTAINS

    - They cover 20% of the land surface.- Many mountains or group of mountains are islands ofbiodiversity .

    - The majority of forest in the world are in mountains.- Antarctica is the most mountainous of all continents.

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    IMPORTANCE OF

    TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY

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    IMPORTANCE OF

    TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

    Biodiversity has contributed in manyways to the development of humanculture, and, in turn, human communitieshave played a major role in shaping the

    diversity of nature at the genetic, species,and ecological levels.

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    IMPORTANT ROLE OF TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY

    Ecological Role.

    Economic Role.

    Scientific Role.

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    ECOLOGICAL ROLE

    All species provide at least one function inan ecosystem. Each function is an integralpart of regulating the species balance,

    species diversity and species health: allaspects which are intrinsic for theecosystem as a whole to survive and

    prosper .

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    ECONOMIC ROLE

    Food: Crop Biodiversity or agrobiodiversity.

    Goods: Various things like timber, paper ,medicines etc.

    Recreation:Wildlife tourism, trekkingnature photography,birdwatching.

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    SCIENTIFIC ROLE

    Genetic resources: Biotechnologyand genetic engineering use the genesof organisms to make new crops and

    medicines.

    Each species can give scientist someclue as to how life evolved and will

    continue to evolve.

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    CAUSES OF TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY LOSSES

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    CAUSES OF TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY LOSSES

    Destruction of biodiversity rich areas liketropical forests.

    Destruction of coral reefs and Wetlands.Ploughing of grasslands.

    Destruction of Ecosystem.

    Pollution of freshwater streams, lakes, andmarine habitats.

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    OTHER CAUSES OF DECLINE

    Over-exploitation of resources.

    Construction of large dams.

    Commercial hunting andpoaching.

    THREATS TO TERRESTRIAL

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    THREATS TO TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY

    v In last century, human impact has been so severe

    that thousands of species and varieties are becomingextinct annually. Some of the main causes are:

    v Habitat loss, degradation, fragmentation:

    v Habitat loss & degradation are major causes of

    species extinction, affecting 89% of all threatenedbirds, 83% of mammals & 91% of all threatenedplants assessed globally (IUCN, 2000)

    v The main causes of habitat are agriculture activities,

    Mining, development of human settlement, industryetc.

    v According to ICUN,UNEP report, more than 50%of wildlife habitat has been destroyed in 49 outof 61 old world tropical countries.

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    INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC SPECIES

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    v INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC SPECIES:

    v Organisms introduced into habitats where they are notnative are termed as exotics.

    v They can be thought of as Biological Pollutants and areconsidered to be among the most damaging agents ofhabitat alteration and degradation the world.

    v CLIMATE CHANGE:A changing global climate threatens species andecosystems.

    v The distribution of species (biogeography) is largely

    determined by climate.v Climate change may simply shift these distributions

    but, for a number of reasons, plants and animals maynot be able to adjust.

    MAJOR CAUSES OF THE DESTRUCTION

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    MAJOR CAUSES OF THE DESTRUCTIONAND DEGRADATION OF TROPICAL

    FORESTS

    Basic Causes Secondary Causes Not valuing ecological services Roads Cattle ranching

    Crop and timber exports Fires Logging

    Government policies Settler farming Tree plantations

    Poverty Cash crops

    Population growthCattleranching

    Treeplantations

    Logging

    Cash crops

    SettlerfarmingFiresRoads

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    TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY IN INDIA

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    TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY ININDIAThar desert - The climate

    and vegetation in this areais a contrast to the

    Himalayan region.

    Western Ghats - One of the twobiodiversity hotspots in India.

    Sunder bans - The largest

    mangrove forest in India.

    Himalayas - This majestic range ofmountains is the home of a diverse range

    of flora and fauna. Eastern Himalayas isone of the two biodiversity hotspots inIndia.

    Chilika - This wetlandarea is protected underthe Ramsar convention.

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    IS THE BIODIVERSITY OF

    INDIA UNDER THREAT?

    10%of Indias plant species are

    under threat.More than 150 medicinal plantshave disappeared in recent

    decades.About 10% of floweringplants,20% of mammals and 5%of the birds are threatened.

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    IMPACT OF LOSS OFTERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITY

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    IMPACT OF LOSS OF

    TERRESTRIALBIODIVERSITYIncreased vulnerability of speciesextinction.

    Ecological imbalance.

    Reduced sources of food, structuralmaterials, medicinal and geneticresources.

    Cost increase to the societ .

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    Runoff of eroded soil into aquaticsystems.

    Premature extinction of specieswith specialized niches.

    Loss of habitat for native species

    and migratory species such as birdsand butterflies.

    Re ional climate chan e from

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    WHAT CAN YOU

    DO?

    WHAT CAN YOU DO?

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    WHAT CAN YOU DO?Adopt a forest.

    Plant trees and take care of them.

    Recycle paper and buy recycled paper products.

    Buy sustainably produced wood and wood products.

    Choose wood substitutes such as bamboo furniture,

    fencing & recycled plastic outdoor furniture.Help to restore a nearby degraded forest or grassland.

    Landscape your yard with a diversity of plants naturalto the area.

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    A SURPRISE !

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