Terrestrial Biodiversity UNEP presentation

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  • 8/13/2019 Terrestrial Biodiversity UNEP presentation


    Terrestrial Biodiversity

    Eleni, David, Hailey

  • 8/13/2019 Terrestrial Biodiversity UNEP presentation


    Many ways to definebiodiversity

    Variety of plants, animals, andmicroorganisms

    Diversity at many levels Genes Species Ecosystems


  • 8/13/2019 Terrestrial Biodiversity UNEP presentation


    Anthropogenic Threats to Biodiversity

    Habitat destruction



    Invasive species

    Human-induced climate change

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    Problems in creating an effective regime

    Definition of the problem

    Application of the principle of national sovereignty

    vs. the principle of the common heritage ofhumankind

    Resistance to strong legal obligations by developingstates (high biodiversity)

    Inconsistent support from US and otherindustrialized states

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    Convention on Biological Diversity

    Formal negotiations: 5 sessions, July 1991 - May 1992

    Signed by 153 countries at 1992 Earth Summit

    Three objectives: Conservation of biological diversity Sustainable use of its components

    Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of

    the use of genetic resources

    Party obligations: Inventory and monitor biodiversity

    Incorporate concepts into national strategies and

    economic development

    Preserve indigenous conservation practices

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    Implementation Issues

    Comprehensive approach (as opposed to sectoral)

    Encompasses socio-economic issues Sharing of benefits from use of genetic resources Biosafety

    Solution: the COP requires certain implementationactions and negotiated protocols to establish concrete


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    Efforts to strengthen the regime

    Seven work programs in critical areas

    Current conservation measures are largely

    ineffective, lack precise language

    Work programs are main ways parties implementconvention commitments

    Guidelines for national implementation Identify tasks to be implemented at intl level Opportunities for collaboration with other treaties

    Still not coherent and no way to monitorimplementation at national level

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    Failure to meet goals

    Did not meet global goals to reducebiodiversity loss

    Why? Insufficient implementation of the convention

    Did not integrate biodiversity issues into broader


    Lack of attention to underlying drivers of

    biodiversity loss

    Insufficient inclusion of benefits of biodiversity in

    economic systems

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    Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Entered into force September 2003

    Countries must take precautionary measures to

    prevent LMOs (living modified organisms) from

    causing harm to biodiversity and human health

    Nagoya Protocol Access to Genetic Resourcesand Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits

    Arising from Their Utilization Adopted in October 2010

    Intended to clarify and implement the third objective

    of the CBD

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    Convention on Wetlands ofInternational Importance (Ramsar)

    is an intergovernmental treaty that provides theframework for national action and internationalcooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands

    and their resources. (Ramsar)

    wise use principle focuses on one ecosystem

    why wetlands?

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    Convention of Conservation of MigratorySpecies of Wild Animals (CMS)

    aims to conserve terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratoryspecies throughout their range. It is an intergovernmentaltreaty concerned with the conservation of wildlife and

    habitats on a global scale (CMS)

    Under the UNEP Organizes species into an appendix similar to CITES

    Special protections of particular species such asEuropean bats, cetaceans, seals in wadden sea, gorillas,and migratory waterbirds

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    Ecosystem Services?

    - Provisioning Services

    - Regulating Services

    - Supporting Services

    - Cultural Services

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    International Union for Conservation ofNature (IUCN)

    Central mission to conserve biodiversity anddemonstrate how biodiversity is fundamental inaddressing challenges such as climate change, sustainable

    development and food security (IUCN)

    top notch scientists set the red list which is acomprehensive, objective global approach for evaluating the

    conservation status of plant and animal species (red list)

    establishes a non biased and transparent index to monitorspecies and provide global context for local conservationactivity

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    Local Knowledge

    Each party required to respect, preserve and maintain

    knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and

    local communities (CBD).

    Comes from local and indigenous communities usuallytransmitted through generations orally

    Mainly deals with practical nature

    creates initiatives for better exchange and cross-fertilization between knowledge systems in an equal,legitimate, and transparent way, in order to supportmore sustainable ecosystem stewardship globally (localknowledge portal)

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  • 8/13/2019 Terrestrial Biodiversity UNEP presentation


    UN Convention to Combat Desertification

    To develop national andsubregional/regional action programs bynational governments in cooperation withdonors, local populations, and NGOs

    Recognizes: The physical, biological, and socioeconomic aspects

    of desertification

    The importance of redirecting technology transfer sothat it is demand-driven

    The importance of local populations in efforts to

    combat desertification

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    Bringing more scientific and technologicalinput into its operations Call for scientific-style conferences

    Uncertainty regarding the proper focus ofthe regime Environmental or development treaty?

    Fighting desertification or poverty?

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    Chasek, Pamela S., Downie, David L., and Brown, Janet Welsh. Global

    Environmental Politics, 6thed. Westview Press, 2014.


    Convention on Biological Diversity. "Article 8(j) - Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices."

    Article 8(j) - Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices. UNEP, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2013..

    Ramsar Convention. "The Ramsar Convention and Its Mission."Ramsar Convention. Danone-Evian

    Fund, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. .

    Convention on Migratory Species. "CMS Strategic Plan 2015-2023."Resolutions Adopted. UNEP, Nov.

    2011. Web. .

    "IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature."IUCN. N.p., July 2013. Web. 14 Oct.

    2013. .