The Country, The History & The Culture PALESTINE

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Slide 2 Slide 3 The Country, The History & The Culture PALESTINE Slide 4 Slide 5 Palestine Greek: , Palaistin ; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: Palestina; Arabic: Filasn, Falasn, Filisn) is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region that was earlier called Judea, which spreads between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. It is derived from a name used already much earlier for a narrower geographical region mainly along the coast., Slide 6 FLAG Slide 7 RED: The Khawarij were the first Islamic group to emerge after the assassination of Caliph Uthman III, forming the first republican party in the early days of Islam. Their symbol was the red flag. Arab tribes who participated in the conquest of North Africa and Andalusia carried the red flag, which became the symbol of the Islamic rulers of Andalusia (756-1355). In modern times, red symbolizes the Ashrafs of the Hijaz and the Hashemites, descendants of the Prophet. Sharif Hussein designed the current flag as the flag of the Arab Revolt on June 1916. The Palestinian people raised it as the flag of the Arab National movement in 1917. In 1947, the Arab Ba'ath Party interpreted the flag as a symbol of the liberation and unity of the Arab nation. The Palestinian people readopted the flag at the Palestinian conference in Gaza in 1948. The flag was recognized by the Arab League as the flag of the Palestinian people. It was further endorsed by the PLO, the representative of the Palestinians, at the Palestinian conference in Jerusalem in 1964. Slide 8 FLAG BLACK: The Prophet Mohammad (570-632) In the seventh century, with the rise of Islam and subsequent liberation of Mecca, two flags - one white, one black - were carried. On the white flag was written, "There is no god but God (Allah) and Mohammad is the Prophet of God." In pre-Islamic times, the black flag was a sign of revenge. It was the color of the headdress worn when leading troops into battle. Both black and white flags were placed in the mosque during Friday prayers. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258), ruling from Baghdad, took black as a symbol of mourning for the assassination of relatives of the Prophet and in remembrance of the Battle of Karbala. Slide 9 FLAG WHITE: The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750), Damascus The Umayyads ruled for ninety years, taking white as their symbolic color as a reminder of the Prophet's first battle at Badr, and to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, by using white, rather than black, as their color of mourning. Mu'awia Ibn Abi Sufian (661-750), founder of the Umayyad state, proclaimed himself Caliph of Jerusalem. GREEN: The Fatimid Dynasty (909-1171), North Africa The Fatimid Dynasty was founded in Morocco by Abdullah Al-Mahdi, and went on rule all of North Africa. They took green as their color, to symbolize their allegiance to Ali, the Prophet's cousin, who was once wrapped in a green coverlet in place of the Prophet in order to thwart an assassination attempt. Slide 10 CURRENCY Palestine Currency is that of pound which was previously the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine between the years of 1927 till 1948. The Palestine Currency of pound was used by the Emirate of Transjordan until the year of 1949 and by the West Bank until the year 1950. The Palestinian Pound is divided into one thousand mills. The currency of Palestine is issued by the Palestine currency Board. Slide 11 CURRENCY The Palestine Currency has its coins available in the denominations of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 mills. The notes belonging to the Palestinian Currency are available in the denominations of 500, 100, 50, 10, 5 and 1 pounds. The notes of the Currency of Pound are printed from the Thomas De La Rue. Slide 12 COSTUMES A collection of Palestinian Traditional Costumes. These items are representative of the different geographic regions in Palestine such as Bethlehem, Ramallah, Hebron, Bir al Sabe' etc Slide 13 COSTUMES Slide 14 Traditional Wedding Ceremony Slide 15 STAMPS This was the original postage stamp issued by the British Mandatory Government that occupied the Land Of Palestine until 1948. Slide 16 STAMPS The stamp shown has been very recently issued by the Palestinian Authority for their postal service in the areas Judea, Samaria and Gaza. It contains a reproduction of stamp that was once in use during the British Mandate of Palestine in the early to mid- 20th Century. The PLO has done the same with two other British Mandate stamps, the Dome Of The Rock on the Temple mount, and David's Tower featured below. Slide 17 MONUMENTS Hishams Palace Slide 18 Qasr Hisham (Hisham's Palace) is just five kilometres north of Jericho. The palace was a country residence, built in AD 743 by Al-Walid Ibn Yazid, although it owes its name to his uncle, the Umayyad caliph Hisham Ibn Abd Al-Malik, who ruled an empire stretching from India to the Pyrenees. Hisham, like most early Umayyad rulers, preferred the freedom of the desert to life in the capital city Damascus. The palace is a complex of residential quarters, baths, mosques, and colonnaded courts. Its mosaics and stucco ornaments are fine examples of early Islamic architecture. Experts believe that an earthquake destroyed the palace before it was completed. Thus the accumulated sand and debris helped to preserve the palace's lovely mosaics. The mosaic floors of the baths are a major attraction, but the Tree of Life or the Tree of Human Cruelty is one of the most beautiful mosaics in the Near East. Its vibrant green and gold colours are just astounding, as is its subject. Many of the carved stuccos from the palace are displayed at the Rockefeller Archaeological Museum in Jerusalem. Slide 19 Hishams Palace Slide 20 MONUMENTS El Omary Mosque in Gaza It was built during the first Islamic era, the Omary conquest Slide 21 MONUMENTS El Aqsa Mosque Slide 22 The Blessed El Aqsaa mosque is built south of the glorified Dome Rock and has an area of about 4400 square meters. It was built by the caliph Abdel Malek Ben Marouane in 693 A.D. It was completed by Al Walid Ben Abdel Malek in 705 A.D. on the site of the mosque of Omar Ben Al Khattab PUH, which was in the eastern part. The mosque is 70 meters long and 55 meters wide. It stands on 53 marble columns and 49 square-shaped pillars. When the crusaders occupied Al Quds they built a church on part of its grounds. They made of the other part lodging quarters for their horsemen and a storage for their provisions. But Salah Din repaired the mosque, renovated the mihrab and covered the dome with mosaic tiles. He also brought the minbar, which is made of wood and inlayed with ivory and ebony from Aleppo. He put it in the mosque as a symbol of victory. Slide 23 MONUMENTS El Aqsa Mosque Slide 24 Al Aqsaa mosque highlights the beauty of islamic decoration which is represented by the inside wooden dome, which is covered by beautifully gold- coloured three-dimensional and proportional herbal designs. The windows are surrounded by a design of inclined lines drawn on plaster. The glass is tinted in different colours, which prevents the direct entry of sun rays. This gives the mosque elegance and beauty, and inspires reverence and spirituality. The restoration of the mosque started immediately after it was burnt by the Israelis on 21/8/1969, and the traces of the fire were removed. Now, the inside dome is being restored, as well as the Quranic writings, and the Israa Surat which is spelled out in colored mosaics. It begins from the top of the mihrab and extends in the eastern direction for 24 meters. All the necessary decorative plans have been prepared to make a new minbar in replacement of the burnt minbar. Slide 25 The Rock Dome MONUMENTS Slide 26 The Rock Dome The caliph Abdel Malek Ben Marwan built the Honoured Rock Dome between 685-691 A.D., as a result of the stability witnessed by the Umayyad dynasty at that time and in order to gather all Muslims around it. The building was planned in such a way to be the focus of attention for all. In fact it is considered a masterpiece of islamic architecture throughout history. The diameter of the dome is 20.3 meters inside and its height is 20.48 meters. The elegance and beauty of the Blessed Rock dome has bewildered all the scientists and researchers who have tried to study it, and who see in it a combination of architectural beauty and arabic art, with the influence of byzantine style. It is doubtless that Arab, Roman and Byzantine artisans have all participated in its construction, under the supervision of Rajae Ben Hayat Al Kindi, one of the Arab scientists and Yazid Ben Sallam from Al Qods. In the construction of this dome a few philosophical considerations were made. Such considerations reside in the establishment of the general geographical situation of the city of Al Qods, and the particular geographical location in the yard of Al Haram Ash Sharif (Al Aqsaa mosque). It also resides in the direct location of the construction above the blessed dome, as were taken into consideration the artistic and technical requirements in the choice of the octagonal shape, and the central twin dome. Slide 27 The Rock Dome This used to be a current architectural style in Syria, especially the gates in the four directions, and the islamic writings which made one contemplate divine power and islamic wisdom, and the decorations of architectural and constructional mosaic designs (arabesques) which inspire ideal spiritual purity. This has left a big influence in the method of islamic arts as it is considered among the oldest decorative styles by the use of geometrical proportions in architectural planning and decoration. Such is the case in the internal ceiling. When one moves into the building of the blessed Rock dome from the outside hot air in the summer, one quickly feels the invigorating inside air, and the soft light which soothes ones psyche and nerves, and which comes from outside light in an