THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION AND TRADE UNIONS 经济全球化和工会 Main Challenges for the Labour Movement 工会活动的主要挑战

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Slide 2 THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION AND TRADE UNIONS Main Challenges for the Labour Movement Slide 3 GLOBALISATION AND A LABOUR AGENDA Major dimension of globalisation:defining the concept Globalisation and polarisation Impact of globalisation on Workers Organisations The challenge:govern or fight globalisation The ILO agenda: Decent Work and the World Commission on Globalisation Slide 4 GLOBALISATION: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS Continuity or radical changes in: Technology Evolution of means of transportation Political changes Slide 5 GLOBALISATION OF: Trade Production Finance Cultures Politics Slide 6 GLOBALISATION OF TRADE TNCs develop: World market Regional markets Production still based in few industrialised countries: Fordism/Taylorism / Standardisation of products Slide 7 GLOBALISATION OF PRODUCTION (1) Transition to post-Fordism / Toyotism Decentralisation of production units / outsourcing / Flexibility in production lines Reduction of workers New job profiles (skilled workers) Diversification of products TNCs operating on a global scale Slide 8 GLOBALISATION OF PRODUCTION (2) More than 60,000 TNCs 6 Fifty-one of the worlds top 100 economies are corporations. 100 51 TNCs control 2/3 of all world trade and 80 % of foreign investment 2/3 80% Source: Anfreff W., Le multinazionali globali - Trieste 2000 Source: Slide 9 GLOBALISATION OF PRODUCTION (3) TNCs employ only 3% of the total world labour force (2.5 billion workers) 3% 2 5 The 200 largest TNCs employed slightly 1% of the total labour force and have a turnover equal to 28.3% of the world GNP 200 1% 28 3% Source: op200.htm Slide 10 GLOBALISATION OF FINANCE (1) Political decisions to liberalise capitals circulation Creation of a global financial network Daily transactions: more than 2000 billion US $ (1/4 of total world trade value) 2 1/4 Source: (Annual Report of the Director-General 2001) Slide 11 GLOBALISATION OF FINANCE (2) Where does this money come from? Productivity (transition to post-Fordism) Reduction of salaries and welfare Pension funds Financial resources allocated for speculation Low investments (saturated traditional markets) Slide 12 GLOBALISATION OF CULTURES Development of the media via satellites Global media concentration Advertising Less than 6000 world languages (95% of world population speak around 100 languages). One person in 5 speaks English 6000 95% 100 5 1 One world language for business Slide 13 GLOBALISATION OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS New geopolitical system Development of democratic principles Human rights and core labour standards as universal values Slide 14 OTHER FACTORS OF GLOBALISATION (1) Neo-liberal policies/Washington consensus / Structural Adjustment Programmes (S.A.P.s) and the new policies of the IMF on Poverty Reduction (P.R.S.P.) Privatisation of public enterprises Privatisation of welfare/social protection Slide 15 OTHER FACTORS OF GLOBALISATION (2) Fiscal crises if national states Reduction of tariffs & trade barriers (GATT and WTO) Concentration of capital (mergers) Development of new products (New Economy): services and information Digital divide Slide 16 THE DIGITAL DIVIDE (3) 60 billion web pages 6 Between 300-400 million of web-sites3 4 200 million users 2 95% of users in the north hemisphere 95% 60% of users visit 4 major web-sites: AOL-Time Warner, Yahoo, MSF, Napster 60% 4 52% of web sites in English 52% Slide 17 GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (1) Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) 49 LDC receive 0.5% of FDI 49 0 5% Share in FDI inflows Africa below 1% 1% Source: UNCTAD World Investment Report 2001 - Chp. 1. See: Slide 18 GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (2) Income distribution - 1/5 of world population controls 80% of worlds resources 20% 80% - 20% of the worlds population consumes 86% of goods produced 20% 86% - The richest 20% of the worlds population had at their disposal 86% of the world GDP while the poorest 20%had access to a mere 1% 20% GDP 86% 1% Source: Gallino, Globalizzazione e diseguaglianza - Bari 2000 Slide 19 GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (3) Percentage in World Trade Africa 1% 1% While world trade has increased ten times since 1970 and more food is produced per person than ever before, the number of people going hungry in Africa has doubled 1970 10 Slide 20 GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (4) More than 250 million children at work 2 5 120 million working children have no access to school 1 2 Number of official unemployed is of 160 million workers (500 million new jobs needed over the next decade) 1 6 5 500 million workers are unable to keep their families above the $1 poverty line (of the 1.3 billion people living in poverty worldwide, more than 70% of them are women and girls.) 5 1 13 70% Source: ILO World Employment Report 2001 ( - ICFTUConference of women trade union leaders, Rio di Janeiro, 18-21 May 1999 Source: ILO World Employment Report 2001 ( - ICFTUConference of women trade union leaders, Rio di Janeiro, 18-21 May 1999 Slide 21 Impact of Globalisation on Workers Organisations (1) Decrease of trade union density From national agreements/negotiations to enterprise/individual agreements / / Abolition of check off systems Weak tripartite machinery Increase of the informal sector (most of the workers employed in the informal sector are women and children) Slide 22 Impact of Globalisation on Workers Organisations (2) Increase of atypical forms of labour (contract labour). These form are more common among women than among men (90% of homeworkers in EU are women) 90% Increase of EPZs (33 countries involved) 33 Global attack against workers rights Source: Slide 23 Impact of Globalisation on Workers Rights (1) 1 over 300 strikes repressed by employers or the police, in nearly 90 countries 90 300 about 8,500 arrested or detained 8500 209 trade unionists killed or disappeared 209 over 100,000 harassed 10 20,000 dismissed because of their trade union activities 2 Source: ICFTU Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights 2001 ( Slide 24 Impact of Globalisation on Workers Rights (2) 2 20 million bounded labourers worldwide 2 700.000 women and children victims of cross-border human trafficking each year 70 worldwide women are paid anything between 10-50% less than men for doing similar job or different job of equal value 10-50% Source:PSI Women - N.14- January 2002 ( Source:PSI Women - N.14- January 2002 ( Slide 25 THE CHALLENGE: GOVERN OR FIGHT GLOBALISATION?(1) 1 Organising / Global unions / Extension of the European Works Councils (Global representation of workers/framework agreements) Codes of Conduct and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Slide 26 THE CHALLENGE: GOVERN OR FIGHT GLOBALISATION?(2) 2 Trade union networking and global solidarity Globalisation of workers rights: ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work TU nat./inter. policies: links / coherent international framework/governance/co-ordination of economic, trade, and social policies / / / Slide 27 THE CHALLENGE: GOVERN OR FIGHT GLOBALISATION?(3) 3 Trade unions and Decent Work Social dimension of globalisation and the role of the ILO in the world agenda (G8 and relationships with IMF/WB/WTO 8 / / Slide 28 THE ILO AGENDA Decent Work agenda World Commission on the Social dimension of globalisation Slide 29 THE DECENT WORK AGENDA: Decent Work and the role of the ILO to enhance: Workers rights Employment Social protection Social Dialogue Slide 30 WORKERSRIGHTS Ratification and implementation of core labour standards (eight core conventions) 8 Ratification and implementation of international labour standards Participation to the ILS supervisory system and to the follow-up of the Declaration Slide 31 EMPLOYMENT Employment policies - Equal opportunities and treatments Development of SME Slide 32 SOCIAL PROTECTION Development of social security systems Pension and retirement schemes Other welfare benefits Safety nets for the informal sector O.S.H. and the Environment Slide 33 SOCIAL DIALOGUE Development of tripartism Strengthening workers and employers organisations Strengthening tripartite machinery Strengthening negotiations between social partners at national/enterprise/national level Slide 34 World Commission on the Social dimension of globalisation National governance Global governance : fair rules/better international policies/more accountable institutions/mobilizing action for change / / / Slide 35 PROGRAMME FOR WORKERS ACTIVITIES OF THE ILO TURIN CENTRE (ACTRAV-Turin) THANK YOU!