Text of Three Stages of Memory Sensory Short-Term Long-Term
Three Stages of Memory Sensory Short-Term Long-Term
Stage Model of Memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Sensory Memory Functionholds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics Capacitylarge can hold many items at once Durationvery brief retention of images .3 sec for visual info 2 sec for auditory info Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Sensory Memory Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation Attention is needed to transfer information to the next stage Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Neisser's Selective Attention Test: Introduction At any particular moment, we focus our attention on just a few limited aspects of our experience. Ulric Neisser devised a test to demonstrate selective attention. A viewer sees images of three men in black shirts tossing a ball superimposed on images of three men in white shirts tossing a ball, and is instructed to press a key each time a black-shirted player passes the ball.
Selective Attention: An Example View the Neissers Selective Attention Test basketball video clip below. Count the number of passes made. (click below to start) Did you notice the lady walk across the room with the umbrella? No! You were too busy watching & counting the passes.
Sensory Memory or Working Memory Divided into two types: iconic memoryvisual information echoic memory auditory information Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Types of Sensory Memory Iconic memorybrief memory of an image A quick snapshot that lasts a fraction of second. Eidetic memory is a photographic memory that about 5% of children possess. Fades with time. George Sperling studied iconic memory Echoic memory brief memory of a sound Auditory sensory memories may last longer than visual sensory memories (several seconds)
Sperlings Experiment Presented matrix of letters for 1/20 of a second Report as many letters as possible Subjects recall only half of the letters Was this because subjects didnt have enough time to view entire matrix? No How did Sperling know this?
Sperlings Experiment Sperling showed people can see and recall ALL the letters momentarily Sounded low, medium or high tone immediately after matrix disappeared tone signaled 1 row to report recall was almost perfect High Medium Low z Memory for image fades after 1-3 seconds or so, making report of entire display hard to do
Short Term or Working Memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention
Working or Short-Term Memory Function - conscious processing of information where information is actively worked on Capacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items) Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds) Code - often based on sound or speech even with visual inputs Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention
Working Memory Store What happens if you need to keep information in working memory longer than 30 seconds? To demonstrate, memorize the following phone number (presented one digit at a time)... 8361975
Working Memory Store What is the number? 857-9163 The number lasted in your working memory longer than 30 seconds So, how were you able to remember the number?
Maintenance Rehearsal Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Mental or verbal repetition of information Allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds Maintenance rehearsal
Youll want to limit Interference When new information appears in the short- term memory and takes the place of what was already there.
Maintenance Rehearsal What happens if you cant use maintenance rehearsal? Memory decays quickly To demonstrate, again memorize a phone number (presented one digit at a time) BUT, have to count backwards from 1,000 by sevens (i.e., 1000, 993, 986 etc.) 6490582
Working Memory Store What is the number? 628-5094 Without rehearsal, memory fades
Petersons STM Task Test of memory for 3- letter nonsense syllables Participants count backwards for a few seconds, then recall Without rehearsal, memory fades
Primacy & Recency Effect When given a list of items to remember we are most likely to recall The first few items (Primacy Effect) The last few items (Recency Effect) Were most likely to forget the middle items.
Ways to Improve STM: Chunking Grouping small bits of information into larger units of information expands working memory load Which is easier to remember? 4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6
Long Term Memory LTM
Long-Term Memory Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory using maintenance or elaborative rehearsal Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Long-Term Memory Functionorganizes and stores information Unlimited capacity Durationthought by some to be permanent Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Memory is a Reconstruction Memories are NOT perfect playbacks of past events. They can be influenced by new information and the way we view and organize the world (schemas).
Clive Wearing--Living Without Memory: Introduction Studies of malfunctions of memory have helped researchers understand how we form (encode), store, and retrieve memories. Memories are recorded successively as sensory memory (the immediate initial stage), short-term memory (or working memory), and long-term memory. In one extreme type of memory deficit, caused by accident or disease, a person is unable to form new memories and lives in an eternal present. Clive Wearing, a world-renowned choir director and musical arranger, suffered brain damage following viral encephalitis, which destroyed both temporal lobes, the entire hippocampus, and much of the left frontal lobe. He lost his ability to form new memories. He has no memory of anything beyond the last minute or two.
Clive and Deborah Wearing have one of their regular encounters, thirteen years after Clive suffered brain damage. Deborah describes Clive's repeated experience of waking up for the first time, as recorded in a diary. Clive Wearing--Living Without Memory Click on box or title to play. Can also show (12:35) Segment #10 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2 nd edition). If youd like to view a more recent video of Clive click HERE. (5:54) HERE.
Clive Wearing--Living Without Memory: Questions 1.Why does Wearing retains many memory- related abilities, such as speech, musical ability, and ability to recognize his wife. 2.What is the role of the hippocampus (totally destroyed in Wearing) in memory formation?