Stage Model of Memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Three Stages of Memory Three memory stages that differ in Capacity How much info can be stored Duration How long the info can be stored Function what is done with the stored info capacity and duration. Information is transferred from one stage to another Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Sensory Memory Functionholds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics Capacitylarge can hold many items at once Durationvery brief retention of images .3 sec for visual info 2 sec for auditory info Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Sensory Memory Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory othewise info is lost/forgotten Remember Neissers Selective Attention Test counting basketball passes? Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Sensory Memory Divided into two types: iconic memoryvisual information echoic memory auditory information Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Types of Sensory Memory Iconic Memory or Visual sensory memorybrief memory (.3 second) of an image or icon. George Sperling studied iconic memory (try his experiment yourself with a link on our website) Echoic Memory or Auditory sensory memory brief memory of a sound or echo. Auditory sensory memories may last a bit longer than visual sensory memories (2 seconds)
Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment
Sperlings Experiment Presented matrix of letters for 1/20 of a second Report as many letters as possible Subjects recall only half of the letters Was this because subjects didnt have enough time to view entire matrix? No How did Sperling know this?
Sperlings Experiment Sperling showed people can see and recall ALL the letters momentarily Sounded low, medium or high tone immediately after matrix disappeared tone signaled 1 row to report recall was almost perfect High Medium Low z Memory for image fades after 1-3 seconds or so, making report of entire display hard to do
Short Term or Working Memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention
Working Memory Store Function - conscious processing of information where information is actively worked on Capacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items) Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds) Code - often based on sound or speech even with visual inputs Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention
Working Memory Store What happens if you need to keep information in working memory longer than 30 seconds? To demonstrate, memorize the following phone number (presented one digit at a time)... 8361975
Working Memory Store What is the number? 857-9163 The number lasted in your working memory longer than 30 seconds So, how were you able to remember the number?
Maintenance Rehearsal Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Mental or verbal repetition of information Allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds Maintenance rehearsal
Maintenance Rehearsal What happens if you cant use maintenance rehearsal? Memory decays quickly To demonstrate, again memorize a phone number (presented one digit at a time) BUT, have to count backwards from 1,000 by sevens (i.e., 1014, 1007, 1000 etc.) 6490582
Working Memory Store What is the number? 628-5094 Without rehearsal, memory fades Petersons STM Task Test of memory for 3-letter nonsense syllables Participants count backwards for a few seconds, then recall Without rehearsal, memory fades
Working Memory Model Baddeley (1992) 3 interacting components Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuospatial Sketch Pad
Working Memory Model Visuospatial sketch pad - holds visual and spatial info Phonological loop - holds verbal information Central executive - coordinates all activities of working memory; brings new information into working memory from sensory and long-term memory Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuospatial Sketch pad Do Visuo-Spacial Sketch Pad Demo from Website Now
Ways to Improve STM: Chunking Grouping small bits of information into larger units of information expands working memory load Which is easier to remember? 4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6 Sloth Meets Chunk
Long Term Memory LTM
Long-Term Memory Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Long-Term Memory Functionorganizes and stores information more passive form of storage than working memory Unlimited capacity Durationthought by some to be permanent Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Long-Term Memory Encodingprocess that controls movement from working (STM) memory to long-term memory storage (getting info in) Retrievalprocess that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store (getting info out) Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
Encoding: Automatic and Effortful Processing
Automatic vs. Effortful Processing Some information, such as where you ate dinner yesterday, you process automatically. Other information, such as this chapter's concepts, requires effort to encode and remember.
Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding Automatic processing Unconscious encoding of information Examples: What did you eat for lunch today? Was the last time you studied during the day or night? You know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are you actively trying to process the definition of the words?
Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding Effortful processing Requires attention and conscious effort Examples: Memorizing your notes for your upcoming Introduction to Psychology exams Repeating a phone number in your head until you can write it down
Types of Effortful Processing Maintenance Rehearsal go over something repeatedly till it is encoded in LTM Elaborative Rehearsal relate the info to info you already know. Self-reference effect applies info to yourself. Visual imagery vivid images you can remember. Levels of Processing framework info encoded at a deeper level will be more easily remember than info encoded at a shallow level. How can you do this? (See middle of page 246).
Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart's levels of processing framework Information that is processed at a deep level is more likely to be encoded into long- term memory than information processed at a shallow passive level. When studying for classes, actively question new information, think about its implications, and try to generate your own examples based on your experiences
Types of LTM Implicit No conscious recall Explicit W/ conscious recall General Knowledge (semantic memory) Personal Events (episodic memory) Skills and Procedures (procedural memory) Conditioning (CC & OC) Hippocampus Cerebellum
Dimensions of LTM Explicit memorymemory with awareness; information can be consciously recollected; also called declarative memory Implicit memorymemory without awareness; memory that affects behavior but cannot consciously be recalled; also called nondeclarative memory
Two Types of Explicit Memory 1.Episodic informationinformation about events or episodes 2.Semantic informationinformation about facts, general knowledge, school work
Episodic Memory Memory tied to your own personal experiences Examples: What month is your birthday? Do you like to eat caramel apples? Q: Why are these explicit memories? A: Because you can actively declare your answers to these questions
Semantic Memory Memory not tied to personal events General facts and definitions about the world Examples: How many tires on a car? What is a cloud? What color is a banana?
Semantic Memory Q: Why are these explicit memories? A: Because you can actively declare your answers Important note: Though you may have personal experience with these items, your ability to answer does NOT depend on tying the item to your past i.e., Do not have to recall the time