TOEFL Grammar

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1.

Ch ng (subject). 7

1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.

1.2 Qun t a (an) v the1.3 Cch s dng Other v another. 1.4 Cch s dng litter/ a litter, few/ a few 1.5 S hu cch

1.6 Some, any2. ng t ( verb)

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2.1 Hin ti (present) 2.1.1 Hinti n gin (simple present) 2.1.2 Hin ti tip din (present progressive) 2.1.3 Present perfect ( hin ti hon thnh) 2.1.4 Hin ti hon thnh tip din ( preset perfect progressive) 2.2 Qu kh ( Past) 2.2.1 Qu kh n gin (simple past) 2.2.2 Qu kh tip din (Past progresive). 2.2.3 Qu kh hon thnh (past perfect). 2.2.4 Qu kh hon thnh tip din (past perfect progressive). 2.3 Tng lai 2.3.1 Tng lai n gin (simple future)

2.3.2 2.3.3

Tng lai tip din ( future progressive) Tng lai hon thnh (future perfect) Ch ng ng tch khi ng t. Cc danh t lun i hi ng t v i t s it. Cch s dng none, no Cch s dng cu trc either ... or v neither ... nor. Cc danh t tp th Cch s dng A number of/ the number of Cc danh t lun dng s nhiu. Cch dng cc thnh ng There is, there are i t nhn xng ch ng (Subject pronoun) i t nhn xng tn ng Tnh t s hu i t s hu i t phn thn (reflexive pronoun) ng t nguyn th lm tn ng Ving dng lm tn ng 3 ng t c bit Cc ng t ng ng sau gii t Vn i t i trc ng t nguyn th hoc Ving lm tn

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3. S ho hp gia ch ng v ng t. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

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4. i t

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5. ng t dng lm tn ng

5.5 ng.

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6. Cch s dng ng t bn khim khuyt need v dare need Dare

6.1 6.2

7. Cch dng ng t to be + infinitive

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8. Cu hi Cu hi yes v no Cu hi thng bo who v what lm ch ng. Whom v what l tn ng ca cu hi Cu hi dnh cho cc b ng (when, where, why, how) Cu hi gin tip (embedded questions) Cu hi c ui Li ni ph ho khng nh. Li ni ph ho ph nh Cu ph nh Mnh lnh thc Mnh lnh thc trc tip. Mnh lnh thc gin tip. ng t khim khuyt. Din t thi tng lai. Din t cu iu kin. iu kin c th thc hin c thi hin ti. iu kin khng th thc hin c thi hin ti. iu kin khng th thc hin c thi qu kh. Cc cch dng c bit ca Will, would v sould trong cc Cch s dng thnh ng as if, as though. Thi hin ti. Thi qu kh. Cch s dng ng t To hope v to wish. Thi tng lai.

8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3 8.4

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9. Li ni ph ho khng nh v ph nh.

9.1 9.210. 11.

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11.1 11.212.

12.1 12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4

mnh if

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13.

13.1 13.214.

14.1

14.2 14.3

Thi hin ti Thi qu kh. Cch s dng thnh ng used to v get/be used to used to. get / be used to. Cch s dng thnh ng Would rather Loi cu c mt ch ng. Loi cu c 2 ch ng Cch s dng Would Like

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15.

15.1 15.216.

16.1 16.217.

18. Cch s dng cc ng t khim khuyt din t cc trng thi hin ti.

18.1 18.2 18.3

Could/may/might. Should Must

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19. Cch s dng cc ng t khim khuyt din t cc trng thi thi qu kh. 20. 21. 22. 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 23. 24. tnh t v ph t (adjective and adverb). ng t ni. So snh ca tnh t v danh t So snh bng. So snh hn, km So snh hp l Cc dng so snh c bit So snh a b So snh kp (cng ....th cng) No sooner ... than (va mi ... th; chng bao lu ... th) Dng nguyn, so snh hn v so snh hn nht. Cc danh t lm chc nng tnh t

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25. 26.

Enough vi tnh t, ph t v danh t Cc t ni ch nguyn nhn Because/ because of Mc ch v kt qu (so that- ) Cause and effect Mt s t ni mang tnh iu kin Cu b ng ng t gy nguyn nhn Have/ get / make Let Help Ba ng t c bit Cu trc phc hp v i t quan h thay th That v Which lm ch ng ca cu ph That v wich lm tn ng ca cu ph Who lm ch ng ca cu ph Whom lm tn ng ca cu ph Mnh ph bt buc v mnh ph khng bt buc Tm quan trng ca du phy trong mnh ph Cch s dng All / both/ several / most ... + of + whom / What v whose Cch loi b cc mnh ph Cch s dng phn t 1 trong mt s trng hp c bit Cch s dng nguyn mu hon thnh Nhng cch s dng khc ca that That vi t cch ca mt lin t (rng) Mnh c that

26.1 26.2 26.3

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27. 28. 29.

29.1 29.2 29.3

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30. 31. 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6

31.7 which

31.8

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32. 33. 34. 35.

35.1 35.2

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36. 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 37.

Cu gi nh Cu gi nh dng would rather that Cu gi nh dng vi ng t trong bng. Cu gi nh dng vi tnh t Dng vi mt s trng hp khc Cu gi nh dng vi it is time Li ni bao hm Not only ... but also (khng nhng ... m cn) As well as (cng nh, cng nh l) Both ... and ( c ... ln ) Cch s dng to know v to know how Mnh nhng b Despite / in spite of (mc d) although, even though, though Nhng ng t d gy nhm ln Mt s ng t c bit khc. Phn II

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37.1 37.2 37.3

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38. 39.

39.1 39.240. 41.

Ting Anh vitI. Cc li thng gp trong ting anh vit

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42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

S ho hp ca thi ng t Cch s dng to say, to tell T i trc gii thiu i t nhn xng one v you Cch s dng phn t m u cho mnh ph V+ing m u mnh ph Phn t 2 m u mnh ph ch b ng ng t nguyn th ch mc ch m u cho mnh ph

46.1 46.2 46.3

46.4

Ng danh t hoc ng gii t m u mnh ph ch s Phn t dng lm tnh t Dng phn t 1 lm tnh t Dng phn t 2 lm tnh t Tha (redundancy) Cu trc cu song song Thng tin trc tip v thng tin gin tip Cu trc tip v cu gin tip Phng php chuyn i t cu trc tip sang cu gin tip ng t vi tn ng trc tip v tn ng gin tip Ph t o ln u cu Cch chn nhng cu tr li ng Nhng t d gy nhm ln Cch s dng gii t During - trong sut (hnh ng xy ra trong mt qung thi From (t) >< to (n) Out of (ra khi) >< into (di vo) by In ( trong, ti) - ngha xc nh hn at on at - ti (thng l bn ngoi, khng xc nh bng in) Ng ng t S kt hp ca cc danh t, ng t v tnh t vi cc gii

tng ng

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47.

47.1 47.248. 49. 50.

50.1 50.2 50.3

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51. 52. 53. 54.

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54.1gian) 54.2 54.3 54.4 54.5 54.6 54.7 55. 56.

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t

GRAMMAR REVIEWCu trc cu ting Anh Subject + Verb as predicate + Complement + Modifier.Ch ng ng t v ng tn ng b ng

1.Ch ng (subject) ng u cu lm ch ng v quyt nh vic chia ng t. Ch ng c th l 1 cm t, 1 ng t nguyn th (c to), 1 V+ing, song nhiu nht vn l 1 danh t v 1 danh t c lin quan ti nhng vn sau:

1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.- Danh t m c c th c dng vi s m do c hnh thi s t, s nhiu. N c th dng c dng vi a (an) v the. - Danh t khng m c khng dng c vi s m do n khng c hnh thi s nhiu. Do , n khng dng c vi a (an). - Mt s cc danh t m c c hnh thi s nhiu c bit v d: person - people women mouse - mice tooth - teeth foot feet man - men. woman

-Sau y l mt s danh t khng m c m ta cn bit. Sand News measles food soap mumps information economics physics Air Meat advertising* mathematics politics homework money

* Mc d advertising l danh t khng m c, nhng advertisement li l danh t m c. V d: There are too many advertisements during television shows. There is too much advertising during television shows. - Mt s danh t khng m c nh food, meat, money, sand, water, i lc c dng nh cc danh t m c ch cc dng khc nhau ca loi danh t . V d:

This is one of the foods that my doctor has forbidden me to eat. (ch ra mt loi thc n c bit no ) He studies meats ( chng hn pork, beef, lamb. vv...) Bng sau l cc nh ng dng c vi danh t m c v khng m c. Danh t m c (with count noun) a (an), the, some, any this, that, these, those, none,one,two,three,... many a lot of plenty of a large number of a great number of, a great many of. (a) few few ... than more ... than Danh t khng m c (with non-count noun) the, some, any this, that non much (thng dng trong cu ph nh hoc cu hi a lot of a large amount of a great deal of (a) little less ... than more ... than

- Danh t time nu dng vi ngha thi gian l khng m c nhng nu dng vi ngha s ln hoc thi i li l danh t m c. V d: We have spent too much time on this homework. She has been late for class six times this semester.

1.2Qun t a (an) v the1- a v an an - c dng: - trc 1 danh t s t m c bt u bng 4 nguyn m (vowel) a, e, i, o - hai bn nguyn m u, y - cc danh t bt u bng h cm. v d: u : an uncle. h : an hour - hoc trc cc danh t vit tt c c nh 1 nguyn m. V d: an L-plate, an SOS, an MP a : c dng: - trc 1 danh t bt u bng ph m (consonant). - dng trc mt danh t bt u bng uni. a university, a uniform, a universal, a union. - trc 1 danh t s t m c, trc 1 danh t khng xc nh c th v mt c im, tnh cht, v tr hoc c nhc n ln u trong cu.

- c dng trong cc thnh ng ch s lng nht nh. V d : a lot of, a couple, a dozen, a great many, a great deal of. - dng trc nhng s m nht nh, c bit l ch hng trm, hng ngn. V d: a hundred, a thousand. - trc half khi n theo sau 1 n v nguyn vn. V d: a kilo and a half v cng c th c l one and a half kilos. Ch : 1 /2 kg = half a kilo ( khng c a trc half). - dng trc half khi n i vi 1 danh t khc to thnh t ghp. V d : a half-holiday na k ngh, a half-share : na c phn. - dng trc cc t s nh 1/3, 1 /4, 1/5, = a third, a quarter, a fifth hay one third, one fourth, one fifth . - Dng trong cc thnh ng ch gi c, tc , t l. V d: five dolars a kilo; four times a day. - Dng trong cc thnh ng trc cc danh t s t m c, dng trong cu cm thn. V d: Such a long queue! What a pretty girl! Nhng: such long queues! What pretty girls. - a c th c t trc Mr/Mrs/Miss + tn h (surname): V d: a Mr Smith, a Mrs Smith, a Miss Smith. a Mr Smith ngha l ngi n ng c gi l Smith v ng l ng ta l ngi l i vi ngi ni. Cn nu khng c a tc l ngi ni bit ng Smith. 2- The - c s dng khi danh t c xc nh c th v tnh cht, c im, v tr hoc c nhc n ln th 2 trong cu. - The + noun + preposition + noun. V d : the girl in blue; the man with a banner; the gulf of Mexico; the United States of America. - The + danh t + i t quan h + mnh ph V d: the boy whom I met; the place where I met him. - Trc 1 danh t ng ch mt vt ring bit. V d: She is in the garden. - The + tnh t so snh bc n